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ANNUAL REPORT 

STATE BOARD OF EOUOATION 

OF MARYLAND 

1928 



LIBRARY-COLLEGE PARK 



Digitized 


by the Internet Archive 






i 


in 2013 





http://archive.org/details/report00mary_57 



STATE OF MARYLAND 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



Sixty-second Annual Report 

OF THE 

State Board of Education 

SHOWING CONDITION 
OF THE 

Public Schools of Maryland 

FOR THE 
YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1928 




T\VT:NT1ETH CENTL'RY trinting comp.vny 
BALTIMORE. MU. 



L 



STATE OF MARYLAND 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 

DR. HENRY M. FITZHUGH, President „ Westminster 

ALBERT S. COOK. Secretary-Treasurer Towson 

MARY E. W. RISTEAU Sharon 

EMORY L. COBLEKTZ Frederick 

THOMAS H. CHAMBERS _ „ _ Federalsburg 

DR. J. M. T. FINNEY _ Baltimore 

TASKER G. LOWNDES _ Cumberland 

E. W. McMASTER '. 1 Pocomoke City 

OFFICE OF THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS 
2014 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Asst. Supt. in Charge of Elementary Instruction 

SAMUEL M. NORTH Supervisor of High Schools 

E. CLARKE FONTAINE (Chestertown) Supervisor of High Schools 

W. K. KLINGAMAN (Hagerstown) Supervisor of High Schools 

M. THERESA WIEDEFELD Assistant Supervisor of Elementary Schools 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON Supervisor of Colored Schools 

J. D, BLACK WELK Director of Vocational Education 

EIJSABETH AMERY Supei-visor of Home Economics 

JOHN J. SEIDEL Supervisor of Industrial Education 

THOMAS L. GIBSON...„ - Supervisor of Music 

DR. WILLIAM BURDICK - Director of Physical Education 

ADELENE PRATT _ ~ - Director of Public Libraries 

BESSIE C. STERN „ » Statistician 

HELEN DODSON Assistant Statistician 

MERLE S. BATEMAN _ Credential Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS „ Financial Secretary 

E. SUE WAI>TER „ Clerk 

RUTH E. HOBBS Stenographer 

CLARA McDONAGH SIMERENG - ~ Stenographer 

ELIZABETH McGlNNITY - Stenographer 

FRANCES BELL...- - _ _ Typist 

PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

LIDA LEE TALL _..„ _ Maryland State Normal School _ Towson 

JOHN L. DUNKLE State Normal School „ Frostburg 

WILLIAM J. HOLLOWAY Salisbui-y Normal School Salisbury 

LEONIDAS S. JAMES _ Maryland Normal and Industrial School 

(for Colored Students) _ Bowie 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 
MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 
2002 Lexington Building, Baltimore, Md. 

JOHN M. DENNIS..— - - ~ State Treasurer, Chairman and Treasurer 

WILLIAM S. GORDY, JR State Comptroller 

ALBERT S. COOK State Superintendent of Schools 

EDWIN W. BROOME. Superintendent of Montgomery County Schools, Vice- Chairman 

MRS. MARGARET S. UPHAM Principal, Allegany County 

MARGARET BARKLEY - Secretary 

GRACE STEELE TRAVERS Financial Secretary 

HELEN KIRKMAN Clerk 



SUPERINTENDENTS AND SUPERVISORS 



MARYLAND COUNTIES, NOVEMBER, 1928 



Allegany County — Cumberland, Md. 

Charles L. Kopp, Sui>erintendent 
Lillian Compton, Assistant Supt. 
•Mrs. Anna B. Higt'ins. S. T. 
Winifred Greene, H. T. 
Loretta McGeady, H. T. 

Anne Arundel County — Annapolis, Md. 

George Fox, Superintendent. 
Ruth Parker, S. T. (Glen Burnie). 
M. Clarice Bersch, S. T. 

Baltimore County — Towson, Md. 

Clarence G. Cooper, Superintendent. 
John T. Hershner, Assistant Supt. 
Amy C. Crew, S. T. 
M. Annie Grace, S. T. 
Nellie V. Gray, S. T. 
E. HeiKhe Hill, S. T. 
Emma A. Boettner, S. T 
Mary Grogan, S. T. 
M. Lucetta Sisk. H. S. S. 
Jennie E. Jessop, S. T. 



_ 300 Park Ave., 
Baltimore 



Olive Reynolds, S. T. 



Calvert County — Prince Frederick, Md. 

Franklin D. Day, Superintendent 
Mattie V. Hardesty, H. T. 

Caroline County — Denton, Md. 

E<I\vard M. Noble, Superintendent. 
Virginia Harwood, S. T. 

Carroll County — Westminster, Md. 

M. S. H. Unger, Superintendent. 
T Myrtle Eckhardt, S. T. 

Mrs. Gertrude M. Shipley, H. T. 
Ruth DeVore, H. T. 
Grace Alder, H. T. 

^ Cecil County— Elkton, Md. 

Howard T. Ruhl, Superintendent. 
^ Lula H. Crim, S. T. 

CO 

^ Charles County— La Plata, Md. 

F. Bernard Gwj'nn, Superintendent. 
^ Janie Bowie, H. T. 

^ Dorchester County — Cambridgre, Md. 

James B. Noble, Superintendent. 
\ Hazel Fisher. S. T. 
^ Evelyn Johnson, H. T. 

Frederick County — Frederick, Md. 

G. Lloyd Palmer, Superintendent, 
Helen Jane VVoodley. S. T. 

Mrs. AngeUne Sunday, S. T. 
Bessie Brown, S. T. 
^ Hal Lee T. Ott, H. T. 

^ Garrett County — Oakland, Md. 

Franklin E. Rathbun, Sui)erintendent. 
^ Helen Kinnick, S. T. 
^ Grace Shatzer, S. T. 
^ Mary Selby, H. T. ( Selbysport) . 

Kate Bannatyne. H. T. (Grantsville) . 



Harford County — Bel Air, Md. 

C. Milton Wright, Superintendent. 
Jane Naylor, S. T. 

Mary L. Grau, S. T. (Havre de Grace). 

Howard County — Ellicott City, Md. 

W. C. Phillips, Superintendent. 
Gail W. Chadwick, S. T. 

Kent County — Chestertown, Md. 

Louis C. Piobinson, Superintendent. 
Esta Harrison, S. T. 

Montgomery County — Rockville, Md. 

Edwin W. Broome, Superintendent. 
Huldah Brust, S. T. 
Kristin Nilsson, S. T. 
Elizabeth Meany, S. T. 

Prince George's County — Upper Marlboro, 
Md. 

Nicholas Orem, Superintendent. 
Maude A. Giobs, H. T. 
Mary Kemp, H. T. 
Hazel Wright, H. T. 

Queen Anne's County — Centrcville, Md. 

T. Gordon Bennett, Superintendent. 
Tempe Dameron, S. T. 

St. Mary's County — Leonardtown, Md. 

Lettie M. Dent, Superintendent. 
Eleanor L. Smith, H. T. 

Somersiet Count)- — Princess Anne, Md. 

Eugene W. Pruitt, Superintendent. 
Jane D. Wilson, H. T. 

Talbot County — Easton, Md. 

Oscar M. Fogle, Superintendent. 

A. May Thompson, H. T. 

Washington County — HagerstOHTi, Md. 

B. J. Grimes. Superintendent. 
Mrs. Grace B. Down in, S. T. 
Katharine L. Healy, S. T. 
Anne Richardson, H. T. 
Virginia Bonser, H. T. 

Wicomico County — Salisbury, Md. 

James M. Bennett, Superintendent. 

C. Nettie HoUoway, S. T. 
Margaret Tiavers, S. T. 

Worcester County — Snow Hill, Md. 

Arthur C. Humphreys. Suiierintendent. 

Elizabeth Mundy, S. T. 

Mrs. Nellie Collins Post, H. T. 



NOTE: S. T.— Supervising Teacher. 
H. T.^Helping Teacher. 
H. S. S. — High School Sui)ervisor. 

* On leave of absence. 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Letter of Transmittal and Summary _ _ 5 

Tests in Reading and History in White Elementary Schools 11 

White Enrollment, Attendance, Days in Session _ 24 

White Elementary Schools: 

Attendance, Late Entrants, and Withdrawals ^ 28 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions _ 39 

Teacher Certification, Experience, Turnover _ 55 

Size of Class and Teachers' Salaries - 80 

Per Pupil Costs, Consolidation, Transportation, Health 87 

White High Schools: 

Junior High Schools _ - 102 

Enrollment, Attendance, Graduates and Their Occupations 104 

Enrollment, Failures, Teachers, Distributed by Subjects 119 

Certification, Experience, Turnover of Teachers _ 127 

Number and Size of High Schools _ - 138 

Size of Class, Salaries, Per Pupil Costs - - 144 

Vocational Education _ _ _ 153 

Colored Schools: 

Enrollment, Length of Session, Attendance, Late Entrants, With- 
drawals - - - - - - 162 

Grade Enrollment, Graduates, Non-Promotions 169 

High Schools and Schools in Baltimore _ 175 

Teacher Certification and Experience, Size of Class, Salaries 180 

'Cost Per Pupil, Buildings, Rosenwald Fund, Value of School 

Property „ - - 189 

Size of School, Transportation, P. T. A.'s, Athletics 194 

Bowie Normal School - ~ 199 

Physical Education _ - 202 

Baltimore City Summer and Evening Schools 212 

Certification, Summer School Attendance, Experience of Teachers 214 

Costs of Maryland Schools, Total and Per Pupil 224 

Transportation of Pupils and Consolidation of Schools 233 

Capital Outlay, Standard Schools, and Bond Issues 238 

County Budgets, Assessments, and Tax Rates for 1928-29 247 

Administration and Supervision, Department Bulletins 252 

Parent-Teacher Associations _ _ 273 

The 1928 Index Number _ 276 

The Maryland State Normal Schools — Towson, Frostburg, Salis- 
bury _ „ _ 280 

Teachers' Retirement System 297 

List of Financial. Statements and Statistical Tables 299 

Index _ _ - - 348 



March 15, 1929. 

Honorable Albert C. Ritchie, 
Governor of Maryland, 
Annapolis, Maryland. 

My dear Governor Ritchie : 

In accordance with Section 24 of Article 77 of the Laws of 
Maryland, the sixty-second ''annual report, covering all opera- 
tions of the State Department of Education and the support, con- 
dition, progress, and needs of education throughout the State" 
for the school year ending in June, 1928, is being herewith trans- 
mitted to j^ou. 

You will be interested in the following summary of outstand- 
ing facts, which show the same slow, steady growth and improve- 
ment in all phases of the work which have been noticeable for 
the past eight years. The growth is in the fundamentals that 
make up the foundation of a good school system and that provide 
the basis for having our schools each year meet more fully the 
needs of the varying communities of the State. 

Nearly 2,800 of 3,000 White Elementary Teachers Well Trained 

There were 3,047 teaching positions in the white elementary 
schools of the counties of Maryland in October, 1928. Of these 
positions, 2,791, or 92 per cent, were filled with teachers holding 
first-grade certificates. A first-grade certificate means that the 
holder has graduated from a two-year normal school course or 
covered an equivalent amount of practice and theory by return- 
ing to college or normal school to study during the regular school 
year or during the summer. In the remaining county positions 
in white elementary schools there were 192 teachers holding 
second-grade certificates and 64 holding third-grade certificates; 
these lower-grade certificates are no longer issued to new appli- 
cants. 

The improvement in the professional training of the teaching 
personnel is obvious when comparison is made with a similar 
survey of eight years ago. In October, 1920, only 33 per cent 
of the county white elementary school staff held first-grade cer- 
tificates, as compared with 92 per cent at present; 33 per cent 
held second-grade certificates, while this is true of only G per 
cent today; and 33 per cent held the lowest grade of certificate, 
as compared with only 2 per cent today. There are 2,791 teachers 
now holding first-grade certificates — 1,791 more than eight years 
ago. 

The percent of county colored elementary teachei's holding 
first-grade certificates has increased from 30 per cent in 1922 to 
82 per cent in the fall of 1928. 



5 



6 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Normal Schools Have Taken Important Part in Training Teachers 



Since 1920 there have been graduated from the State normal 
schools 2,278 white students from the counties of Maryland, and 
since June, 1926, 684 students from the City of Baltimore. In 
return for the instruction furnished at the expense of the State, 
the graduates pledge that they will teach two j^ears in the elemen- 
tary schools of Maryland. At Towson and at Frostburg there 
were only 149 students enrolled in the junior and senior normal 
school classes during the school year ending in June, 1920. In 
the fall of 1928, the enrollment in these two normal schools and 
in the new Eastern Shore School at Salisbury, which opened in 
the fall of 1925, totals 1,038 students. 



Normal School at Enrollment Graduates 

1919-20 Fall 1928 1920 1928 1920-1928 

Towson 105 674 37 286 2,274 

Frostburg _ 44 178 14 80 513 

Salisbury 186 74 175 

Total 149 1,038 51 440 2,962 

Over one-half of the normal school graduates from the counties 
take positions in the one-and two-room rural schools and nearly 
two-thirds return to teach in their home counties. 

The normal school at Bowie is now training nearly one-third 
of the county colored elementary teachers needed. The two-year 
normal school course at Bowie was started with an enrollment of 
15 students in the fall of 1923. Five years later the enrollment 
is 122. 

The Improvement of Teaching Through Supervision 

A delegation of county superintendents in North Carolina 
spent several days last April studying the results of supervision 
in Maryland. They visited many classrooms in seven counties. 
Returning to North Carolina, the State Superintendent analyzed 
his impressions, concluding with this paragraph : 

"Taken altogether, you have a teaching situation which is espe- 
cially fine and v^hich is surpassed by none so far as my experience 
goes. Instruction of the kind that will make of a child, so far as 
instruction can, a clear-thinking, self-relying, capable person 
seemed to be the order of the day everywhere I went. Your long 
school term, your system of supervision, and the specific training 
of the teachers for their particular tasks have all doubtless con- 
tributed to this great result." 

The number of supervising teachers required in each county 
varies with the number of white elementary teachers employed. 
The full quota of supervising teachers in the 23 counties will 



Summary of Outstanding Facts 



7 



be 60. There are 53 now in service, whereas in 1920, 17 counties 
employed but 22 supervisors, and 5 of these were in Baltimore 
County. 

Our State-wide tests show that children are now reading with 
greater fluency and understanding than ever before; they are 
more accurate and speedy in arithmetical computations ; they are 
more efficient in spelling and writing, more intelligent in the 
social studies of history, geography, and civics. In 1920-21 
pupils tested in the counties were on the average from one to 
three years below the standard set up as the reading accomplish- 
ment of average normal children in progressive school systems. 
At present pupils in our larger county schools on the average 
read as well as pupils who determined the norms for standard- 
ized tests, while those in the rural schools are on the average 
a half year below where they should be. This improvement may 
be attributed to the instruction given by trained teachers work- 
ing under the leadership of supervising and helping teachers, and 
to the State system of supervision of instruction. 



Pupils Attend School Better When Teachers Are Trained for Their Work 

The teachers are able to do better teaching largely because 
children want to come to school and do attend school far better 
than ever before. This is proved by the figures, which indicate 
that in the school year ending in June, 1928, there were on the 
average 40,000 more white and 10,000 more colored children 
actually in school on an average day than eight years before. Be- 
cause they are attending better and receive instruction from 
trained, well-supervised teachers, many are earning promotion 
who before would have been condemned as failures. Many more 
are therefore staying in school longer to complete the work of the 
upper grades and to attend high school. 

The following figures show school enrollment and attendance 
for the school year 1927-28, and the last columns reveal the gain 
in attendance over 1920. 



Type of School 


Maryland 1927-28 
Public School 


Gain in Attend- 
ance 1928 Over 
1920 




Enrollment 


Attendance 


Nu mber 


Per Cent 


White Elementary 

White High 

Colored — 


186,810 

33,603 

50,487 


157,241 
29,896 
38,533 


22,928 
16,748 
10,682 


17 
127 
38 


Total - 


270,900 


225,670 


50,358 


29 


Counties - 

Baltimore City 


158,368 

112,532 


131,440 
94,230 


31,628 
18,730 


32 
25 



8 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The same facts are shown when comparison is made between 
the average number of days each pupil enrolled attended school 
in 1920 and 1928. They show that county teachers had their 
pupils in the classroom for instruction nearly two months (36 
school days) longer in 1928 than in 1920. The administrative 
staff, superintendent, attendance officer, and health officials, as 
well as the supervising teacher and class teacher, should have 
the credit for bringing about greater regularity in school attend- 
ance. 

As stated before, greater regularity in attendance is one of 
the chief means for increasing the number of graduates and 
decreasing the number of failures in the elementary schools. In 
1923 the county white elementary schools had 7,336 graduates, 
while in 1928 the number of graduates totaled 9,277, an increase 
of almost 2,000. For the same period the number of white ele- 
mentary pupils not promoted decreased by 5,566 — from 22,021 
in 1923 to 16,455 in 1928. 

Elementary School Graduates and Failures 



Year Graduates Failures 

White Colored White Colored 

1923 7,336 987 22,021 10,338 

1928 - 9,277 1,526 16,455 6,304 

Change +1,941 + 537 —5,566 —4,034 



Phenomenal Growth in High Schools and Transportation of Pupils 

Through the establishment of a larger number of high schools, 
opportunities for a public high school education are now avail- 
able to the boys and girls in every county of Maryland. The 
extraordinary growth in the number and enrollment in public 
high schools is a truly remarkable indication of the desire of 
more and more parents to give their children, through education 
beyond the elementary schools, opportunities for adjusting them- 
selves more satisfactorily to our complex and constantly chang- 
ing civilization. 

The growth in the number and size of county high schools is 
indicated in the following comparisons : 

Maryland County High Schools 

White Colored 
1920 1928 Increase 1920 1928 Increase 



No. of Schools _ 82 153 71 4 21 17 

No. of Teachers 482 970 488 13 53 40 

Enrollment 9,333 21,811 12,478 193 1,332 1,139 

Attendance 7,738 19,080 11,342 147 1,046 899 



Four-Year Graduates... 1,189 2,993 1,804 116 116 



Summary of Outstanding Facts 



9 



The number of county high schools has increased from 1920 
to 1928 for white pupils from 82 to 153, and for colored pupils 
from 4 to 21. The teaching staff in the white schools has doubled 
and in the colored schools quadrupled. The high school enroll- 
ment has grown for white pupils from 9,333 to 21,811, and for 
colored pupils from 193 to 1,332. Attendance and graduates 
show similar increases. 

Good roads and school busses have played a large part in the 
extension of high school facilities to the boys and girls of the 
counties, and also in the consolidation of elementary schools. 
Expenditures from public funds for transportation of pupils 
increased from $65,000 in 1920 to $437,000 in 1928. Transpor- 
tation in 1928 was provided for 15,900 children — about 2,500 
more than during the preceding year. 

Since 1920, due to the rapid extension of transportation facili- 
ties, the number of one-teacher rural schools for white pupils 
has been reduced from 1,171 to 751. Pupils in the 420 schools 
abandoned are attending larger consolidated schools, which are 
more carefully graded and under the leadership of better trained 
and more experienced teachers than can be attracted to and held 
in the one-room rural schools. All available measurable evidence 
regarding results of tests in the school subjects, attendance, 
failures, withdrawals, and late entrance of pupils and training 
and experience of teachers demonstrates that pupils in the larger 
schools are far less handicapped than are the children who are 
limited to a one-teacher school in which the teacher instructs a 
small number of pupils in all of the elementary grades. 

Communities Show Greater Interest in Their Schools 

Organizations of Parent-Teacher Associations for a better 
understanding of children in the home and school and for the 
creation of a better school environment continue to function in 
nearly one-half of the white county schools of the State. In 1924 
there were 490 P.-T. A.'s in 31 per cent of the white schools. 
Two-thirds of the colored schools, 343 in all, had P.-T. A.'s in 
1928. The funds raised voluntarily by these associations to sup- 
plement the amounts available from State and county appropria- 
tions give evidence of the fact that the patrons who have boys 
and girls in school feel that some of the needs of the schools 
should be met by the local community. They are willing to 
supplement the appropriations available by going down into their 
own pockets. 



10 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Maryland's Equalization Fund and Teachers' Retirement System 

The method of equalizing educational opportunity throughout 
the State, adopted by the Legislature of 1922 with your sympa- 
thetic support as well that of the friends of education generally, 
is the most outstanding achievement in school administration in 
Maryland. 

The State has a right, unquestionably, to set up a minimum 
program of public education that shall reach every child in the 
State, but there is a corresponding obligation so to provide State 
support for the program that no local school unit shall be re- 
quired to tax itself beyond a reasonable limit in order to carry 
the program. 

Maryland's Equalization Fund is distributed to those counties 
which can not, on a sixty-seven cent county tax rate for school 
current expense, carry the State minimum salary schedule as the 
number of trained teachers is increased, and at the same time 
provide adequately for other costs of maintaining efficient 
schools. 

Another outstanding achievement in school administration was 
the establishment by the Legislature of 1927 of a State-wide 
Teachers' Retirement System on a sound actuarial basis, the 
teachers and the State contributing on approximately a fifty- 
fifty basis, so that any teacher may retire after reaching sixty 
years of age, and may then receive an allowance proportional 
to length of service. After thirty-five years of service the allow- 
ance is equal to one-half the average annual salary for the last 
ten years. Twenty-one States have State-wide retirement sys- 
tems, but in only seven States is the basis actuarially sound. 

Information regarding all of the outstanding facts just sum- 
marized and for many others which it is impossible to include 
here is available for every county. By consulting the index at 
the end of the report, any data desired can easily be located. 

The progress shown in this report was made possible by the 
enthusiastic cooperation received from all county teachers, 
clerks, attendance officers, supervisors, and superintendents, who 
have in most cases been given the whole-hearted moral and finan- 
cial support of their patrons and county commissioners. The 
improvement was partly due also to your splendid interest and 
that of the Legislature in the program of the State Department 
of Education. 



Respectfully, 



Henry M. Fitzhugh, 

President 



Thomas H. Chambers 
Emory L. Coblentz 
J. M. T. Finney 



Tasker G. Lowndes 
Edgar W. McMaster 
Mary E. W. Risteau 
Albert S. Cook, 



Seci^etary-TreasureVy 
State Board of Education. 



STATE-WIDE TESTS IN READING, ENGLISH AND HISTORY 

Every few years standard tests are given in all of the counties 
under the supervision of the State Department of Education in 
order to check the efficiency of the work of pupils in the schools. 
In 1923-24 tests were given in reading and arithmetic. This past 
year in October and May, county pupils in grades 2-7 throughout 
the State were tested in reading and English. Pupils in grades 
4-7 throughout the State were tested in history in May. 

The Reason for a Continual Check of Reading" 

An excellent statement of the importance of reading appears in 
the 1928 annual report of the Detroit Board of Education. It is 
quoted here, since it is in accord with the Maryland aims and 
practice. 

*"Reading is generally considered the most important single tool 
over which control is given by the elementary school. With the 
increase in leisure and in educational opportunity, reading has taken 
an increasingly larger place in human life. Every one has to be 
able to read well for a good many reasons: to keep informed about 
current events; to secure specific information for use in making 
plans; to find out the opinions of others concerning various prob- 
lems; to keep in touch with business or professional developments; 
to follow directions; to secure pleasure through vicarious experi- 
ence; and to satisfy curiosity. The tremendous gro\\i;h of news- 
papers and magazines in the last fifty years is evidence of the large 
place which reading occupies in modem life. One study has shown 
that typical adults in cities read two or three newspapers and two 
or three magazines regularly, and in addition to this about eigh- 
teen books a year." 

*Silent and Oral Reading 

"Practically all the reading of adults is done silently. Silent 
reading has been found to be not only quicker but more accurate 
than oral reading. Accordingly, the modem school devotes consid- 
erable time to training boys and girls in effective silent reading. 
Probably the outstanding difference between the reading classes 
of 1928 and those of 1878 is the increased emphasis on silent read- 
ing. 

"This does not mean, however, that training in oral reading is 
omitted now. There are some truly important uses of oral reading 
in life and it is, therefore, necessary to train children to read aloud 
fluently and expressively. One may use oral reading to inform or 
entertain others; to increase his own understanding and apprecia- 
tion of materials read; or to entertain children or interest them in 
reading. Oral reading will always continue in the schools." 

* Quoted from the Eighty- fifth Annual Report of the Detroit Public Schools. 



11 



12 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



*Aims of Instruction in Reading 

'The schools aim to develop boys and girls to the stage of 
maturity in their reading habits. Since a mature, competent reader 
is characterized (1) by a great love for and appreciation of read- 
ing, (2) by the ability to read silently the printed page and inter- 
pret what is said there with accuracy and rapidity, and (3) by the 
ability to read aloud expressively and fluently, these characteristics 
are taken as our goals in teaching reading. In addition, the instruc- 
tion in reading, as in all other subjects, seeks to promote the desira- 
ble character qualities of initiative, perseverance, and co-operative- 
ness. 

"While in all grades children are trained to read for meaning, and 
emphasis is placed upon thought-getting, in the lower grades such 
types of training as ability in word-getting, fluency in reading 
orally, and other helps to reading power receive special emphasis. 
In the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades this power has for the most 
part been acquired. Here children spend a larger proportion of 
time in using that power in actual reading. In other words, the 
primary stages must be largely learning to read, the advanced 
stages reading to learn." 

The Tests Chosen for Maryland in 1927-28 

The tests chosen, Detroit Reading Tests I and II for grades 2 and 
3, and the Sangren-Woody Tests for grades 4-8, had not been used 
before in the State. Results in second grade reading were satis- 
factory in May in the graded schools as a whole and growth was 
marked in all types of schools. In the third grade, results and 
growth were excellent in all types of schools. The one-teacher 
schools alone did not reach the desired standard for the third 
grade in October, but they were far above it in May. In 
the Sangren-Woody Tests the two-teacher and graded schools as 
a whole were above the desired standard in May and all types of 
schools showed more than normal improvement during the course 
of the year. 

In the tables on tests, data for the counties are displayed at the 
left for one-teacher schools, in the middle for two-teacher schools, 
and at the right for graded schools. For each of these groups of 
schools the counties are listed in order from highest to lowest 
according to the per cent of pupils at or above standard in May. 
(See middle column of figures in each group of three columns.) 
The results in October are shown in the first column of figures and 
in May in the second column for each group of schools. If a 
county has 50 or more per cent of pupils at standard or above, the 
figures appear in bold face or heavy black type. Since a differ- 
ent standard was used for the two months, the increase in the 
two figures represents more than normal gi'owth. In the last or 
third column of each group the per cent of pupils over-age for 
their grade is given. The figures for over-ageness, in those 
counties having a lower percentage of over-age pupils than the 
average county, appear in italics. 



• Quoted from the Eighty-fifth Annual Report of the Detroit Public Schools. 



Results of Tests in Reading 



13 



If a county attains high scores with a low percentage of over- 
age pupils, the children are probably well classified and are doing 
normal or superior work for the grades in which they are placed. 
High scores accompanying a high percentage of over-age pupils 
may indicate that the scores are those of mature pupils who per- 
haps should be in grades higher than those in which they are 
classified. Lrow scores accompanying a low percentage of over- 
ageness may indicate that pupils are classified in grades for the 
work of which they are not ready. Low scores and a high per- 
centage of pupils over age mean generally unsatisfactory con- 
ditions. 

CHART 1 



Pm CERT OF 114RYLAND COUNTY WHiTi£ ELKf.IEOTAIiY PDPILS 
ABOVE STAITLARD IN 
DETROIT AND SANGEM-WOODY READING TESTS 



14,300 Pupils in 835 9,700 Pupils in 221 51.400 Pupils ia 

One-Teacher Schools I Two-Teacher Schools I 377 a-aded Schools 
October, 1927 " October, 1927 ■ October, 1927 




Results of Second Grade Reiading Tests 



15 



Results in the Sectond Grade 

Since the second grade test (Detroit Reading Test I) was stan- 
dardized for city pupils who had started their second grade 
work in February, the results made in October by Maryland 
county pupils who had entered the second grade in September 
after the long summer vacation did not compare favorably with 
the Detroit norms. Gains made during the year brought the 
attainment of pupils in the*graded schools of all except seven of 
the counties to or above the norm interpolated for the end of the 
year. Two-teacher schools in (10) ten of the counties had their 
second grades above the desired standard in May. In only two 
counties (Baltimore and Queen Anne's) were 50 per cent of the 
pupils in one-teacher schools at standard or above in May, 
although all of the counties made more than normal growth. (See 
Table 1 and first column in each of the three groups of col- 
umns in Chart 1 and the first seven columns in Chart 2.) 

The following statements apply to the one-teacher schools 
which appear at the left of Table 1. Baltimore and Queen Anne's 
Counties, with a low percentage of over-age pupils attained 
splendid results in the second grade test in May. Montgomery, 
Carroll, and Garrett attained good results in the tests, but the 
percentage of second grade pupils over age was high which means 
that the pupils in these counties were older and more mature than 
pupils in some other counties. Washington County had a low 
percentage of pupils over age, but the pupils scored low on the 
test. Howard, Charles, Frederick, and St. Mary's had low scores 
and a high percentage of pupils over age. 

In two-teacher schools, shown in the middle of Table 1, seven 
of the ten counties which had 50 per cent or more of the second 
grade pupils above standard had fewer than the average per- 
centage of pupils over age. Calvert, Garrett, and Kent attained 
good results with a high percentage of pupils over age. Washing- 
ton County had low scores and a high percentage of pupils over 
age. 

In the graded schools, shown at the right of Table 1, in six 
of the sixteen counties which had 50 per cent or more of the 
pupils at standard or above, the per cent of pupils over age was 
lower than the average. This was true of Montgomery, Balti- 
more, Carroll, Allegany, Prince George's, and Kent. The graded 
schools in St. Mary's and Charles Counties included a number of 
one-teacher schools just recently consolidated. The growth from 
October to May was exceptionally great in all counties except 
those which made exceedingly high scores in October. (See 
Table 1, and also first seven columns in ChaH 2 on page 17.) 



• Graded schools nrc those in which a teacher instructs pupils In not more than one or 
two crndes. 



16 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Results of Third Grade Reading Test 



17 



Results in the Third Grade Test 
Results in the third grade test were satisfactory in both 
October and May except in one-teacher schools of about one-half 
of the counties. The supervisors considered the third grade test 
relatively easier for third grade children than the second grade 
test was for second grade pupils. (See Table 2 and last seven 
columns in Chart 2.) 



(HART 2 



PER CENT OF MARYIAND COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTABY HIPIL3 
ABOVE STANDARD IN 
DETROIT READING TESTS 
OCTOBIE 1927, AND MAY 1928 



Per Cent Above Standard 
October 1927 

% Above Standard 
90 



60 



Ifore Than Sbrmal Growth 
October 1927 to May 1928 




70 



60 - 



SO 



40 



30 



20 



10 



TCSTCO *' ^^'^ ^^'^ '^'^'^^ 

TEACHERS! 2 3 4 5 6 7* 



GRADE 2 



2,C48 ],6,96 J,010 fc84 636 319 5^714 

1 2 5 4 5 6 r-*- 
GRADE 3 



18 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Results of Reading Tests Grades 4-7 



19 



The Sang^ren-Woody Tests in Upper Grades 

Results for grades 4 to 7 or 8 in the first six parts of the 
Sangren-Woody Test have been combined. In one-teacher schools, 
Queen Anne's, Talbot and Montgomery have high scores and a 
low percentage of pupils over age. The per cent of over-ageness 
used in Table 3 is that for all grades of the elementary school and 
not only grades 4 to 7 or 8. Calvert and Howard have high scores 
on the test, but a large percentage of over-age pupils. Carroll, 
Harford, Charles, Frederick, and Garrett have low scores accom- 
panied by a high percentage of over-age pupils. Washington 
one-teacher school pupils have the lowest percentage of pupils at 
or above standard, but there are fewer over-age pupils there than 
in the average county. 

In thirteen of the counties the two-teacher schools had at least 
one-half of their pupils at standard or above in May and seven of 
these counties had fewer pupils over age than the average county. 
Washington, Harford, Charles, Frederick, Garrett, Carroll, and 
Caroline had low scores accompanying a high percentage of pupils 
over age in two-teacher schools. 

All except seven of the counties had one-half or more of the 
graded school pupils at standard or above. Garrett, Charles, and 
St. Mary's had low scores and a high percentage of pupils over 
age. As explained before, Charles and St. Mary's counties only 
recently consolidated a number of one-teacher schools to form 
larger graded schools. Sufficient time had not elapsed to over- 
come the handicap of the one-teacher school. (See Table 3.) 

The county-wide results distributed by grade in one-teacher, 
two-teacher, and graded schools for both Detroit and Sangren 
Woody tests are shown in Chart 1. The per cent of pupils above 
standard in October are represented by the solid black bar and 
in May by the height of the combined solid black and cross- 
hatched bar. The cross-hatched portion shows more than normal 
growth between October and May. (See last four columns in 
each of the groups in Chart 1, page 13, and Chart 3, page 21.) 



Effect of Number of Grades Taught by Teachers on Test Results 

In order to measure the results possible in schools having all 
elementary grades taught by one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, 
or more teachers, the test results were distributed for the counties 
as a whole on this basis. For every grade, there is no question 
that results in one-teacher schools are far below those achieved in 



20 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 4 



Number Tested and Per Cent At or Above Standard in Detroit 
Reading Tests I and II, October, 1927 and May, 1928 



— 

Grades Organized 
for Following Number 
of Teachers 


Number Tested 


At or Above Standard 
Oct. May 




GRADE 2 






1 


2,844 


18.6 


32.9 


2 


1,827 


27.9 


48.2 


3 


1,036 


31.7 


53.0 


4 


752 


26.1 


48.1 


5 


609 


32.8 


52.2 


6 


364 


36.3 


58.3 


7 or more 


6,070 


33.4 


53.3 


3 or more 


9,045 


32.0 


52.7 




GRADE 3 






1 


2,629 


40.6 


65 


2 


1,736 


55.9 


76.0 


3 


1,024 


60 9 


74 5 


4 


777 


51 1 


71 5 


5 


570 


59.8 


77.3 


6 


313 


58.5 


77.7 


7 or more 


5,469 


63.9 


80.2 


3 or more 


8,376 


61 


78.1 



schools of all grades taught by more than one teacher. Except 
for Grade 2 there is little question of the superiority of results 
attained in schools having 7 or more teachers where conditions 
approximate a teacher to a grade. For schools having from 2 to 
6 teachers, there is variation in the results in the several grades. 
These results would seem clearly to indicate that a policy of 
eliminating the one-teacher schools through their consolidation 
into larger schools will make possible better instruction of chil- 
dren. (See Tables 4 and 5 and Charts 2 and 3 which show results 
for the Detroit and Sangren- Woody tests respectively.) 



Results of Tests Distributed by Size of School 



21 



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22 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 5 



Number Tested and Per Cent At or Above Standard in Parts I-VI 
Sangren Woody Reading Tests. October, 1927 and May, 1928 



Grades 
Organized 
for Following 
Number of 
Teachers 


No. 

Tested 


% At or 
Above 
Standard 


No. 

Tested 


% At or 
Above 
Standard 


No. 

Tested 


% At or 
Above 
Standard 


Oct. 


May 


Oct. 


May 


Oct. 


May 


GRADE 


4 


GRADE 


5 


GRADE 


6 


1 


2,755 


19.3 


38.1 


2,441 


18.9 


36.1 


2,056 


16.6 


35.3 


2 


1,794 


31.7 


56.1 


1,702 


31.0 


51 .8 


1,426 


22.9 


47.8 


3 


984 


32.1 


56.2 


927 


30.5 


50.5 


902 


20.8 


46.3 


4 


781 


34.3 


52.9 


723 


29.3 


47.8 


678 


25.1 


42.6 


5 


553 


39.6 


60.5 


553 


40.5 


55 .6 


516 


32.8 


58.9 


6 


347 


34.3 


50.4 


245 


29.8 


44.3 


333 


24.6 


37.0 


7+ 


5,584 


44.9 


65.2 


5,368 


42.6 


59.2 


5,263 


36.1 


59.0 


3+ 


8,474 


41.0 


62.4 


8,140 


39.1 


56.8 


7,895 


32.3 


56 .0 



GRADE 7 GRADE 8 TOTAL 



1 


1,487 


20 


4 


39.3 


73 


1.4 


14.3 


8,812 


18 


7 


37.0 


2 


1,136 


26 


5 


50.2 


98 


19.4 


39.6 


6,156 


28 


3 


51.6 


3 


852 


24 


1 


48.8 


128 


20.3 


42.4 


3,793 


26 


8 


50.3 


4 


654 


26 


1 


48.4 


176 


19.9 


59.6 


3,012 


28 


4 


48.6 


5 


473 


26 


4 


52.8 


55 


27.3 


56.5 


2,150 


35 





57.1 


6 


283 


32 


9 


51.9 


90 


27.8 


50.0 


1,298 


30 


2 


46.3 


7+ 


5,161 


35 


3 


58 .5 


1,430 


35.0 


59.2 


22,806 


39 


5 


60.6 


3+ 


7,583 


32 


5 


56.5 


1,879 


32.0 


57.6 


33,971 


36 


1 


58.0 



State Wide Tests in History 



23 



State-Wide Tests in History 

During the past few years the State supervisors and the county 
supervisors have been emphasizing better teaching of the social 
studies of history, geography, and civics. The social content of 
these subjects presents peculiar and unique opportunities for 
training in good citizenship, in so far as they develop "an appre- 
ciation of the nature and laws of social life, a sense of the respon- 
sibility of the individual as a member of social groups, and the 
intelligence and the will to participate effectively in the promotion 
of the social w^ell-being" and in the development of high national 
ideals. 

Three social studies bulletins recently prepared by the State 
supervisors with the aid of the county supervisors and teachers 
are in the hands of all elementary teachers: The Teaching of 
Citizenship in the Elementary School, Tentative Goals in History, 
and Tentative Goals in Geography. These bulletins emphasize 
teaching objectives in terms of attitudes and appreciations 
(hoping thereby to develop a new point of view) , skills and 
habits, and knowledge and abilities. 

With the cooperation and assistance of Professor J. M. Gam- 
brill, Professor of History at Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, and Miss Olive Moore, Instimctor and Supervisor of History 
at the State Normal School at Frostburg, Miss I. Jewell Simpson, 
Assistant State Superintendent, prepared a series of tests in his- 
tory based on the aims and objectives as set forth in the bulletin. 
Tentative Goals in History. These tests were given to approxi- 
mately 50,000 Maryland county pupils in grades 4-7. They 
served not only as a measure of the effectiveness of history teach- 
ing, but as the basis for a series of review lessons. They have 
been valuable as a teaching device and also as a suggestion of 
types of tests which the teacher may devise after teaching a topic 
or any other large unit of subject matter in history. There are 
State-wide evidences that better results are being secured in the 
teaching of the social studies than ever before. A geography test 
based on the bulletin Tentative Goals in Geography is now being 
prepared by Miss M. Theresa Wiedefeld, Assistant State Super- 
visor. 



24 1928 Report of State Department of Education 



SCHOOL POPULATION CONTINUES TO GROW 

The county white school enrollment increased from 1927 to 
1928 by 1,800, the average number belonging by 2,800, and the 
average number attending by 3,900*. Due to increase in popu- 
lation in the congested centers of the State, continuance in upper 
elementary grades and high school for a larger number of pupils, 
and better attendance throughout the school system, the number 
of children to be provided for in the public schools continues to 
mount. The county white enrollment totalled 129,000 ; the 
average number belonging or enrolled, 121,000; and the average 
attendance 110,000 pupils.* See Tables III, V and VI, on pages 
305 to 308. Not only are the public schools growing, but similar 
conditions are also found in the Catholic parish and private 
schools and institutions. The white county enrollment in Catholic 
schools for the year 1927-28 was 8,500. Approximately 1,400 
were reported enrolled in private schools in the counties. (See 
Table 6 and Table IV, page 306.) 

Although the Baltimore City public school population is grow- 
ing, the white enrollment, 91,039, the number belonging, 85,000, 
and the average attendance, 77,000, are far below similar figures 
for the counties shown above. One explanation is the very much 
larger number of pupils in Catholic schools, the enrollment of 
Catholic white pupils for the City being given as over 29,000. 
The private school enrollment reported for City schools was 
nearly 1,300. (See Table 6 and Table IV, page 306.) 

Baltimore, Allegany, and Montgomery Counties show indi- 
vidual gains from 1927 to 1928 of from 450 to 750 white pupils. 
Every county in the State except Caroline reports more white 
pupils in average attendance in 1928 than it reported for the pre- 
ceding school year. (See Table 6.) 



WHEN WHITE SCHOOLS OPEN AND CLOSE 

Maryland county teachers are employed on an aTim^aZ salary 
basis and in most counties are paid in ten equal annual install- 
ments. A few counties (Allegany and Anne Arundel) pay in 
twelve monthly installments and one (Washington) makes but 
nine payments. The dates of opening and closing vary with the 
number of days it is planned to keep the schools open. Some of 
the counties arrange for a session close to the minimum State 

* A pupil is considered enrolled from the date of first entrance to school to the date of 
permanent withdrawal from school. The average number belonging and attending are 
obtained by dividing aggregate days of enrollment and attendance, respectively, by number 
of days open. 



Growth in White School Population 



25 



TABLE 6 



Enrollment, Average Number Belonging and Average Number 
Attending in County White Elementary Schools For Year 

Ending July 31, 1928 





Total 


Average 


Number 


rOTTNTY 


Whitp 

Will tc 










ILilll Ulillit^ilt 


Belonging 


Attending 


Total Counties, 19281 


+*129,374 


J121,482 


tl09 


,917 


Total Counties 1927 


*127,558 


118,658 


106 


,057 


Total Counties, 1920 


114,871 


t 


R9 


01 7 


Baltimore 


18,629 


17,143 


15 


,314 


Allegany 


14,034 


13,194 


12 


,398 


Washington 


13,042 


12,270 


1 1 

X 1 


, X 0'± 


Frederick 


9,808 


9,203 


8 


,294 


Prince George's 


8,580 


7,695 


7 

1 


030 


Montgomery 


7,097 


6,411 


5 


,711 


Anne Arundel 


7,002 


6,466 


5 


,798 


Carroll 


6,593 


6,087 


5 


396 


TT„ _/ J 

Harford 


5,486 


4,928 


4 


391 


Garrett 


4,978 


4,399 


3 


,945 


Wicomico 


4,930 


4,533 


4 


,220 


Cecil 


4,190 


3,849 


3 


436 


Dorchester 


3,860 


3,595 


3 


255 


Worcester 


3,304 


3,020 


2 


714 


Somerset 


3,275 


3,078 


2 


,816 


CaroHne 


3,084 


2,812 


2 


592 


Talbot 


2,571 


2,441 


2 


257 


Howard 


2,462 


2,216 


1 


958 


Queen Anne's 


2,252 


2,067 


1 


877 


Kent 


2,094 


1,960 


1 


786 


Charles 


1,986 


1,841 


1 


605 


St. Mary's 


1,460 


1,306 


1 


,127 


Calvert 


1,051 


968 




863 


Baltimore City 


*91,039 


84,884 


77 


219 


State 


*220,413 


206,366 


187 


136 



* Excludes duplicates. 

t Data not available until 1923. 

t For similar data for counties arrantred alphabetically: 
See Table III, page 305, for enrollment. 
See Table V. page 307, for number belonRintr. 
See Table VI, page 308, for number attending. 



26 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



requirement of 180 days, while others value so highly the effect 
of days in school on pupil progress that the schools are kept open 
close to 200 days or ten full months. This accounts for a varia- 
tion of two weeks in the date of opening schools and of three 
weeks in the date of closing them. (See Table 7.) 

All of the white schools open between the first and middle of 
September and close between the last day of May and the end of 
the third week in June. The dates are given for the school year 
1927-28 and for the opening in September, 1928. Schools plan- 
ning for the longest session open early and close late. (See 
Table!.) 

TABLE 7 



Dates of Opening and Closing White Schools 



COUNTY 


SCHOOL YEAR, 1927-28 


SEPTEMBER, 1928 


No. of 

Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 


First Day 
of 
School 


Last Day 
of 
School 


No. of 

Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 


First Day 
of 
School 







9/1 


6/22 





9/3 




1 


9/7 


6/15 


1 


9/6 




1 


9/12 


6/22 


1 


9/10 




2 


9/6 


6/8 





9/4 




2 


9/5 


6/8 


S 


9/10 




2 


9/5 


6/8 


2 


9/3 




2 


9/6 


6/15 


2 


9/6 






9/6 


6/8 





9/4 






9/12 


6/8 


1 


9/10 




2 


9/6 


6/8 





9/4 




2 


9/6 


6/20 


2 


9/6 




2 


9/6 


6/21 


1 


9/5 




1 


9/6 


6/15 


1 


9/4 






9/12 


6/15 


1 


9/10 




1 


9/14 


6/15 


1 


9/12 




2 


9/12 


6/19 


2 


9/10 


1 


9/6 


6/15 


*1 


9/4 




2 


9/6 


6/15 


2 


9/10 




2 


9/5 


6/1 


2 


9/4 


Talbot 


1 


9/7 


6/18 


1 


9/10 




2 


9/6 


6/8 


2 


9/4 




1 


9/1 


5/31 


1 


9/3 




2 


9/6 


5/31 


1 


9/3 






9/6 


6/15 




t9/17 









•9 /8 after opening school. fDeferred two weeks because of infantile paralysis epidemic 



It will be noted that most of the counties had the teaching staff 
attend one or two-day teachers' meetings prior to the first day 
pupils were present in school. (See columns 1 and 4 in Table 7.) 



Length of School Year 



27 



In 1928 the white high schools were open 189.5 days and the 
white elementary schools 188.4 days on the average. In no county 
were the white schools open on the average less than the number 
of days required by law — 180. Allegany County was far in the 
lead of every other county in the State with 199 days. Harford, 
Baltimore, Howard, Garrett, Talbot, and Queen Anne's all kept 
their schools open over 190 days. The least number of days any 
county had the schools open on the average was over 182. The 
white high schools were open on the average 2.6 more days, 
and the white elementary schools 1.7 more days in 1928 than in 
1927. In all of the counties the white elementary schools, except 
those in Dorchester, Anne Arundel, Frederick, Montgomery, 
Cecil, and Queen Anne's, were open longer in 1928 on the average 
than in 1927. (See Table 8.) 

TABLE 8 



Average Number of Days Maryland White Schools Were Open 
For Year Ending July 31, 1928 



White High Schools 




White Elementary Schools 




Days 


Days 


County 


Open 


County Open 



County Average 189 .5 

Allegany 199.0 

Harford 194.4 

Garrett 193 . 8 

Baltimore 193.7 

Talbot 192.9 

Howard 192.0 

Cecil 191.8 

Queen Anne's 191 . 

Prince George's 188 .9 

Carroll 188.7 

St. Mary's 188.5 

Caroline 186.8 

Kent 186 . 5 

Calvert 186.4 

Anne Arundel 186.2 

Frederick 185.3 

Washington 185.0 

* M ontgomery 184.8 

Wicomico 184.4 

Worcester 184.0 

Charles 183.8 

Somerset 183.0 

Dorchester 182.7 

Baltimore City 186.5 

State 188.4 



County Average 188.4 

Allegany 199 . 

Harford 192.8 

Baltimore 192.4 

Howard 191.0 

Talbot 190.8 

Garrett 190.7 

Queen Anne's 190.1 

St. Mary's 188.5 

Prince George's 187 . 8 

Carroll 186.9 

Cecil 186.9 

Caroline 186.6 

Kent 185.5 

Washington 184.9 

Montgomery 184.6 

Worcester 184.0 

Wicomico 183.9 

Calvert 183.8 

Frederick 182.9 

Anne Arundel 182.8 

Charles 182.7 

Dorchester 182.5 

Somerset 182.3 

Baltimore City 190.0 

State 189.0 



* Junior Hi^h School, 185.0. 
For counties arranged alphabetically see Table VI, page 308. 



28 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of schools for white pupils open fewer than 180 
days has decreased considerably since 1926. In 1926 there were 
124, in 1927 there were 83, and in 1928 only 33 schools which 
did not keep open 180 days, the number required by law. 
Thirteen of the counties did not have a single school open less 
than 180 days. The following ten counties each had from 2 to 
4 schools which did not fulfill the requirements on length of 
session. (See Table 9.) 

TABLE 9 

Number of Maryland County White Schools in Session Less Than 
180 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



No. of Schools Open Less Than No. of Schools Open Less Than 

180 Days 180 Days 







Having 


Having 








Having 




Total 


More 






Having 


More 




One 


than One 




Total 


One 


than One 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


County 


No. 


Teacher 


Teacher 


All 1928 


33 


25 


8 


Montgomery. . . 


2 


2 




Counties. . .1927 


83 


68 


15 


Frederick 


4 


2 


2 


1926 


124 


109 


15 


Carroll 


4 


4 




Garrett 








St. Mary's 


3 


3 




3 


3 




Dorchester 


4 


1 


3 


Washington .... 


3 


2 


1 


Somerset 


4 


2 


2 


Prince George's. 


2 


2 




Charles 


4 


4 





PUPILS ATTENDED SCHOOL BETTER THAN EVER BEFORE 

Not only were the county white schools open longer, but for 
this longer period they were better attended than ever before. 
The per cent average attendance was of average number belong- 
ing was close to 90 in white elementary schools. In one-teacher 
schools it was 86.6 per cent, in two-teacher schools 88.9 per cent, 
and in graded schools 91 per cent. These percentages are all 
higher than those of the preceding year as may be seen by the 
last two columns of Table 10, which shows per cent of attendance 
each year since 1923. The slow but steady gains are very evident 

TABLE 10 

Per Gent of Attendance in Maryland County White Elementary 

Schools, 1923-28 



1928 
Increase 

Type of School 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 over 1927 



White Elementary 84 . 2 85.5 87 . 2 87 . 2 88 . 7 89 . 8 1.1 

One Teacher 79.4 80.9 83.1 83.5 85.0 86.6 1.6 

Two Teacher 82.2 83.8 85.8 85.9 87.4 88.9 1.5 

Graded 87.3 88.3 89.4 88.9 90.2 91.0 .8 



Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools 29 



for every type of school. Of course, these gains can not go on 
indefinitely; the limit of possibility is being approached, and if 
there should be any unusual epidemic of illness, the present high 
standard of attendance would show a temporary decline. (See 
Table 10.) 

Similar figures are available for white elementary schools in 
individual counties in Table 11. Every county shows gains 
over 1927. The most remarkable improvement is evident in 
Calvert, St. Mary's, and Queen Anne's Counties. The per cent 
of attendance varied from 85.6 per cent in the lowest county, 
St. Mary's, which has a large proportion of pupils in one-teacher 
schools to 93.6 in the highest county, Allegany, with most of 
its school population in graded schools. Nine of the counties had 
attendance of 90 per cent or more and only three fell below 88 
per cent. (See Table 11.) 

TABLE 11 

Per Cent of Attendance in White Elementary Schools, 1923-1928 



County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County Average . 


. 84 


2 


87 


2 


88 


7 


89 


8 


Anne Arundel. . . 


84 


5 


86 


5 


88 


1 


89 


1 




















Worcester 


83 


5 


85 


2 


88 


1 


88 


7 


Allegany 


89 





92 


2 


92 


6 


93 


6 




84 





86 


7 


88 


6 


88 


7 


Wicomico 


86 


5 


90 


3 


90 


8 


92 


4 




















Caroline 


86 


5 


89 


9 


90 


3 


91 


8 


Cecil 


84 


8 


86 





88 





88 


6 


Talbot 


85 


8 


90 


5 


90 


5 


91 


8 


Harford 


84 


5 


86 





87 


7 


88 


5 


Somerset 


83 


3 


89 





90 


4 


91 





Montgomery. . . 


81 


9 


84 


9 


87 


9 


88 


2 




















Calvert 


79 


9 


79 


6 


81 


8 


88 


1 


Prince George's . . 


. 84 


9 


88 


8 


90 


2 


90 


9 


Carroll 


79 


4 


82 


9 


85 


8 


88 





Kent 


86 


7 


88 


1 


89 





90 


8 




















Queen Anne's 


85 


4 


87 


8 


86 


5 


90 


3 


Howard 


84 





85 


1 


86 


3 


87 


6 


Washington 


84 


9 


87 


3 


89 


5 


90 


1 




79 


5 


83 


1 


83 





85 


7 


Dorchester 


81 


2 


85 


8 


87 


5 


89 


7 


St. Mary's 


74 


5 


82 





81 





85 


6 


Frederick 


83 


6 


86 





87 


6 


89 


3 


Baltimore City. 


89 


8 


90 


6 


*90 


5 


*90 


6 


Garrett 


83 


9 


87 


1 


86 


7 


89 


2 




































State 


86 


7 


88 


7 


89 


5 


90 


2 



"■Excludes Junior High. 

One-teacher schools almost invariably have poorer attendance 
than two-teacher schools, and two-teacher than graded schools. 
Only five counties have over 90 per cent attendance in one-teacher 
schools, while this is true of two-teacher schools in nine counties, 
and of graded schools in fifteen counties. The lowest attendance 
for one-teacher schools was 81.6 per cent and the highest 92.3 
per cent. Attendance in two-teacher schools varied from 86.1 
per cent to 94 per cent, and in graded schools from 87.3 to 
94.2 per cent. All counties showed gains over 1927 except Somer- 
set, Allegany, and Baltimore County one-teacher schools, Caro- 
line and Howard two-teacher schools, and Charles County graded 
schools. As noted before, gains were very marked in Calvert, 
St. Mary's, and Queen Anne's Counties. (See Table 12.) 



30 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 12 

Per Cent of Attendance, 1924, 1927 and 1928 
In Types of White Elementary Schools 



One Teacher Schools 
County 1924 1927 1928 



County Aver. . 


.80 


.9 


85 


.0 


86 


.6 


Talbot 


87 


2 


89 


3 


92 


3 


Wicomico .... 


83 


9 


89 


4 


91 


2 


Somerset 


81 


7 


91 


3 


90 


9 


Caroline 


88 


3 


88 


1 


90 


8 


Kent 


84 


8 


88 


5 


90 


3 


Queen Anne's. 


.82 


9 


83 


8 


88 


6 


Anne Arundel. 


.77 


6 


86 


3 


87 


9 


Prince George's83 


3 


86 


.7 


87 





Allegany 


82 


9 


87 


4 


86 


9 


Garrett 


81 


2 


83 


4 


86 


8 


Calvert 


77 


2 


82 





86 


7 


Cecil 


81 


7 


85 


7 


86 


7 


Carroll 


78 


2 


84 





86 


4 


Dorchester. . . 


81 


3 


84 


3 


86 


4 


Frederick 


79 


6 


85 





86 


3 


Howard 


82 


5 


84 


1 


86 


1 


Baltimore. . . . 


82 


3 


86 


8 


85 


8 


Harford 


82 


7 


83 


6 


85. 


2 


Washington. . . 


80 


1 


84 


8 


85 


2 


Montgomery. . 


78 


1 


82 


6 


83. 


9 


Worcester .... 


77 





83 


1 


83 


8 


St. Mary's.. . . 


79 


3 


79 





83 


1 




77 


3 


79 


4 


81 


6 



Two Teacher Schools 
County 1924 1927 1928 



County Aver. . 


.83 


.9 


87 


.4 


88 


.9 


Allegany 


88 


9 


91 


9 


94 


.0 


Talbot 


86 


.7 


88 


.4 


93 


.5 


Wicomico .... 


86 


.3 


93 


.0 


93 


.2 


Queen Anne's. 


.86 


.5 


89 


.1 


92 


.5 


Somerset 


83 


3 


91 


2 


92 


4 


Garrett 


87 


7 


91 


3 


91 


7 


Kent 


85 


8 


89 


5 


91 


2 


Worcester. . . . 


82 


.6 


89 


.1 


90 


.4 


Cecil 


86 


5 


89 


5 


90 


3 


Calvert 


81 


7 


81 


3 


89 


8 


Caroline 


87 


9 


90 


3 


89 


8 


Prince George' 


s85 


8 


87 


9 


89 


6 


Anne Arundel. 


.81 


9 


87 


2 


89 


2 


St. Mary's 


81 


4 


83 


8 


89 







86 


7 


84 


2 


88 


6 


Harford 


85 


6 


87 


7 


88 


3 


Charles 


84 


3 


85 


2 


88 





Frederick 


80 


3 


85 


4 


87 


3 


Howard 


81 


9 


87 


4 


87 


3 


Montgomery. . 


.80 


5 


86 





87 


2 


Baltimore. . . . 


82 


5 


86 


3 


87 





Washington. . . 


.80 


6 


85 


3 


86 


4 


Carroll 


81 


4 


83 





86 


1 



Graded Schools 
County 1924 1927 1928 



County Aver. . 


.88 


.3 


90 


.2 


91 


.0 


Allegany 


92 


4 


93 


2 


94 


.2 


Garrett 


89 


.9 


90 


9 


93 


.2 


Wicomico .... 


89 


3 


91 


2 


92 


.9 


Caroline 


89 


9 


91 


2 


92 


4 


Washington . . 


.88 


.8 


91 


2 


91 


.7 


Prince George' 


s89 





91 





91 


6 


Dorchester . . . 


.89 


5 


89 


8 


91 


.4 


Talbot 


88 


.5 


91 


1 


91 


4 


Frederick .... 


86 


4 


89 


7 


91 


1 


Kent 


88 


3 


89 


1 


90 


9 


Somerset 


86 


7 


89 


8 


90 


9 


Harford 


88 


9 


90 


2 


90 


6 


Calvert 






81 


5 


90 


5 


Queen Anne's. 


.88 


3 


87 


4 


90 


5 


Worcester .... 


89 


3 


89 


9 


90 


r 

*. 


Carroll 


84 


3 


87 


9 


89 


5 


Montgomery. . 


.86 


3 


89 


8 


89 


5 


Anne Arundel. 


.87 


9 


88. 


5 


89 


2 


Baltimore. . . . 


86 


2 


89 


1 


89 


2 


Cecil 


87 


3 


88 


7 


89 


2 


Howard 


85 


8 


87 


4 


88 


8 


Charles 


88 


4 


88 


6 


87 


6 












87. 


3 



Fewer Pupils Attend School Less Than 100 and 140 Days 

Further evidence of better attendance is found in the reduc- 
tion in the number of county white elementary school pupils 
who attended school less than 100 and 140 days. The number 
and percentage have decreased for every type of school. 

This indicates that the legal provisions which make it possible 
for pupils from 13 to 16 years of age who are at work on farms 
or at home to attend school only 100 days are being used less and 
less by parents as an excuse for keeping pupils out of school 
before they have completed the work of the elementary school. 
With improved schools in charge of trained teachers who use 
effective methods of interesting and of teaching children, parents 
are less prone to keep their children out of school and pupils 
are less willing to be deprived of the opportunity of going to 
school. 



White Pupils Attending Less Than 100 and 140 Days 



31 



In 1928, there were 8,479 pupils, 8.2 per cent of the enrollment, 
who were present in county white elementary schools under 100 
days. For one-teacher schools the percentage was 13.3. In 
1924 the number and per cent were nearly double these figures. 
Similarly there has been considerable reduction in the number 
and per cent of pupils present under 140 days — 18,712 or 18.2 
per cent in 1928. One-teacher schools had 28.3 per cent of their 
pupils present less than 140 days which means that over one- 
fourth of the pupils missed at least two months of school work. 
This is one factor which, with many others, acounts for the 
poor scores made in tests by pupils in one-teacher schools. How- 
ever, even these conditions in one-teacher schools are far better 
than they were in 1924 when 45.4 per cent of the pupils were 
missing two or more months of instruction. (See Table 13.) 



TABLE 13 

County White Elementary Pupils Present Under 100 and 140 Davs, 

1924-1928 





PRESENT UNDER 100 DAYS 


PRESENT UNDER 140 DAYS 


year 


One- 
Teacher 


Two- 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 


One- 
Teacher 


Two 
Teacher 


Graded 


All Ele- 
mentary 



NUMBER 



1924 


6,537 


2,655 


5,918 


15.110 


12.684 


5,704 


12,525 


30,913 


1925 


5,179 


2,180 


4,984 


12,343 


10.502 


4,776 


11.219 


26.497 


1926 


4,370 


1,861 


5,302 


11,533 


9.359 


4.196 


11.772 


25.327 


1927 


3,701 


1,572 


5,109 


10,382 


7,749 


3.579 


11.185 


22,513 


1928 


2,805 


1,176 


4,498 


8,479 


5,989 


2,656 


10,067 


18,712 








PE 


R CENT 










1924 


23.4 


15.6 


10.7 


15.0 


45.4 


33.5 


22.5 


30.7 


1925 


19.6 


13.2 


8.5 


12.2 


39.7 


29.0 


19 2 


26.1 


1926 


17.8 


11 .9 


8.6 


11 .3 


38.1 


26.9 


19.1 


24.9 


1927 


16.1 


10.9 


7.8 


10.1 


33.7 


24.8 


17.1 


21 .9 


1928 


13.3 


8.7 


6.6 


8.2 


28 3 


19 7 


14.7 


18.2 



As in all other figures on attendance, conditions vary greatly 
among the counties. From 4.4 per cent in Kent to 13.2 per cent 
in Charles is the range for county white elementary pupils attend- 
ing under 100 days. For those attending under 140 days, Alle- 
gany is first with 10.2 per cent and St. Mary's last with 30.1 
per cent. Eight counties — St. Mary's, Charles, Garrett, Calvert, 
Montgomery, Worcester, Carroll, and Dorchester — have over one- 
fifth of their pupils losing at least two months of school. In 
Allegany, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, and Baltimore 
Counties, less than 16 per cent of the pupils are thus handicapped. 
(See Table 14.) 



32 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



For one-teacher schools conditions are considerably worse. 
Kent, Wicomico, Talbot, and Somerset Counties have between 
7 and 8 per cent of the pupils in one-teacher schools present 
under 100 days, while this is true of from 17 to 20 per cent of 
the pupils in these schools in Worcester, Washington, Charles, 
and Allegany. For attendance under 140 days, the range in 
one-teacher schools is from 17.7 per cent in Kent to 43.6 per 
cent in Charles. Charles, Worcester, St. Mary's, Montgomery, 
Washington, and Garrett have at least a third of their pupils 
in one-teacher schools missing at least two months of instruc- 
tion. (See Table 14.) 

TABLE 14 

Per Cent of White Elementary School Pupils Attending Under 
100 and 140 Days for School Year Ending July 31, 1928. 



PER CENT OF PUPILS ATTENDING 



COUNTY 


One-Teacher 




Two-Teacher 






Graded 




All Elementary 




Schools 






Schools 






Schools 






Schools 




Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 


Under 100 


Under 140 




Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Days 


Total Number. 


2,805 


5,989 


1,176 


2,656 


4,498 


10,067 


8,479 


18,712 


County Aver. . 


13. 


3 


28 


3 


8 


7 


19. 


7 


6 


6 


14 


7 


8 


2 


18.2 


Allegany 


17. 





26 


4 


2 


4 


7. 





4 


7 


9 





5 


5 


10.2 


Kent 


7 


5 


17 


7 


3 


1 


12 





3 


4 


12 


6 


4 


4 


13. & 


PrinceGeorge's 


12 


4 


26 


3 


8 


8 


20 


7 


6 


5 


12 


9 


7 


4 


15.2 


Queen Anne's.. 


9 


6 


21 


7 


4 


9 


10 


4 


4 


9 


13 


4 


6 


3 


15.4 


Baltimore. . . . 


11 





25 





8 


2 


17 


7 


6 


5 


14 


2 


7 





15.4 


Wicomico 


7 


4 


19 


3 


8 


2 


14 


4 


7 


9 


14 


7 


7 


8 


16.1 


Talbot 


7 


6 


18 


5 


3 


7 


12 


2 


7 





16 


1 


6 


8 


16.2 


Harford 


10 


3 


23 


4 


6 


6 


16 


7 


5 


5 


12 


6 


7 


2 


16.7 


Frederick 


10 


3 


26 


9 


7 


3 


21 


9 


3 


7 


12 


9 


5 


9 


17.8 


Caroline 


11 


3 


18 


8 


14 


9 


25 


1 


7 


6 


16 


3 


9 


2 


17.8 


Cecil 


13 


1 


27 


3 


6 


9 


14 


1 


7 


4 


14 


1 


9 


2 


18.6 


Howard 


11 


3 


21 





9 


8 


17 


8 


10 


2 


18 


4 


10 


5 


19,2 


Anne Arundel . 


15 


6 


27 


6 


5 


2 


15 


1 


8 


1 


19 


6 


8 


3 


19.6 


Somerset 


7 


9 


20 


7 


11 


8 


22 


4 


9 


6 


18 


8 


9 


5 


19.7 


Washington.. . 


19 


1 


34 


8 


15 


9 


32 





6 





14 


6 


9 


2 


19.8 


Dorchester. . . . 


14 


8 


30 


1 


11 


1 


24 


5 


6 


7 


16 


8 


9 


.5 


21.5 


Carroll 


12 


8 


28 


5 


10 


7 


26 





6 


9 


17 


3 


9 


.5 


22.4 


Worcester .... 


20 


2 


39 





8 


6 


19 


4 


7 


2 


17 


.0 


10 


.8 


23.1 


Montgomery. . 


16 


7 


35 


3 


11 


8 


26 


6 


10 


5 


20 


.7 


11 


.7 


23.9 


Calvert 


12 


.7 


28 


.3 


7 


.7 


18 


3 


7 


3 


16 


.5 


10 


.7 


24.1 


Garrett 


14 


.7 


33 


.1 


8 


.6 


20 


9 


7 


.7 


19 


.9 


12 


.0 


27.9 


Charles 


19 


.0 


43 


.6 


11 


.2 


21 





10 


2 


23 


.0 


13 


.2 


29.5 


St. Mary's. . . . 


16 


.1 


37 


.8 


10 


.0 


19 


2 


5 


.7 


24 


.6 


12 


.9 


30.1 



The two-teacher schools in Allegany, Kent, Queen Anne's, 
Talbot, Cecil, Howard, and Anne Arundel had a lower percentage 
of pupils attending under 100 and 140 days than the graded 
schools in these same counties. On the other hand, the two- 
teacher schools in Somerset and Caroline Counties had a larger 
percentage of pupils present under 100 and 140 days than either 
the one-teacher or graded schools. (See Table 14.) 



Decrease in Late Entrants 



33 



Late Entrants Decrease 

One fundamental reason for improvement in attendance is 
the reduction in the number of late entrants for reasons other 
than transfer between schools. If late entrance due to transfer 
is excluded, in white elementary schools 5,534 pupils, less than 
5 per cent of all enrolled, entered after the first month. This 
is a decrease of 1,800 under 1927. All types of schools show this 
decrease. The per cent of late entrants was nearly 9 in one- 
teacher schools, 6 in two-teacher schools, and just over 3 per 
cent in graded schools. (See Table 15.) 

TABLE 15 



Causes of Late Entrance in White Elementary Schools, 1924-1928 





entering after 
first month ex- 
clusive of trans- 
FERS 


PER CENT OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS 
ENTERING SCHOOL AFTER THE FIRST 
MONTH BECAUSE OF 


year 


Number 


Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indif- 
ference 


Just 
Moving 
to Place 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


Illness 
or 

Quaran- 
tine 


Under 
School 
Age and 
Other 
Causes 



White Elementary Schools 



1924.. . . 


11,792 


10 


4 


3 


5 


2 


5 


1 


8 


1.4 


1.0 


.2 


1925.. . . 


9,297 


8 


2 


2 


8 


2 


1 


1 


6 


.8 


.7 


.2 


1926.. . . 


8,646 


7 


6 


2 


7 


1 


6 


1 


3 


.8. 


.7 


.5 


1927.. . . 


7,330 


6 


4 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


1 


.5 


.7 


. 5 


1928.. . . 


5,534 


4 


8 


1 


7 


1 


1 




8 


.4 


.5 


.3 



One-Teacher Schools 



1924.. . . 


5,644 


17 


5 


7 


4 


3 


5 


1 


9 


3 





1.4 


.3 


1925. . . . 


4,349 


14 


3 


6 


1 


3 


1 


1 


9 


2 





.9 


.3 


1926.. . . 


3,854 


13 


7 


6 


2 


2 


5 


1 


5 


1 


9 


.9 


.7 


1927.. . . 


3,058 


11 


6 


5 





2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


3 


.9 


.9 


1928.. . . 


2,178 


8 


9 


4 


2 


1 


7 




9 




9 


.6 


.6 



Two-Teacher Schools 



1924.. . . 


2,183 


11 


5 


3 


9 


2 


6 


1 


8 


1.6 


1.1 


.5 


1925.. . . 


1,725 


9 


4 


3 


2 


2 


6 


1 


7 


.8 


.8 


.3 


1926.. . . 


1,494 


8 


6 


3 


5 


1 


6 


1 


2 


.9 


.6 


.8 


1927.. . . 


1,228 


7 


6 


3 


1 


1 


6 




9 


.6 


.7 


.7 


1928.. . . 


896 


6 





2 


1 


1 


6 




.9 


.4 


.5 


.5 



Graded Schools 



1924.. . . 


3,965 


6 


4 


1 


4 


1 


8 


1 


7 


5 


.8 


.2 


1925.. . . 


3,223 


5 





1 





1 


6 


1 


4 


.3 


.6 


.1 


1926.. . . 


3,298 


4 


8 


1 





1 


4 


1 


2 


.3 


.6 


.3 


1927.. . . 


3,044 


4 


2 


1 





1 





1 


1 


.2 


.6 


.3 


1928.. . . 


2,460 


3 


2 




.8 




.8 




8 


2 


.4 


2 



34 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

Keeping children out of school to work is the chief cause of 
late entrance. It is legal for pupils of 13 or more years to work 
at home or on the farm if they enter school by November 1 and 
thereafter attend 100 days as nearly consecutive as possible. 
Illness and quarantine are legitimate causes of late entrance 
because it is better that sick children, until they have recovered 
their normal health, be kept from well children who might con- 
tract contagious diseases. Employment of children under 13 
years, carelessness and indifference of parents and children, and 
entrance late in the year of pupils who were, when school opened, 
under six years of age, are the causes of late entrance. 

Employment of pupils who are 13 years old or older accounts 
for late entrance of over 4 per cent of the pupils in one-teacher 
schools, 2 per cent in two-teacher schools, and less than 1 per 
cent in graded schools. These percentages show considerable 
reduction under those for the preceding year. Negligence or 
indifference of parents or children accounts for between 1 and 2 

TABLE 16 



Number and Per Cent of County White Elementary School Pupils 
Entering School After the First Month, Because of Employment, 
Indifference or Neglect, For School Year Ending July 31, 1928 





Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 


Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 


COUNTY 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negligence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More 
Employed 


Negligence 
or Indif- 
ference 


Under 
13 Years 
Illegally 
Employed 


County Aver. . 


3.703 


3.2 


1.7 


1.1 


.4 






















Allegany 


117 


.9 


.3 


.5 


.1 


1 


5 


3 


PrinceGeorge's 

Baltimore 

Kent 


95 
226 
34 


1.3 
1.4 
2.0 


.4 
.4 
1.5 


.8 
.9 
.2 


.1 
.1 

.3 


2 

3 
9 


7 
8 
1 


4 
2 
12 


Wicomico 


84 


2.0 


1.3 


.5 


.2 


6 


4 


6 


Talbot 


60 


2.9 


1.3 


1.1 


.5 


7 


12 


15 


Harford 


146 


3.0 


1.6 


1.1 


.3 


10 


14 


13 


Anne Arundel . 
Somerset 


188 
82 


3.0 
3,0 


.5 
1.9 


2.1 
.9 


.4 
.2 


4 
14 


20 
9 


14 

5 


Washington. . . 


374 


3.1 


1.7 


1.1 


.3 


11 


13 


9 


Cecil 


117 


3.2 


1.3 


1.6 


.3 


8 


15 


11 


Montgomery. . 
Queen Anne's . 

Frederick 

Howard 


191 
69 

328 
83 


3.2 
3.6 
3.8 
3.9 


1.0 
2.2 
3.0 
1.8 


2.0 
.5 
.6 

2.1 


.2 

.9 
.2 
.0 


5 
16 
17 
12 


18 
3 
6 

19 


7 
19 
8 
1 


Charles 


88 


5.2 


1.8 


2.4 


1.0 


13 


21 


20 


Calvert 


51 


5.6 


2.0 


2.7 


.9 


15 


23 


18 


Worcester 

Caroline 


158 
151 


5.8 
5.9 


3.2 
5.1 


1.0 
.3 


1.6 
.5 


18 
22 


10 
2 


22 
16 


Carroll 


377 


6.6 


4.1 


1.8 


.7 


21 


16 


17 


Garrett 


302 


6.6 


5.3 


1.0 


.3 


23 


11 


10 


Dorchester. . . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 


261 
118 


8.1 
8.8 


3.9 
4.1 


2.6 
2.0 


1.6 
2.7 


19 
20 


22 
17 


21 
23 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, White Elementary Schools 35 



per cent of the late entrants. The employment of children under 
13 years, who are kept from entering school as soon as it opens, 
is chiefly a problem of the one-teacher school. Nearly 1 per 
cent of the pupils are late entrants for this reason. Illness or 
quarantine as a cause of late entrance fortunately has decreased 
in importance in all tj^pes of schools. (See Table 15.) 

In Table 16 the counties are ranked in order according to per 
cent of late entrants after the first month because of employ- 
ment, negligence, or indifference. Allegany ranks at the top 
with less than one per cent of late entrants. Prince George's 
and Baltimore follow with 1.3 and 1.4 per cent, respectively. At 
the opposite extreme St. Mary's has nearly 9 per cent, Dorchester 
8, Garrett and Carroll 6.6 per cent, and Caroline, Worcester, 
Calvert, and Charles have between 5 and 6 per cent. Education 
of parents on the handicaps of pupils who enter school late is 
the chief solution of late entrance. (See Table 16.) 

Withdrawals of Pupils Fewer 

Early withdrawal from school is another factor influencing 
attendance. The school authorities have no control (except in 
the case of some transferals) over withdrawals for removal, 
transfer, or death, but they can discourage withdrawals for 
employment and help improve conditions to reduce withdrawals 
for poverty. There were 12,416 pupils who were withdrawn 
from the rolls because they were transferred, moved away, or 
died. This includes 10.8 per cent of the total enrollment and is 
a slight decrease under the figures for last year. There were 
5,473 withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, or 
death. This number is over 540 fewer than the number with- 
drawn for ''other causes" during the preceding year and included 
4.7 per cent of the total enrollment compared with 5.9 per cent 
the preceding year. 

TABLE 17 

Causes of Withdrawals County White Elementary Schools, 1928 



Number Leaving Per Cent Leaving 

One- Two- All Ele- One- Two- All Ele- 

Teacher Teacher Graded mentary Teacher Teacher Graded mentary 

Causes of Withdrawal Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools Schools 



Removal, Transfer, Death. 3,292 1,540 7,584 12.416 13.5 10 2 10.0 10.8 



Total Other Causes 1,839 729 2,905 5,473 7.5 4.8 3.8 4.7 

Employment 1,046 355 1,154 2,555 4.3 2.4 1 5 2 2 

Mental and Physical 

Incapacity 288 167 1,047 1.502 1.2 1 1 1 4 1.3 

Under 7 or Over 16 250 78 324 652 1.0 .5 .4 .6 

Poverty 177 97 203 477 .7 .6 .3 .4 

other Causes 78 32 177 287 .3 .2 .2 .2 



36 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Employment, again the chief cause for withdrawal, is legally 
permissible on the farm or at home for pupils 13 years of age 
or over if they have attended school for 100 days consecutively. 
This accounted for 2.2 per cent of the withdrawals in all white 
elementary schools. In one-teacher schools, 4.3 per cent of the 
boys and girls left to work at home or on the larm. Last year 
it was over 5 per cent. The percentage leaving one- and two- 
teacher schools for mental and physical incapacity was slightly 
lower than during the preceding year, whereas in graded schools 
it was slightly higher. In this respect alone did the graded 
schools have a higher percentage of withdrawals than the rural 
schools. (See Table 17.) 

A number of counties had a greater number and percentage of 
withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death in 1928 than in 
1927. This was true of Cecil, Harford, Baltimore, Caroline, 
Wicomico, Worcester, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, Mont- 
gomery, Charles, and St. Mary's. The remaining counties had 

TABLE 18 

Withdrawal By Cause From Maryland County White Elementary 
Schools For Year Ending June 30, 1928 



county 



Withdrawals 
for 
Removal, 
Transfer or 
Death 



No. 



Per 
Cent 



WITHDRAWALS FOR FOLLOWING CAUSES 



Total 
Num- 
ber 


Total 
Per 
Cent 


PER CENT WITHDRAWING FOR 


Em- 
ploy- 
ment 


Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Pov- 
erty 


Other 
Causes 


5,473 


4 


7 


2 


2 


1 


3 


.6 


.4 


.2 


38 


2 


2 


1 







9 


.2 


.1 




382 


2 


3 




8 




9 


.4 


.1 


.1 


125 


3 





1 


4 




9 


.3 


.3 


.1 


224 


3 


6 


1 


5 


1 


3 


.3 




.5 


136 


3 


7 


1 


7 




7 


.5 


.6 


.2 


285 


3 


8 




8 


2 


1 


.5 


.2 


.2 


78 


4 





3 


3 




4 


.3 






540 


4 


4 


2 


2 


1 


2 


.2 


.5 


.3 


213 


4 


4 


1 


9 


1 


2 


.8 


.3 


.2 


262 


4 


4 


1 


2 


1 


9 


.9 


.2 


2 


256 


4 


5 


1 


.8 


1 


2 


.9 


.2 


.4 


42 


4 


6 


1 


.9 


1 





.2 


1.2 


.3 


99 


4 


8 


2 


1 


1 


4 


.5 


.6 


.2 


90 


5 


.3 


2 


2 


1 





.5 


.9 


.7 


138 


5 


.3 


3 


.9 




9 


.2 


.2 


.1 


117 


5 


.5 


1 


9 


1 


8 


1.2 


.4 


.2 


716 


5 


9 


3 





1 


4 


.5 


.6 


.4 


517 


6 





2 


9 


1 


9 


.6 


.5 


.1 


198 


6 


1 


3 





1 


3 


.5 


1.0 


.3 


95 


7 


.1 


2 


.8 


1 


6 


1.1 


1.0 


.6 


197 


7 


2 


3 


.7 


1 


5 


.7 


1.3 




213 


7 


9 


4 


.4 


1 


8 


.6 


.6 


.5 


512 


11 


2 


7 


.1 


1 


2 


2.0 


.6 


.3 



Total and Average 

Kent 

Baltimore 

Wicomico 

Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Queen Anne's 

Allegany 

Harford 

Montgomery 

Carroll 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Charles 

Caroline 

Howard 

Washington 

Frederick 

Dorchester 

St. Mary's 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Garrett 



12,416 

190 
1,690 
481 
581 
506 
924 
207 
1,243 
753 
663 
595 
48 
166 
138 
268 
254 
1,342 
910 
244 
145 
274 
212 
582 



10.8 

11.2 
10.2 
11.6 
9.4 
13.8 
12.3 
10.7 



10 
15 
11 
10 
5 
8 



1 
6 
2 
4 
3 
1 
8.1 
10.3 
11.9 
11.0 
10.5 
7.5 
10.8 
10.1 
7.9 
12.8 



Causes of Withdrawals and of Long Absence 



37 



fewer transfers, deaths, and removals so that for the counties 
as a whole there were fewer. Withdrawals for removal, transfer, 
and death ranged from 5.3 per cent in Calvert to 15.6 per cent 
in Harford. The counties are ranked in Table 18 according to 
percentage of withdrawals for causes other than removal, 
transfer, and death. (See column 4.) Kent stands first with 
2.2 per cent of withdrawals for ''other causes," while Garrett 
stands last with 11.2 per cent. St. Mary's, Caroline, Cecil, and 
Calvert have decreased withdrawals for all causes except poverty. 
Somerset, Frederick, Howard, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, 
Carroll, Talbot, and Washington have increased withdrawals 
for mental and physical incapacity. Baltimore, Prince George's, 
and Kent have one per cent or fewer of their children with- 
drawing to go to work. At the opposite extreme Garrett has 7 
per cent, Somerset over 4 per cent, and Caroline, Worcester, 
Queen Anne's, Dorchester, and Washington between 3 and 4 per 
cent withdrawing to go to work before the end of the school year. 
(See Table 18.) 

The percentage of county white elementary pupils absent 40 
days or more was 2 per cent lower in 1928 than in 1927. Sick- 
ness continued to be the cause of nearly one-half of the long 
absences, but the percentage in 1928 — 5.3 per cent — was lower 
by 1.2 than the percentage for the preceding year. Poverty, 
indifference, and neglect were reported as the cause of 6.7 per 
cent of the long absences in one-teacher schools. These causes 
exceeded sickness as the cause of long absence and the per- 
centage was higher than a year ago. (See Table 19.) 

TABLE 19 



Causes of Long Absence, Per Cent of Pupils Absent 
40 Days or More, 1927-28 



Cause of Absence 


One 
Teacher 


Two 
Teacher 


Graded 
Schools 


All White Ele- 
mentary Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


1928 


1927 


Death, Sickness, Physical and 
Mental Defects 


6.3 


6.3 


4.8 


5 3 


6 5 


Poverty, Indifference, Neglect. . . 
Illegally Employed 


6.7 
1.6 


5.0 
.7 


3.2 
.3 


4.2 
.6 


4.4 
.9 


Bad Weather and Roads 


1.3 


.5 


.2 


.5 


.7 


Other Causes 


1.1 


.4 


.2 


.4 


5 












Total 


17.0 


12.9 


8.7 


11.0 


13 


Number Absent 40 Days or More. 


3,807 


1,814 


6,161 


11,782 


13,937 



38 1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 20 

An Index of School Attendance in County White Elementary Schools 







PER CENT 


OF 




RANK IN PER CENT OF 


COUNTY 






















Attend- 


Late* 


tWith- 


Attend- 


Late* 


tWith- 




ance 


Entrants 


drawals 


ance 


Entrants 


drawals 




89 


8 


3 


2 


4 


7 








A ||pf)rQ"n\7 


93 


6 




9 


4 


4 


1 


1 


8 


pOTVll on 


92 


4 


2 





3 





2 


5 


3 


"K*PTlt 


90 


8 


2 





2 


2 


7 


4 


1 




90 


9 


1 


3 


3 


8 


6 


2 


6 


51 1 1" 1 TV» OTP 


88 


7 


1 


4 


2 


3 


15 


3 


2 


Talbot 


91 


8 


2 


9 


4 


8 


4 


6 


13 




89 


1 


3 





3 


6 


13 


8 


4 


Queen Anne's 


90 


3 


3 


6 


4 





8 


13 


7 


Cecil 


88 


6 


3 


2 


3 


7 


16 


11 


5 


Harford 


88 


5 


3 





4 


4 


17 


7 


9 


Somerset 


91 





3 





7 


9 


5 


9 


22 


Washington 


90 


1 


3 


1 


5 


9 


9 


10 


17 


Caroline 


91 


8 


5 


9 


5 


3 


3 


19 


15 


Montgomery 


88 


2 


3 


2 


4 


4 


18 


12 


10 


Frederick 


89 


3 


3 


8 


6 





11 


14 


18 


Calvert 


88 


1 


5 


6 


4 


6 


19 


17 


12 


Carroll 


88 





6 


6 


4 


5 


20 


20 


11 


Dorchester 


89 


7 


8 


1 


6 


1 


10 


22 


19 


Charles 


85 


7 


5 


2 


5 


3 


22 


16 


14 


Howard 


87 


6 


3 


9 


5 


5 


21 


15 


16 


Worcester 


88 


7 


5 


8 


7 


2 


14 


18 


21 


Garrett 


89 


2 


6 


6 


11 


2 


12 


21 


23 


St. Mary's 


85 


6 


8 


8 


7 


1 


23 


23 


20 



♦ For employment, negligence and indifference. The county having the smallest percent- 
age of late entrance is ranked first. 

t For causes other than removal, transfer and death. The county having the smallest 
percentage of withdrawals is ranked first. 



In order to have an index of attendance which takes into con- 
sideration not only attendance while white elementary school 
pupils belong to the school, but also the per cent of late entrance 
due to employment, negligence, and indifference, and of with- 
drawal due to causes other than removal, transfer, and death, 
the counties have been ranked on these three items, giving equal 
weight to the rank in each of the three. On this basis Allegany 
and Wicomico rank first; Kent third; Prince George's fourth; 
Baltimore fifth; Talbot, Anne Arundel, and Queen Anne's follow- 
ing in the order named. St. Mary's, Garrett, Worcester, Howard, 
Charles, Dorchester, and Carroll are at the bottom of the list. 
(See Table 20.) 



Index of Attendance, Grade Distribution of White Pupils 



39 



The Distribution of Maryland County White Pupils Among the Grades 

In Maryland counties, as in the rest of the country, the first 
gi'ade has a much larger enrollment than any other grade — 
18,174 boys and girls. With the exception of grade 4, there is a 
decrease in each succeeding grade, until 3,178 are found in 
fourth-year high school. (See Chart 4.) In every grade except 
the third, fourth, and sixth, and for boys in the third grade and 
girls in the fifth, there is an increase in enrollment in 1928 over 



CHART 4 



^3 

o 
o 

o 

CO 



Grade 
or Tear 

Ega. 
1 
2 

3 

4 

5 



^3 

o 

o 

CO 

w 
o 

s 



8 



II 



III 



17 



HUMHER OF BOYS AND GIRLS ENROLIED BY GRADER 
IS MARYIAND CODKTT WHITE SCHOOLS 
YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1928 



Total B073 

^^Bl54 
13,174 



18556 



15,058 



14,055 



14,368 



13,833 



13,051 



11,895 



2,413 



8,487 



5,636 



4,257 



3,178 



7923 



7135 



7326 



6729 



[5990 



4062 



14425 



1951 



Clrls 1=2 




3 




40 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Grade Distribution for White Pupils 



41 



1927, owing to increase in population in the lowest grades and to 
greater holding power of the grades above the seventh. In the 
chart the excess of boys over girls is apparent from the fact that 
each black bar, representing the number of boys, is longer for 
grades 1 to 6 than the corresponding white bar, representing the 
number of girls. From grade 7 through the last year of high 
school, the girls exceed the boys in increasing proportion in each 
grade. Bovs drop out of school in larger numbers than do the 
girls. (See Chcwt 4.) 

The white enrollment in each grade is given for each county in 
Table 21. 

The one- and two-teacher schools have a larger proportion of 
their enrollment in grade 1 than have the graded schools. In all 
types of schools, however, the largest enrollment is found in the 
first grade. Enrollment is successively lower in each succeeding 
grade after the first, except in grade 4. In one-teacher schools 
the fourth-grade enrollment is higher than that of any other 
grade except the first. In two-teacher and graded schools it is 
higher than in any grades except first and second. 

TABLE 22 

Number and Per Cent of Pupils Enrolled in Each Grade of 
Maryland County White Elementary Schools (By Types; 
Year Ending June 30, 1928. 





*Number in Each Grade 


Per Cent of Average for 
Grades 2-4 in Each Grade 


GRADE 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 



Kindergarten 


3,100 


1,952 


9,442 
306 












3 


1 


4,239 


2,626 


11,309 


137 


135 


120 


2 


3,119 


1,989 


9,950 


101 


102 


105 


3 


2,998 


1,899 


9,158 


97 


97 


97 


4 


3,182 


1,969 


9,217 


103 


101 


98 


5 


2,940 


1,865 


9,028 


95 


96 


96 


6 


2,547 


1,653 


8,851 


82 


85 


94 


7 


1,984 


1,366 


8,545 


64 


70 


90 


8 


120 


130 


2,163 


4 


7 


23 


Total 


21,129 


13,497 


68,527 

















* Exclusive of pupils who withdrew fox* removal, transfer or death. 

The holding power of the one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded 
schools is contrasted in the last three columns, which show the 
per cent relation of the number in each grade to the average 
number enrolled in grades 2 to 4, inclusive. Assuming that the 



42 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



number entering school each year is the same as the average 
number enrolled in grades 2 to 4, the one-teacher schools have 
held 82 per cent of their pupils to grade 6, the two-teacher schools 
85 per cent, and the graded schools 94 per cent. The contrast 
in the seventh grade is even greater, 64 per cent remaining in 
one-teacher schools, 70 per cent in two-teacher schools, and 90 
per cent in the larger schools. In Carroll County only six grades 
are offered in the one-teacher schools, pupils being required to 
attend larger and consolidated schools for the seventh-grade 
work. (See Ta^Ze 22.) 

9,277 BOYS AND GIRLS GRADUATE FROM WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

There was a slight increase in the number of boys who grad- 
uated from white elementary schools. The number of girls de- 
creased slightly. There were 4,291 boys and 4,986 girls grad- 
uated, 8.0 per cent of the enrollment of boys and 10.0 per cent 
of the girls in these schools. Because of the organization of a 
junior high school at Bethesda in Montgomery County, no ele- 
mentary school graduates were reported from this school. (See 
Table 23.) 

TABLE 23 

White County Elementary School Graduates. 



Number 



Year Boys Girls 

1923 3,200 4,136 

1924 3,360 4,210 

1925 3,705 4,549 

1926 4,054 4,599 

1927 *4,270 *5,036 

1928 *4,291 *4,986 



Percent 



Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


7,336 


6.1 


8.5 


7.2 


7,570 


6.4 


8.7 


7.6 


8,254 


7.0 


9.4 


8.1 


8,653 


7.7 


9.4 


8.5 


*9,306 


*8.0 


no. 2 


♦9.1 


*9,277 


*8.0 


*10.0 


♦9.0 



'Excludes graduates from Bethesda Junior High School. 

The counties vary considerably in the per cent of white ele- 
mentary school enrollment graduated in 1928. The Eastern 
Shore ranks high, as may be seen from the six counties at the top 
of the list — Caroline, Talbot, Queen Anne's, Kent, Wicomico, and 
Cecil. The counties at the bottom of the list, Washington, Anne 
Arundel, and Allegany, all have eight grades in the elementary 
school course. In consequence the proportion of graduates to 
enrollment normally cannot be as high as it is in counties having 
but seven grades in the elementary school course. Caroline, 
Queen Anne's, Frederick, and Howard had considerably more 
boy and girl graduates in 1928 than they had in 1927. Allegany 
and Montgomery also had more graduates among boys and girls 
than for the preceding year. Cecil, Harford, St. Mary's, and 



Graduates From White Elementary Schools 



43 



Calvert have more boy graduates and Kent, Wicomico, Worcester, 
Dorchester, and Anne Arundel more girl graduates than they 
reported for the preceding year. (See Cimrt 5.) 



CHART 5 



County 



Total and 
Co. Average 

Caroline 
l^lbot 

Q^een Anne* 3 
Kent 

llCOflliCO 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Howard 

Montgomerj 

Carroll 

Pr. George* 3 

Geurrett 

Barford 

Charles 

Baltimore 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 

Dorchester 

Calvert 

Somerset 

Allegany** 



PER CENT OF (SIAJXIATES 
IN TOTAL COUUTT WHITE ELEIJEITrART SCHOOL ENROLDiENT 

1928 

Number 

Boys Girls B^HPer Cent Boys y///A Pef cent Girls 



4291 4986 

127 144 

90 114 

74 111 

58 103 

171 215 

168 156 

352 433 

87 99 
*243 *270 

240 263 

315 323 

174 209 



1 10. ^/// ///////////77Z\ 



1 12.6 '//// //////////////////A 



1 13.4 y//////////// ////////////A 

\^^ZZ///^7777^ //////A 



lin.ft '/////////////////777^ 




111.2 y///////////////7777A 



ISl 200 
64 



hn.1 ^///////////////77\ 
81 PE 

674 685 



97 124 
48 59 



108 158 ^ 



37 36 



91 120 



365 460 




Anne Arundel** 192 208 



1 9t2 Y/////////// A 



Washington 



335 415 




* Excludes graduates from Bethesda Junior High School. 
Counties having eight grades in tne elementary scnooi course. 



44 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The one-teacher schools lag behind the two-teacher, and the 
two-teacher behind the graded schools in per cent of graduates 
in the total enrollment. This is partly accounted for by the 
policy of discontinuing the work of the seventh grade in one- 
teacher schools, especially in Carroll County. Except for boys 
in one-teacher schools, the proportion of graduates to enrollment 
in white elementary schools was the same or slightly lower than 
the preceding year. (See Table 24.) 

TABLE 24 



Number of County White Elementary School Graduates in 1928 

By Types of Schools 



COUNTY 


Number of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1928 


Per Cent of White Elementary 
School Graduates in 1928 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Total and Average 


670 


810 


517 


602 


3,104 


3,574 


6 





8 


1 


7 


4 


9 


3 


8 


8 


10 


8 


Caroline 


21 


18 


16 


16 


90 


110 


8 


5 


8 


4 


10 


8 


12 


6 


10 


8 


14 


2 


Talbot 


10 


10 


5 


3 


75 


101 


4 


9 


7 


9 


6 





3 


7 


10 


7 


14 


5 


Queen Anne's 


23 


25 


13 


18 


38 


68 


7 


8 


10 


5 


8 


6 


11 


5 


8 


5 


15 


6 


Kent 


12 


21 


20 


25 


26 


57 


6 


2 


10 


8 


14 


7 


20 


3 


5 


8 


13 


4 


Wicomico 


46 


57 


19 


27 


106 


131 


7 


9 


10 


6 


10 


7 


12 


7 


9 


7 


12 


1 


Cecil 


43 


44 


37 


33 


88 


79 


7 


3 


9 


1 


11 


6 


11 


4 


11 


4 


11 


2 


Frederick 


57 


76 


60 


72 


235 


285 


5 


8 


8 


5 


8 


8 


11 


3 


10 





13 


1 


Howard 


25 


34 


11 


13 


51 


52 


7 


1 


11 


8 


7 


4 


8 


8 


10 





12 


1 


♦Montgomery 


49 


37 


37 


54 


157 


179 


11 


9 


10 


9 


7 





11 


3 


9 


2 


11 


4 


Carroll 


34 


27 


19 


30 


187 


206 


3 


4 


2 


9 


6 


4 


11 


5 


13 


5 


16 





Prince George's 


31 


27 


31 


32 


253 


264 


8 





7 


9 


9 


1 


10 


3 


9 


3 


10 


7 


Garrett 


103 


132 


16 


14 


55 


63 


8 


3 


11 


7 


5 


5 


6 


3 


9 


6 


12 


1 


Harford 


36 


51 


38 


42 


107 


107 


5 


7 


9 





7 


9 


9 


5 


10 


8 


10 


9 


Charles 


15 


19 


10 


11 


39 


51 


5 


4 


8 


1 


7 


8 


11 


5 


8 


8 


13 


2 


Baltimore 


37 


48 


80 


79 


557 


558 


7 


1 


9 


9 


8 


1 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


8 


Worcester 


7 


11 


10 


6 


80 


107 


1 


9 


4 





6 


4 


4 


1 


10 


5 


14 


7 


St. Mary's 


28 


33 


16 


21 


4 


5 


8 





10 


5 


7 


8 


10 


2 


5 


9 


9 


3 


Dorchester 


19 


46 


19 


15 


70 


97 


4 


.7 


11 


1 


8 


9 


7 


9 


7 


7 


11 


4 


Calvert 


22 


26 


5 


4 


10 


6 


8 


.6 


9 


6 


5 


7 


4 


9 


12 


7 


7 


1 


Somerset 


13 


24 


9 


11 


69 


85 


4 


.6 


9 


2 


4 


9 


7 





8 


5 


10 


7 


Allegany 


12 


12 


4 


14 


349 


434 


2 


.7 


3 







.9 


3 


2 


7 


3 


9 


4 


Anne Arundel 


1 


3 


19 


21 


172 


184 




.6 


2 





7 


.3 


8 


.6 


7 


1 


7 


8 




26 


29 


23 


41 


286 


345 


2 


.8 


3 


2 


4 


.3 


7 


.4 


7 


.1 


8 


.9 



* Excludes 38 boys and 43 girls promoted from the 8th grade Bethesda Junior High School. 

FEWER GIRLS FAIL IN WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Because of an increase in the number of failures for boys, 
there were 367 more pupils than in 1927 whom teachers consid- 
ered not ready to do the work of the next higher grade, making 
the total failures for 1928 in white elementary schools 16,455. 
For boys, the per cent failing was 19.4, or approximately one 
in five; for girls, the percentage of non-promotions was 12.3 or 



Graduates and Failures in White Elementary Schools 



45 



one in eight. The excess of failures for boys over girls therefore 
still continues as it has in past years. (See Table 25.) 

TABLE 25 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in 
County White Elementary Schools 



Number Per Cent 



Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 13,435 8,586 22,021 25.6 17.5 21.7 

1924 11,999 7,193 19,192 22.7 14.8 18.9 

1925 10,673 6,336 17,009 20.2 13.0 16.8 

1926 10,392 6,140 16,532 19.7 12.5 16.3 

1927 9,954 6,134 16,088 18.7 12.4 15.6 

1928 10,346 6,109 16,455 19.4 12.3 15.9 



Failures ranged from 13.7 per cent for boys in Montgomery to 
38.7 per cent in Somerset, nearly three times as many. Cecil 
had failures for 7.9 per cent of its girls, whereas Somerset nearly 
quadrupled this percentage with 27.3 per cent of failures for 
girls. Because they have the smallest proportion of failures, 
Cecil, Allegany, Montgomery, and Kent rank highest among the 
counties in 1928 in getting pupils through the work of the ele- 
mentary grades. Somerset, Dorchester, Harford, Garrett, Cal- 
vert, Baltimore, and Caroline Counties are at the bottom of the 
list because they had the highest percentage of failures. (See 
Chart 6.) 

Baltimore County had fewer failures than any other county 
last year, but because the number doubled it appears sixth from 
the bottom this year. Somerset County reported about 50 per 
cent more failures in 1928 than in 1927, which lowered its rank 
from 17 to 23. Allegany and Kent also showed a slight increase 
in number and proportion of failures. On the other hand, St. 
Mary's, Howard, Caroline, Charles, Queen Anne's, Frederick, 
Cecil, Wicomico, Worcester, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and 
Carroll showed considerable reduction in failures for both boys 
and girls. (See Chart 6.) 

The least difference between the failures for boys and girls 
appeared in Montgomery, Howard, Anne Arundel, Kent, Alle- 
gany, and Washington Counties. The excess in the percentage of 
failure for boys in these counties ranged from 3 to 6 per cent. 
The percentage of failure for boys was over 10 per cent greater 
than for girls in Talbot, Dorchester, Caroline, Somerset, Worces- 
ter, and St. Mary's. (See Chart 6.) 



46 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 6 



NUMBER AND 

County 

1R>tal and 
Co. Average 

Cecil 
Allegany 
Montgomery 
Kent 

Washington 
Anne Arundel 
Carroll 
Frederick 

Worcester 

Wicomico 

^Ibot 

Queen Anne*s 

PT. George^s 

St. Mary's 

Charles 

Howard 

Carolina 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Garrett 

Harford 

Sorehester 

Sooietrseft 




PER CENT OF COOUTT WHITE fmnm PPUiV PUPILS ROT PROMOTED 
1928 

Number 

Boys Girls Wmt Per Cent Boys t ZjiZl Per Cent Girls 

10346 61091 

235 117 

849 514 

♦389 *273 



«05 560 ^g^^ 

11-5 ^//////X 

682 4O5I 

248 100 

359 Id? 
216 

180 00 

649 394 

136 68 

176 103 

203 136 

294 138 

1723 1057 




I Sag Y///A 



20.2 " 



18 8 



20. 1 



23.9 . 



22.2 



23.5 



9^ ^ \^^z7 z7Z7777A 
4S4 297 



543 316 



442 226 




Tia-S ///////////X 
550| 2g.3 ^//////////////////////A 



Non-Promotions in White Elementary Schools 47 

Failures were highest in one-teacher schools and lowest in 
graded schools, but the two-teacher schools as a group showed a 
slightly lower percentage of failure than was reported last year. 
Failures in graded schools and for boys in one-teacher schools 
were slightly higher than in 1927. (See Chart 7.) 



CHART 7 



van PROMonoNs m codntt white kizmentabt schoois, msb 


Schools 


SVimber 
Boys Girls 


■■iPer Cant Boys ^^^Per Cent Girls 


One Teacher 


2692 








1556 




Two Teacher 


1358 








780 




Graded 


6296 








3764 





About one-half the counties showed the highest percentage of 
failures in one-teacher schools and the lowest in graded schools. 
The reverse was true of Somerset County. *St. Mary's and Tal- 
bot had the highest percentage of failure in graded schools and 
the lowest in two-teacher schools. Montgomery and Garrett had 
the highest percentage of failure, while Allegany, Kent, Anne 
Arundel, and Wicomico had the lowest percentage of failure in 
two-teacher schools. (See Table 26.) 

The range in failure by types of schools was very great. For 
boys in one-teacher schools Anne Arundel was lowest with 10.8 
per cent and Baltimore highest with nearly four times as many, 
39.4 per cent. In Talbot one-teacher schools only 3.2 per cent of 
the girls were reported as not promoted, while Somerset failed 

22.3 per cent. In two-teacher schools Anne Arundel failed 8.1 
per cent of the boys, as against 34.6 per cent in Somerset. For 
girls in two-teacher schools, Talbot was lowest with 3.7 per cent,, 
while Somerset was highest with 22.9 per cent. In graded schools 
Cecil had the lowest percentage of failure for both boys and 
girls, 9.7 and 6.2, respectively, while Somerset had the highest, 

42.4 and 29.8 per cent, respectively. (See Tabic 26.) 



* St. Mary's one graded school was recently consolidated from a nximber of one-teacher 
schools. 



48 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Nox-Promotioxs by Type of School axd Grade 



49 



Non-Promotions for Each Grade 

The greatest percentage of failure is found in the first grade, 
26.3 for boy& and 19.8 for girls, and the lowest percentage 
appears in grade 3, 14.2 for boys and 8.2 for girls. After grade 3, 
an increasing percentage of boys fails in each succeeding grade, 
reaching a second high point in grade 7, with 20.9 per cent. 
Above grade 3 failures for girls fluctuate from grade to grade 
between 10.6 and 12.6 per cent. In every grade the percentage 
of failure for boys is higher in 1928 than in 1927. A smaller 
percentage of girls failed of promotion in 1928 than in 1927 in 
grades 1, 2, 5, and 7. (See Chart 8.) 



CHART 8 



Grade 
Kgn. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7* 

8* 



Number 
Boys Girls 

20 

29 

2527 

1593 

1271 

678 
553 
871 
706 

763 
667 

149 



1039 
1355 
1344 
1331 
1236 
223 



1928 NOK-PRCaOTIONS BY OtADES 
COOHTY WHITE ELEl-IENTARY SCHOOLS 



Per Cent Boys Y////A per Cent Girls 
iid.B y///77^^^^^^^^77777/////////A 







1 19 . 8 V//////////////////////////////////////A 




8.2 ////////////A 



18.2 




112.5 ^////////////////////A 





ia.7 



112.0 y//////7////////////A 



20. 9 . • 1 




ill.l V/////////////////. 





19.5 



111 > 7 V//////////////////A 



From grades 1 to 4, inclusive, the per cent of failure for boys 
exceeds that for girls by between 5.5 and 6.5 per cent. The dis- 
parity between per cent of failures for boys and girls widens in 
grades 5 to 7, the variation in excess percentage of failures for 
boys being between 7.9 and 9.8 (See Chart 8.) 

Similar data are available for the white elementary schools of 
each county in Table VII, page 309. Somerset's policy of setting 



50 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



up standards for pupils so high that over one-half of the fourth- 
grade boys and 45 per cent of those in grades 5, 6, and 7 fail, 
while between a fourth and a third of the girls in all grades, 
except the second, fail, seems rather questionable. Are the 
standards set up possible of accomplishment by from 80 to 90 
per cent of the children if they receive the best kind of instruc- 
tion? If not, pupils should not be penalized by unnecessarily 
repeating grades or curtailing the school work they can accom- 
plish during the time they attend school, either because they are 
receiving poor teaching or are being measured against a standard 
impossible of achievement. (See Table VII, page 309.) 

Percentage of failure is highest in one-teacher schools and 
lowest in graded schools, except in grades 2, 3, 7, and 8, and for 
girls in grade 5 and boys in grade 6, in which the two-teacher 
schools have the lowest percentage of failure. The percentage 
of failure was higher in 1928 than in 1927 in all grades except 
the following : grades 4, 7, and 8 for boys, and grades 2, 6, and 7 
for girls in one-teacher schools ; grades 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 for boys, 
and grades 1-5, inclusive, and 8 for girls in two-teacher schools ; 
grades 1 and 2 for girls in graded schools. (See Table 27.) 

TABLE 27 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Boys and Girls 
Not Promoted, By Grades, Year Ending July 31, 1928 





NUMBER 


PER CENT 


GRADE 


One- 


Two- 






One- 


Two- 








Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 




Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


Schools 




Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


jBoys 


Girls 












20 


29 










13.2 


18.8 




738 


519 


402 


289 


1,387 


885 


32.1 


26.8 


29.1 


23.2 


23.4 


16.5 




300 


147 


159 


81 


812 


450 


18.0 


10.1 


15.2 


8.6 


15.6 


9.5 


3 


274 


152 


102 


48 


663 


353 


17.9 


10.4 


10.2 


5.4 


13.8 


8.1 




421 


235 


221 


120 


713 


516 


24.0 


16.5 


21.5 


12.8 


15.3 


11.4 




356 


186 


189 


75 


799 


445 


23.2 


13.3 


19.8 


8.2 


17.0 


10.3 




329 


188 


157 


98 


845 


477 


25.0 


15.3 


18.4 


12.3 


18.7 


11.0 




249 


114 


119 


71 


868 


482 


25.6 


11.3 


17.6 


10.3 


20.4 


11.2 


8 


25 


15 


9 


7 


189 


127 


39.7 


26.3 


17.0 


9.1 


18.4 


11.2 




2,692 


1,556 


1,358 


789 


6,296 


3,764 


24.2 


15.6 


19.4 


12.1 


17.9 


11.3 



Causes of Non-Promotion 

Teachers were asked to give the chief reason that pupils were 
deemed unfit to carry on work in the next higher grade. Unfor- 
tunate home conditions and lack of interest of parents and pupils 
were reported as causes of failure for 5 per cent of the pupils. 
This was higher by 1.1 per cent than the corresponding percent- 



Non-Promotions by Grade and Cause 



51 



TABLE 28 



Causes of Non-Promotion For White Elementary School Pupils 
Not Promoted For Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Causes of Non-Promotion 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 

Elementary 
Schools 






1928 


1927 



NUMBER 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 












Lack of Interest 


1,093 


672 


3,344 


5,109 


4,054 


Mental Incapacity 


717 


338 


1,995 


3,050 


3,042 


Irregular Attendance Not Due to 












Sickness 


732 


343 


994 


2,069 


2,266 


Personal Illness 


416 


252 


1,273 


1,941 


2,003 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed . . 


482 


158 


736 


1,376 


1,584 


Transfer from Other Schools 


224 


116 


510 


850 


841 


Late Entrance Other than 100-Day 












Pupils 


185 


80 


214 


479 


789 


Other Causes 


399 


188 


967 


1,554 


1,501 


Total 


4,248 


2,147 


*10,033 


*16,428 


*16,080 



PER CENT 



Unfortunate Home Conditions and 






















Lack of Interest 


5 


2 


5 





4 









3 


9 


Mental Incapacity 


3 


4 


2 


5 


2 


9 


3 





3 





Irregular Attendance Not Due to 






















Sickness 


3 


4 


2 


5 


1 


5 


2 





2 


2 


Personal Illness 


1 


9 


1 


9 


1 


9 


1 


9 


1 


9 


Thirteen Years or Over, Employed. . 


2 


3 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


5 


Transfers from Other Schools 


1 


1 




8 




7t 




8 




8 


Late Entrance Other than 100-Day 




















Pupils 




9 




6 




3 




5 




8 


Other Causes 


1 


9 


1 


4 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1 


5 


Total 


20 


1 


15 


9 


14 


7 


16 





15 


6 



* Excludes 27 pupils not promoted in 7th and 8th Grades of Betbesda Junior High School, 
t Excludes 8 pupils not promoted in 7th Grade of Bethesda Junior High School. 



age in 1927. The number and per cent of pupils who failed 
because of irregular attendance not due to sickness, employment 
of pupils 13 years old or older, and late entrance other than that 
of 100 day pupils, were lower in 1928 than in 1927. (See Table 
28.) 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Causes of Non-Promotions, Special Classes 



53 



Mental incapacity was reported as the cause of failure for 
3 per cent of the white elementary pupils in the State as a whole. 
Somerset reported this as a cause of failure for 8.8 of its pupils, 
and Garrett and Prince George's for 4 per cent of their pupils. 
On the other hand, Kent and Queen Anne's found very little 
mental incapacity, less than 1 per cent, among* their pupils. 
(See Table 29.) 

Unfortunate home conditions and lack of interest are suffi- 
ciently prevalent in Somerset County, according to reports of 
teachers, to cause the failure of nearly 13 per cent of the pupils. 
Baltimore, Calvert, and Dorchester Counties reported failure 
due to these causes for over 7 per cent of the pupils enrolled. 
(See Table 29.) 

Irregular attendance due to causes other than sickness was 
reported by teachers as handicapping the work of over 3 per 
cent of the pupils in Charles, St. Mary's, Dorchester, Queen 
Anne's, Calvert, and Harford Counties. (Charles County has no 
attendance officer, except the very little time the Superintendent 
can devote to this work.) Sickness caused failure for 3 or more 
per cent of the pupils in Howard and Somerset. Employment, 
probably for the 100 day pupils, caused failure for 4.2 per cent 
of Queen Anne's pupils and 3 per cent of Somerset's. (See 
Table 29.) 

Special Classes for Retarded Pupils 

*Miss Lillian Compton, Assistant SupeHyitendent of Schools in 
Allegany County, reported on the organization of coaching 
classes ''to help children in Cumberland whose behavior is per- 
plexing, whose progress is puzzling, and whose personalities 
manifest traits that give cause for concern. From year to year 
these children were carried along, each teacher contributing as 
much as she could to their development. Some of these pupils 
accepted this routine and moved along peaceably with the group, 
while others became centers of disturbance most of the time. 
Because of the interference these children were causing with 
regular classroom instruction and because they themselves were 
not being educated, in January, 1928, special rooms in a special 
building were set aside where these children were sent for in- 
struction. Since in every case it meant a greater distance for 
each child to travel it was necessary to present plausible reasons 
to engender the support of the home. 

"We therefore called together the principals of the buildings 
from which we expected to take children and discussed plans for 
the type of work. The term Coaching Class was adopted. The 



* Quoted from pases 18-20 of Maryland School Bulletin, September, l't28. Vol. X, No. 3, 
Supervisory Activities in Maryland. 



54 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



principals accepted the responsibility of making the necessary 
explanations to the classes from which the pupils would be taken 
and to parents. We also had the offer from Visiting Nurses to 
go to individual homes should we find it necessary. After the 
principals had done this and we found there was a favorable 
attitude, or at least no strong opposition, Mr. Webb supplied 
enough letters to each principal to be sent to the homes involved 
announcing officially the change that would be made and giving 
the outstanding benefits to be derived. 

'*We decided upon these principles : 

To the parents: 

1. The child must be below standard in reading. 

2. He must be twelve or more years of ag-e. 

3. No child is to be taken from any grade below the fourth unless 
he is an outstanding case of 11 or 12 years old just entering 
school and can not read. 

4. He must be at least two years over-age for his grade. 

To the teachers: 

In addition, he must be examined by a psychiatrist. Dr. Firor of 
the Mental Hygiene Board, who rates him with an I. Q. of less 
than 75. 

"We selected sixty children and two special teachers, but after 
a few weeks we found that 30 pupils per teacher were too many. 
We then employed an additional teacher. 

"The teachers studied the progress and deportment in school, 
the heredity, interests, ambitions, and dislikes of each child to 
help in understanding each nature. It is obvious that such a 
task requires insight, skill, and a high degree of personal fitness. 
We were concerned that the teachers selected have a high degree 
of missionary spirit, sympathy for unfortunates, a sense of 
humor, and some knowledge of handwork or construction work. 
We now feel after observing the work that we were very fortu- 
nate in the choices made. The pupils transferred to special 
classes have been happier, the work has been more in harmony 
with their respective abilities, attitude toward school is much 
more favorable; the growth in reading in a few cases is phe- 
nomenal, but in some other cases no progress was made. As 
these teachers continue to study the abilities and disabilities of 
these pupils and adjust the curriculum to meet their needs, we 
feel that in keeping with their abilities these pupils will be much 
better prepared for adult citizenship. 

"We were gratified at the close of the year to find that parents 
were entirely won over to the scheme, and that children were 
anxious to return to the special classes another year rather than 
be transferred to their regular groups." 

Baltimore City had organized the following special classes for 
the semester ending January 31, 1928. (See Table 30.) 



Special Classes, Certification of White Elementary Teachers 55 



TABLE 30 

Baltimore City Special Classes For Semester Ending June 30, 1928 









No. 












No. 




Returned 


Average 


Per 


Making 


KIND OF class 


of 


Total 


to 


Net 


Cent of 


Satisfactory Improve- 




Classes 


Admitted 


Regular 


Roll 


Attend- 


ment 










Classes 




ance 




*Per 














No. 


Cent. 


Subnormal 


75 


1,350 


70 


1,083 


88 


844 


76 


Open Air 


17 


468 


74 


340 


89 


331 


90 


Crippled 


12 


292 


18 


220 


94 


207 


95 


Disciplinary 


9 


196 


29 


110 


88 


130 


86 


Americanization . . . 


3 


56 


2 


50 


92 


54 


100 


Deaf 


3 


25 




24 


91 


23 


100 


Sight Conservation . 


2 


24 


3 


15 


80 


21 


100 




1 


21 




18 


83 


17 


89 


Total 


122 


2,432 


196 


1,860 


89 


1 ,627 


82 



* Per cent of number admitted, exclusive of pupils returned to regular classes or withdrawn in 
other ways. 



THE WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHING STAFF 
Over 90 per cent of County Teachers Trained 

For the first time in their history the county white elementary 
schools of Maryland have over 90 per cent of their teachers hold- 
ing regular first-grade certificates. Of the 3,047 teachers em- 
ployed, during the present school year, 2,756 have graduated 
from a two-year normal school course, or completed training con- 
sidered its equivalent. In October, 1920, when a similar survey 
was made, one-third, or only about 1,000, of the white elemen- 
tary school teaching staff, which included practically the same 
number of teachers as are now employed, had what could be 
counted a reasonably satisfactory training for the positions they 
held. (See Table 31.) 

This improvement has been a steady growth from year to year 
due to many factors, both educational and financial. More pupils 
graduated from high school and entered the normal schools, 
returning upon the completion of their normal school courses to 
teach in the Maryland county elementary schools. Teachers in 
service who lacked adequate professional training secured it in 
summer schools, or studied while on leave of absence during the 
regular school year. 

Through the State Equalization Fund the financially poor coun- 
ties were given sufficient funds with which to pay higher sal- 
aries to the better trained teachers available. 



56 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 31 

Increase in Teachers Holding Regular First Grade Certificates, 1921-1928 







White Elementary Teachers 




1 oiai. iN um Der 


Holding Regular First Grade 


FALL OF 


White Elementary 


Certificates 




Teachers 










Number 


Per Cent 


1921 


3,040 


1,228 


40.4 


1922 


3,038 


1,351 


44.5 


1923 


3,026 


1,633 


54.0 


1924 


3,019 


1,936 


64.1 


1925 


3,058 


2,212 


72.4 


1926 


3,071 


2,414 


78.6 


1927 


3,037 


2,597 


85.5 


1928 


3,047 


2,756 


90.5 



Baltimore County at Top with 100 per cent Trained Teachers 

Although the average per cent of teachers holding first-grade 
certificates is 91, the variation in different counties runs all the 
way from 68 per cent to 100. Baltimore County ranks at the top 
with every teacher having at least the minimum training con- 
sidered requisite, while St. Mary's is at the opposite extreme. 
Thirteen of the twenty-three counties have 90 per cent or more 
of their staffs with the desired professional training. Only three 
(St. Mary's, Charles, and Cecil) have less than 80 per cent of 
trained teachers. The counties are listed in Table 32 in the order 
of their rank in per cent of professionally trained teachers. The 
last column shows the increase in per cent from 1921 to 1928. 
(See Table 32.) 

Garrett County Makes Greatest Gain Since 1921 

It will be noted that the counties at the bottom of the list have 
made noteworthy improvement as shown in the last column. They 
had very few trained teachers to start with in October, 1921. 
Each year they have added a few to the number. Since the pub- 
lic high schools of St. Mary's and Charles Counties have been 
established only a comparatively short time, girls from these 
counties, until recently, were not prepared to take the normal 
school work. The greatest gain for any county on the entire 
list is that shown for Garrett County. In October, 1921, there 
were just twelve teachers employed in Garrett County who were 
entitled to hold first-grade certificates. Now there are one hun- 
dred and fifty-eight, or 96 per cent, of the entire staff. Garrett 



Certification of White Elementary Teachers 



57 



TABLE 32 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers Holding Regular 
First Grade Certificates in October, 1928, Compared with 1927 and 1921 











1928 Increase Over 




1928 










County 






1927 


1921 




Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total Average 


2,756 


91 


159 


5 


1 ,528 


51 


Baltimore 


363 


100 


14 




102 


11 


Kent 


50 


98 


*5 




oO 


bo 


Talbot 


51 


96 


o 
o 


r 



1 '7 




Allegany 


320 


96 


24 


1 


113 


25 


jLrarrett 


158 


96 


22 


15 


146 


89 


fCaroline 


64 


96 


4 


6 


42 


70 


tQueen Anne's 


oo 


V o 


*6 


*5 


18 


46 


fPrince George's 


189 


94 


10 


2 


133 


58 


jCalvert 


27 


93 


*1 


*4 


11 


51 


Montgomery 


156 


92 


10 


*2 


70 


24 


Anne Arundel 


147 


92 


13 


7 


71 


33 


Howard 


53 


91 




1 


37 


66 


fWicomico 


94 


90 


3 


3 


70 


69 


Harford 


109 


89 


8 


9 


63 


51 


Frederick 


196 


88 


20 


10 


105 


51 


fWorcester 


66 


88 




3 


50 


71 


tCarroll 


132 


84 


*7 


3 


85 


57 


Washington 


253 


83 


31 


9 


180 


56 


fSomerset 


60 


82 




2 


41 


60 


fDorchester 


76 


81 


7 


7 


54 


63 


Cecil 


78 


78 


7 


7 


49 


51 


fCharles 


34 


71 


1 


10 


24 


56 


tSt. Mary's 


27 


68 


1 


13 


17 


52 



* Decrease. 

t Receives Etiualization Fund. 



is a very large county, too, and has a large number of small one- 
teacher schools. This is the chief explanation of the fact that 
Garrett receives such a large part of the State Equalization 
Fund. 

Worcester, Caroline, Wicomico, Kent, and Howard Counties 
have also made marked gains from 1921 to 1928. All of these 
counties except Howard are recipients of the Equalization Fund. 



58 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 9 



OI^AIIIING OF iaRYLAND COUNTY WHITE ELEMENTARY TEACHERS 



HTTMRKR 



^ RSCUIAR 



C 



% PROnSIONAL 





REG- 


FROVT- 


OCT. 


ULAR 


SIQKAL 


1921 


1228 


31 1 


1922 


1351 


52 1 


1923 


1633 


32 1 


1924 


1936 


38 1 


1925 


2212 


27 1 


1926 


2414 


24 1 


1927 


2597 


21 1 


1928 


2756 


35 1 


1921 


933 


189 1 


1922 


894 


175 1 


1923 


820 


9V 1 


1924 


590 


125 1 


1925 


517 


55 1 


1926 


405 


21 1 


1927 


287 


21 1 


1928 


1B4 


8 1 



FIRST GSlApE CERTIFICATES 



1921 


368 


291 


1922 


365 


201 


1923 


320 


124 


1924 


229 


101 


1925 


182 


65 


1926 


161 


4<i 


1927 


87 


24 


1928 


60 


4 




SECOND C51ADS CERTIFICATES 




IHIRD G31ADB CERTIFIGAIES 



8 e 



6 5 



10 



3 



Other counties, like Baltimore, Montgomery, and Allegany, did 
not have much opportunity for growth, because in these counties 
conditions with respect to training of teachers were very favor- 
able even in 1921. 



Certification of White Elementary Teachees 



59 



The reduction in the number and per cent holding third and 
second-grade certificates is just as significant as the increase in 
those holding first-grade certificates. The per cent holding second- 
grade certificates has dropped from 37 to 6 from October, 1921, 
to 1928, and for those holding third-grade certificates from 22 
to 2 per cent for the same period. (See Chart 9.) 

TABLE 33 



Grade of Certificate Held by County White Elementary Teachers in 
Various Types of Schools, October, 1928 





White Elementary School Teachers 


CERTIFICATES 


One 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


All 
Schools 




Number 


First Grade 










Regular 


634 


387 


1,735 


2,756 


Provisional 


2 


3 


30 


35 


Second Gradp 










Regular 


73 


37 


74 


184 


Provisional 


4 




4 


8 


Third Grade 








Regular 


36 


9 


15 


60 


Provisional 


2 


2 




4 












Total 


751 


438 


1,858 


3,047 




Per Cent 


First Grade 










Regular 


84.4 


88.4 


93.4 


90,5 


Provisional 


.3 


.7 


1.6 


1.1 


Second Grade 










Regular 


9 7 


8.4 


4.0 


6 


Provisional 


.5 




.2 


.3 


Third Grade 










Regular 


4.8 


2 1 


.8 


2.0 


Provisional 


.3 


.4 




.1 










Total 


100.0 


100 


100.0 


100.0 



Data for certification in October, 1928, in individual counties 
are available for white elementary, one-teacher, and two-teacher 
schools in Tables XIII-XV, pages 315-317. 



60 1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 

Rural Schools Behind Graded Schools 

The rural schools, although they still have a larger proportion 
of untrained teachers than the graded schools, have made far 
greater improvement in the past year than have the larger 
schools. In the one-teacher schools 84 per cent of the teachers 
hold first-grade certificates; in the two-teacher schools 88 per 
cent ; and in the larger graded schools 93 per cent. These figures 
are 11, 5, and 1 per cent higher, respectively, than they were a 
year ago. (See Table 33.) 

The County Certification Score 

In order to secure one figure expressing the certification status 
of each county, the various types of certificates have been 
weighted as follows : 



Kind of Certificate Weight 

First grade regular 4 

First grade provisional 2 

Second grade regular _. „ 2 

Second grade provisional 1 

Third grade regular 1 

Third grade provisional .„ 



The average certification score in the counties increased by 3 
points, from 91.5 in 1927 to 94.6 in October, 1928. The counties 
ranged from a score of 77 in St. Mary's to 100 in Baltimore 
County. Every county, except three, Calvert, Montgomery, and 
Queen Anne's, all of which had high scores, increased its certi- 
fication score from 1927 to 1928. The greatest gains for the 
year — 10 points — were made by St. Mary's and Garrett. Only 
four counties, St. Mary's, Charles, Cecil, and Dorchester, still 
have certification scores under 90. (See Chart 10.) 

Certification scores in the one-teacher schools of individual 
counties averaged 91 and ranged from 69 to 100. The greatest 
gain over 1927 appeared in Washington County, in which the 
score increased from 55 to 78. Four counties had scores under 
80 — Charles and St. Mary's with 69, and Dorchester and Wash- 
ington with 78. Four counties — Baltimore, Caroline, Queen 
Anne's, and Talbot — had every teacher holding a regular first- 
grade certificate. (See Table 34.) 

For the two-teacher schools the average certification score was 
93, a gain of 2 points over last year. Seven counties had perfect 
scores — Baltimore, Calvert, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, 
Talbot, and Wicomico. At the other extreme, Charles, Somerset, 
and St. Mary's had scores under 85, Charles being very low, only 
72. This was, however, a great improvement over Charles' score 
for last year, which was only 56. (See Table 34.) 



Certification Score for White Elementary Teachers -61 

CHART 10 



CXRTinCATION SCORZ OF COnTJTT WHITE KLKMKNTART SCHOOL TEACHERS 



County 




October 




1923 


1925 


1927 


Total and 


71.5 


83.2 


91.5 


Co. Average 


Baltimore 


95.2 


98.4 


99.9 


Kent 


74.6 


88.4 


99.1 


Caroline 


72.8 


83.9 


94.0 


T&lbot 


65.6 


89.3 


94.8 


ATlffgnny 


87.1 


96.5 


97.4 


Garrett 


38.6 


64.0 


87.9 


Queen Anna*s 


86.8 




100 .0 


Pr. George's 


77.9 


yo .4 


yo.o 


Montgomery 


79.1 


93.0 


96.2 


Howard 


64.5 


83.5 


94.9 


Anne Arundel 


79.7 


87.9 


89.7 


Wicc^co 


72.3 


88.4 


93.3 


Calvert 


72.2 


85.0 


97.4 


Harford 


71.9 


80.7 


89.3 


Frederick 


64.8 


79.9 


88.3 


Worcester 


63.6 


82.3 


92.0 


Carroll 


61.8 


75.7 


88.7 


Washington 


66.7 


73.3 


83.4 


Somerset 


56 aS 


67.4 


88.3 


Dorchester 


64.1 


80.4 


84.1 


Cecil 


69.3 


73.8 


84.8 


Charles 


51.5 


54.7 


78.2 


St.ifery'3 


40.3 


50.0 


67.6 



100.0 



99.0 



97.8 



'.S 



.5 



97.4 



97.3 



9S.3 



95.4 



5.3 : 



95.2 



95.2 



34.8 



93.9 



93.8 



93.r 



90. S 



90.5 



90.: 



5S.€ 



88.5 



83.9 



'.5 



Only one county, Calvert, had a score less than 90 in the 
graded schools. Four counties — Baltimore, Howard, Kent, and 
St. Mary's — had perfect scores and five had scores of 98. The 
counties seem to be nearing the goal of a trained teacher in every 
school. (See Table 34.) 

For number of white elementary teachers holding certificates 
of the various grades, see Tables XIII-XV, pages 315-317. 

The Credential Secretary reports that when the list of white 
elementary teachers in service in October, 1928, was checked, 
there were but 83 who did not hold valid certificates. This is a 
much smaller number than was found in any year preceding. 



62 



1928 



Report of State Department of Education 



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Certification and Summer School Attendance 



63 



SUMMER SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IN 1928 

Teachers in white elementary schools in service in the fall of 
1928 attended summer schools in larger numbers than ever be- 
fore in 1928. There were 969 present. The largest number, 302 
and 266, attended the Johns Hopkins University and University 
of Maryland, respectively. Frostburg and Towson Normal 
School and the University of Virginia had 65, 62, and 61, respec- 
tively. Teachers College, Columbia, had 44, and the University 
of Delaware 39. (See Table 35.) 



TABLE 35 

Summer Schools Attended in 1928 By White Elementary School 
Teachers in Service in Maryland Counties, October, 1928 



No. of No. of 

White . White 
Summer School Attended Elementary Summer School Attended Elementary 

Teachers Teachers 



Johns Hopkins University a302 

University of Maryland b266 

Frostburg Normal School 65 

Towson Normal School 62 

University of Virginia c 61 

Teachers College, Columbia 44 

University of Delaware d S9 

University of Pennsylvania 15 

Harrisonburg Teachers College 12 



Asheville Normal School 10 

Shippensburg Normal School 10 

University of West Virginia 9 

Potomac State College 8 

George Washington University. . . 7 

Shepherd College Normal 7 

Fredericksburg Teachers College.. 6 

Fairmont Normal School 5 

other Schools 41 



J969 



a Excludes 1 teacher included in University of Virginia. 

b Excludes 2 teachers included in University of Virginia. 

c Excludes 5 teachers included in Towson Normal School. 

d Includes only once 5 teachers who took double summer courses. 



Of the white elementary school teachers in service in October, 
1928, 31.8 per cent attended summer school in 1928. The coun- 
ties ranged from having 51 per cent in summer school attendance 
in Cecil and 43, 41, and 40 in Caroline, Anne Arundel, and Som- 
erset, down to 18 and 17 per cent in Carroll and Calvert. For 
the renewal of certificates teachers are required to attend sum- 
mer school once in four years. Some of the counties employ a 
large proportion of new normal school graduates each year, in 
which case the requirement for summer school attendance would 
not affect as large a proportion of the staff as in counties having 
a lower turnover. Carroll, Calvert, Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's 
were the only counties which had less than one-fourth of their 
staff attending summer school. Many teachers attended summer 
school because they wished to broaden their knowledge of subject- 
matter or to keep in touch with recent professional thought in 
education and not merely because they were required to attend 
to improve their grade of certificate. (See Table 36.) 



64 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 36 



Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers 
Attending Summer School in 1928 



COUNTY 



Elem. 
Princ. 
and First 
Grade 



Second 
Grade 



Third 
Grade 



Total 
Number 



Per 
Cent 



Total 

Cecil 

Caroline 

Anne Arundel. . 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Dorchester. . . . 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Talbot 

Kent 

Allegany 

Prince George's 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Montgomery . . 

Washington . . . 

Garrett 

Charles 

Howard 

St. Mary's. . . . 

Queen Anne's . . 

Carroll 

Calvert 



833 

39 
28 
61 
21 
27 

24 
36 
118 
17 
15 

95 
56 
19 
52 
48 

68 
44 

8 
14 

4 

12 
22 

5 



113 

11 
1 
3 
5 

13 

6 
4 



9 
5 
3 
14 



22 
2 
5 
1 
3 



23 
1 



969 

51 
29 
66 
29 
40 

35 
42 
118 
17 
16 

105 
63 
23 
67 
50 

90 
46 
13 
15 
9 

12 
28 
5 



31.8 

51.0 
42.6 
41.3 
39.7 
38.5 

37.2 
34.1 
32.5 
32.1 
31.4 

31.4 
31.3 
30.3 
30.2 
29.6 



29 

27 

27, 

25 

22 



21.4 
17.8 
17.2 



EXTENSION COURSES 

Extension courses for the teachers were given in some of the 
counties in both 1926-27 and 1927-28. The names of the courses 
follow, together with tables showing the counties in which the 
courses were offered, the enrollment in the different counties, and 
the amount of reimbursement from the State funds. In general, 
the State bore half the expense for courses which could be con- 
sidered to improve the professional equipment of the teacher 
concerned. (See Table 37.) 



COURSES OFFERED 

English Ideals in English Literature. 
Teaching of English in Elementary School. 
English, "The Great Tradition." 

English, Individual in Relation to Classroom Organization and Management. 
English, American Literature. 
Social Science, 5-6, Economics. 
History 7-8, American. 
Medieval History. 

Professionalized Subject Matter in History. 
French 1-2. 
French 3-4. 
Spanish 1-2. 

Education 33, Technique of Elementary Instruction. 



Summer School, Extension Courses, Experience 



65 



TABLE 37 
Extension Courses for White Teachers 



County 



Total 
Enrollment 



1926-27 



1927-28 



Total Number 

for Whom 
Reimbursement 
Was Allowed 



1926-27 



1927-28 



Total 
Reimbursement 



1926-27 



1927-28 



Allegany 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Prince George's 
Somerset 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Totals 



57 
12 
35 
10 
5 

82 
11 
6 



218 



66 



75 



27 
5 

27 
7 
5 

68 
7 
6 



152 



39 



39 



$472 . 50 
50.00 
433.00 
175.00 
92.50 

1,560.00 
185.00 
111.00 



$3,079.00 



$122.50 



570.00 



$692 50 



EXPERIENCE OF WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS 

The median years of experience of Maryland county white ele- 
mentary school teachers in service in October, 1928, was 5.6, 
a slight increase over the median experience in October, 1927, 
5.4 years. In one-teacher schools the median for years of service 
was 3 years, in two-teacher schools 5.7 years, and in graded 
schools 6.7 years. Many of the inexperienced teachers have to 
serve their apprenticeship in one-teacher schools before they are 
transferred to positions in two-teacher or graded schools. (See 
Table 137, page 223.) 

The proportion of teachers in each county who have been in 
service less than 3 years, from 3 to 15 years, from 16 to 23 years, 
and 24 years or more, is indicated by reading from left to right in 
Chart 11. Nearly one-third of the teachers in service in October, 
1928, had had less than 3 years of experience, nearly one-half 
had had from 3 to 15 years, and 20 per cent had had sixteen or 
more years of experience. (See Chart 11.) 

The proportion of the staff in service less than three years 
includes many who do not intend to stay in the profession beyond 
the two years required to carry out the normal school pledge. 
The large majority of teachers in service from 3 to 15 years 
includes those who have chosen teaching as a career and many 



66 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 11 

PER CENT CfF CODMT WHITE ELEMENT&RT TEACHERS IN SERVICE 

OCTOBER 1928 
HAVDIG HAD TEE FOLLOWDJC YEARS OF EXPERIENCE 



Total ^ 

County number T » a r s 

Teachers - 2 3 - 15 16-23 24+ 

S^^lvl^^ge 3047 y///////y.3iy///y yyA 4 g I 9 m\m 

Allegany 334 V//A22.y/// A = K I iT"— 

Anne Arundel 160 V///// 2n y//////A 52= '^1 1 

Baltimore 362 V///////Z\y/////// F= 47= l~8~"1M 

Calvert 29 V////////A ^ y///y////////?^^ = TP. \ 10 M 

Caroline 68 vyyyyyy/yy/yy.^ vyyyyyyyyyyyyyy/y \ 55 1 e na 

Carroll 157 vyyyyyyyyyy.'^yyyyyyyyy//A 39 1 b mC 

Cecil 100 yyyyyyyz^^'/yyyyyyA - 46 | ii HBM 

Charles 48 V//y////.'S^y/// /////A ^59 = 1 11 

Dorchester 94 Yyyyyyyy:iyyyyyyyyy )F= 52 ^ iz ^ 

Frederick 222 vyyyyy/.T& yyyyyyyyy;^ 41= 1 li ■E— 

Garrett 165 t/Z/W////// 52 W/W///// ?F 1 42 I s B 

Harford 123 vyyyyyyyy T^i yyyyyyyyyy^ 49e \ 9 a 

HoiRird 58 yyyyyyyyyyyyy 49 yyy//yy//y/// A 36= 1 s 

Kent 51 vyy/\z,yyM ^51 1 14 hme^W 

Mpntgobiery 169 

Pr. George's 201 vyyyyTz'/yyyyy A vi. l eg 

(Jxeen Anne's 56 Vyy.-^yyyy A =^ = | hi, fflM 

St. Ibry's 40 t^////. 25V//^^ 58 

SOTierset 73 vyyyy/Z!^'yyyyA =43 = 1 23 "BBM 

Talbot 53 vyyyyy/2e/yyyyy A =40^^ 1 15 Mgg^B 

Washington 305 V////////^^y//////// \ - 47 ^ ^ 

Wicomico 104 yyyy^yyyy^B =50 1 CjaB 

Worcester ^ 7s [yyyyy^ yyyyy yA =59= |b ■:■ 



of those who, under the leadership of strong supervisors, may 
be developed into teachers of the finest type, who become more 
and rnore valuable because they are profiting by their teaching 
experience. Those who have taught more than 15 years who 
stay on in the same type of positions carry on the technique of 
their earlier teaching years and become more or less valuable lo 
the extent that they continue to grow and develop in the work 
they have undertaken. This group may be a great asset or a 
liability to a county. (See Chart 11.) 

Some of the counties — Caroline, Garrett, Howard, Calvert, and 
Carroll — have an unduly large proportion of teachers with less 
than three years' experience, the group from which many will 
be lost to the teaching profession. Others like Kent, Queen 
Anne's, Wicomico, Allegany, Prince George's, St. Mary's, and 
Somerset, have an unusually small proportion of new teachers 
entering their ranks. (See Chart 11.) 



Experience of White Elementary Teachers 



67 



On the other hand, Talbot, Somerset, and Kent have a third 
of their teachers with experience of more than 15 years. To 
keep this large group professionally alert and growing is a prob- 
lem for these counties. Other counties have an unusually small 
proportion of the teachers with over 15 years' experience, viz., 
only 6 per cent of the Garrett County white elementary school 
staff, 10 per cent in Prince George's, and 12 and 13 per cent in 
Caroline and Montgomery respectively. (See Chart 11 for the 
experience status of the teaching staff in white elementary 
schools in each county.) 

CHART 12 



NUMBER AND PER CK^T OF WHITE ELEMEiTAHY TEACEZRS 
IN MARYLAND COUITTIES 
IN FIRST YEAR OF TEACHETG ESPERIEirCE 
OCTOBER 1927 AND OCTOBER 1928 



1928 



County 


Rlmber 


Per 




1927 


1928 


1927 


Total and 








Co. Average 


380 


323 


12.5 


Calvert 


8 


1 


27.6 


Wicomico 




t 


4,8 


Kent 


7 


2 


12.5 


Allegany 


16 


15 


5.2 


Q]a. Ajuie*s 


4 


3 


6.8 


St. Mary's 


12 


3 


25.5 


Pr. George ♦ 


3 13 


16 


6.6 


Worcester 


9 


6 


11.5 


Scxner^et 


7 


6 


9.3 


Baltimore 


43 


32 


12.3 


Talbot 


9 


5 


17.0 


Montgoroery 


19 


16 


12.2 


Cecil 


15 


11 


15.0 


Washington 


38 


34 


12.6 


Carroll 


32 


19 


IB. 7 


Harford 


IB 


15 


14.3 


An. Arundel 


11 


21 


7.0 


Dorchester 


8 


13 


8.6 


Charles 


8 


7 


14.8 


Frederick 


23 


35 


10.2 


Howard 


13 


10 


22.0 


Caroline 


17 


14 


25.4 


Garrett 


45 


35 


26.6 



3 




■ 


3.8 


1 


3.9 


4 


^ I 


5.4 1 


7 


5 




68 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Inexperienced Teachers 



The number and per cent of inexperienced teachers decreased 
from 380, or 12.5 per cent of the county white elementary teach- 
ing staff in 1927, to 323, or 10.6 per cent employed in October, 
1928. Of these, 309 were 1928 graduates of the three State 
normal schools. The number and per cent inexperienced varied 
from 1, or 3.4 per cent, of the Calvert County white elementary 
school staff, to 35, or 21.2 per cent of the Garrett County ele- 
mentary school teachers. Every county except Anne Arundel, 
Dorchester, Frederick, and Prince George's, employed fewer 
inexperienced teachers in October, 1928, than in October, 1927. 
Counties which have to employ many normal school graduates 
who do not come from the home county or who are replacing 
teachers holding lower grade certificates, of course, must employ 
a large proportion of inexperienced teachers each year. (See 
Chart 12.) 



CHART 13 



HDHEER AND Vm CERT OF TEACHERS IK MARYLSND COUOTTES 
HAVING THEIR FIRST YZ£R OF TEACHING EmEIENCE 
OCTOBER 1927 AND OCTOBER 1928 



Schools 

One Teacher 



Number 
1927 1928 



203 



Per Cent 
1927 1928 



153 24,3 



Q?wo Teacher 47 43 10.6 



Graded 



130 127 7.4 




All Elementay 380 323 12.5 



One-fifth of the teachers employed in one-teacher schools, or 
153, were inexperienced in October, 1928, while this was true of 
but 10 per cent or 43 in two-teacher schools, and 7 per cent or 
127 in graded schools. In Garrett, Allegany and Caroline Coun- 
ties, over 30 per cent of the teachers in one-teacher schools were 
inexperienced. Nine of the counties employed no inexperienced 
teachers in two-teacher schools, and six employed none in graded 
schools. (See Chart 13 and Table 38.) For placement of normal 
school graduates, see Table 169, page 282. 



Inexperienced Teachers, Turnover 



69 



TABLE 38 

Number and Per Cent of White Teachers in Maryland Counties 
Having Their First Year of Teaching Experience, October, 1928 

One-Teacher Schools Two-Teacher Schools Graded Schools 

Per Per Per 

County No. Cent County No. Cent County No. Cent 



Total and Average. 


153 


20 


4 


Anne Arundel .... 










Prince George's. . . 


1 


4 





Calvert 


1 


5 


6 


Kent 


2 


10 





Wicomico 


4 


10 


8 




3 


12 







8 


12 


3 


Charles 


2 


12 


5 


Baltimore 


4 


12 


9 




3 


14 


3 




3 


15 





Talbot 


2 


15 


3 




4 


16 


7 


Cecil 


8 


19 







10 


25 







6 


25 





Carroll 


15 


25 


4 


Somerset 


5 


26 


3 


Frederick 


14 


26 


4 




9 


27 


.3 


Garrett 


34 


30- 


.1 




11 


31 


.4 




4 


36 


.4 



Total and Average. 43 9.8 



Allegany 

Calvert 

Cecil 

Kent 

Montgomery 

Queen Anne's 

St. Maiy's 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Garrett 1 4.5 

Carroll 2 10.0 

Worcester 1 10.0 

Baltimore 6 12.2 

Charles 1 12.5 

Dorchester 2 14.3 

Frederick 6 14.3 

Harford 4 15.4 

Prince George's. . . 4 15.4 

Washington 6 17.6 

Caroline 2 20.0 

Anne Arundel 4 25.0 

Talbot 1 25.0 

Howard 3 30 . 



Total and Average 127 6.8 



Calvert 

Garrett 

Kent 

Queen Anne's. ... 

St. Mary's 

Wicomico 

Allegany 4 1.5 

Harford 1 1.8 

Somerset 1 2.8 

Worcester 1 2.4 

Carroll 2 2.6 

Howard 1 4.2 

Dorchester 2 4.3 

Talbot 2 5.6 

Prince George's... 11 7.3 

Cecil 3 7.6 

Baltimore 22 7.8 

Washington 20 9.7 

Frederick 15 11.8 

Montgomery 13 11.8 

Anne Arundel 17 12.4 

Charles 4 16.7 

Caroline 8 17.0 



TEACHER TURNOVER IN MARYLAND COUNTIES 

In order to ascertain the number of teachers needed to keep 
teaching positions in white elementary schools filled, which 
means providing for new positions added as well as filling vacan- 
cies, data were collected regarding the number of teachers new 
to each county appointed in the fall of 1925, 1926, and 1927.* 
Teachers new to the county are defined as the sum of those 
(1) inexperienced, (2) experienced and not in service in the 
county one or more years before, and (3) formerly in the service 
of another county. Teachers in group 3 are not new to the State, 
but are new to the county for the year in question. Thus de- 
fined there were 672 teachers new to the counties in 1925, 22 per 
cent of the total white elementary school teaching staff, 607 or 
19.8 per cent in 1926, and only 534 or 17.6 in 1927. Considering 
the counties of the State as a w^hole, the turnover was not quite 
so high, 601 or 19.7 per cent in 1925, 564 or 18.4 per cent in 
1926, and 481 or 15.8 per cent in 1927. 



* These data are obtained from the cumulative exixjrience records made up for all t«acher« 
reported by superintendents as in service in October and checked each year to be brought 
up to date. They do not include changes during the year to keep positions filled. 



70 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The individual counties are arranged in the order of their 
ranks for the three years summarized, the county with the lowest 
per cent of turnover, or teachers new to the county, appearing 
at the top. Wicomico has the smallest turnover for the period, 
while Garrett and two of the southern Maryland Counties, St. 
Mary's and Calvert, have the highest per cent of teachers new 
to the county. (See Table 39.) 

TABLE 39 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary Teachers* 
New to Counties in Which They Taught in October 1925, 1926 and 1927 





1925 


1926 


1927 




o 


1 m 

11 






suo 
-mi 




o 


suo 

-UII 




+ /~TMTXT'T'V 
TCUUJN 1 1 


> 


^•^ 




> 
> 


i-> ..^ 






;j ..^ 
'y 








C O 








O 0) 






o a> 




(1> c 




> 

c o 

0) c 


0) C 




^ % 


<U C 




- % 

0) P 




Si 3 

s ° 






Xi S 

c o 


"2 




3 

S ° 


M ° 

s « 


O 3 
















So 

3^ 




uH 




% 








O 


111 




u 


Pi 


Total and Av- 










































§601 




19.7 


§564 




18.4 


§481 




15.8 


Total and Av- 










erage (New 




















to Counties) . 


*672 


+39 


22.0 


*607 


+ 13 


19.8 


*534 


-34 


17.6 


Wicomico 


11 




10.2 


13 


+ 1 


11.9 


6 


-4 


5.7 


Worcester 


13 


+1 


15.9 


4 


-2 


5.0 


11 


-2 


14.1 


Queen Anne's . . 


6 


-2 


9.7 


11 




17.7 


5 


-3 


8.5 


Allegany 


39 


-4 


13.0 


50 


+ 14 


15.9 


28 


-4 


9.0 


Somerset 


13 


-1 


15.9 


13 




15.9 


8 


-7 


10.7 


Talbot 


7 


-1 


12.5 


7 


-1 


12.7 


10 


-2 


18.9 


Kent 


11 


-1 


19.0 


8 




13.8 


8 


-2 


14.3 


Baltimore 


77 


+29 


22.0 


45 


-3 


13.0 


46 


+3 


13.1 


Cecil 


14 


+2 


13.9 


15 




14.9 


20 


-1 


20.0 


Washington . . . 


49 


+4 


17.1 


53 


+10 


17.9 


51 


+5 


16.9 


Anne Arundel. . 


35 


+ 14 


23.2 


22 


+ 1 


14.5 


28 


+6 


17.7 


Dorchester. . . . 


24 


-2 


25.8 


15 




16.1 


13 




14.0 


Frederick 


56 


+1 


23.9 


46 


+2 


19.8 


33 


-7 


14.7 


Prince George's 


46 


+6 


25.0 


34 


+5 


18.0 


38 


+6 


19.5 


Harford 


28 


+ 1 


22.8 


30 


+2 


24.0 


24 


+ 1 


19.0 


Montgomery. . 


32 


+2 


24.2 


30 


+ 11 


21.0 


36 


+ 13 


23.1 


Charles 


12 


+4 


18.8 


24 




37.5 


11 


-10 


20.4 


Caroline 


22 


-3 


28.9 


17 


-5 


23.9 


19 


-4 


28.4 


Carroll 


60 


+ 5 


32.6 


51 


-3 


28.2 


39 


-10 


22.8 


Howard 


22 


-5 


37.3 


14 




23.7 


14 




23.7 


Calvert 


7 


-5 


23.3 


8 


-1 


27.6 


11 




37.9 


St. Mary's 


11 


-5 


20.0 


21 


-5 


42.0 


18 


-3 


38.3 


Garrett 


77 


-1 


41.2 


76 


-9 


42.7 


57 


-9 


33.7 



* Includes (1) inexperienced teachers. (2) experienced teachers not in service in county 
one or more years' before. (3) teachers who have taught in other counties. 

t Counties are arranged in the order of the ranks for the three years summarized, the 
county with the highest turnover appearing at the bottom. 

§ Includes inexperienced teachers or experienced teachers not in service in Maryland 
counties one or more years prior to the one in question. 



White Elementary Teachers New to the Counties 



71 



The supervisory problem in a county with small turnover is 
very different from that of a county with many changes. For 
the year 1927, the variation ran from less than 10 per cent of 
turnover in Wicomico, Queen Anne's, and Allegany, to over 33 
per cent in Garrett, Calvert, and St. Mary's. (See Table 39.) 

TABLE 40 

Number of White Elementary Teachers, October, 1925, 1926 and 1927, 
Employed in Each County. (1) Who Were Inexperienced ; (2i Experi- 
enced, But Not in Service in County One or More Years 
Before; (3) Formerly Teaching in Another County. 



COUNTY 



1925 



u 
C 

<u 
O, 
K 
0) 

c 



•»->>> 01 

CIS 5? o 

«- 08 CU S 

J <u c S 



1926 



u 
C 

.2 

<v 

a 

K 

O 

C 



O ••-> I. 

o 

CIS - c 

I- eS Si S 
c Oi C C 



3^ 

< c 



1927 



u 
c 
.2 

o 

a 

X 

o 
c 



+i >» 03 
O 

3 

-u C>H 

CIS o o 

cs 2 J 

4) o c i: 



o 

■<-> 

< a 

si 



Total 


411 


190 


Wicomico 


8 


2 


Worcester 


13 




Queen Anne's. . 


5 


1 


Allegany 


22 


5 


Somerset 


5 


5 


Talbot 


4 


2 


Kent 


6 


5 


Baltimore 


61 


10 


Cecil 


10 


4 


Washingron . . . 


33 


14 


Anne Arundel. . 


22 


11 


Dorchester .... 


18 


5 


Frederick 


32 


20 


Prince George's 


23 


17 


Harford 


16 


8 


Montgomery. . 


11 


15 


Charles 


4 


6 


CaroHne 


13 


6 


Carroll 


41 


11 


Howard 


14 


6 


Calvert 


3 


3 


St. Mary's. . . . 


3 


5 


Garrett 


44 


29 



71 
1 



12 
3 
1 



2 
2 
1 
4 
6 
4 
6 
2 
3 
8 
2 
1 
3 
4 



390 

9 
2 
7 
24 
7 
4 
4 
42 
10 
42 
13 
11 
32 
15 
19 
17 
17 
12 
34 
11 
6 
11 
41 



174 

3 
2 
4 
14 
5 
2 
3 
3 
4 
9 
9 
4 
10 
13 
10 
13 
5 
4 
13 
3 
2 
7 
32 



43 
1 



12 
1 
1 
1 



2 
1 
4 



380 

5 
9 
4 
16 
7 
9 
7 
43 
15 
38 
11 
8 
23 
13 
18 
19 
8 
17 
32 
13 
8 
12 
45 



101 

1 
1 
1 
3 
1 



1 
2 

10 
11 
3 
9 
13 
6 

15 
1 
2 
7 
1 



4 
9 



53 



1 
1 

2 
3 
3 
6 
2 

1 
12 



The number new to the county for the three years distributed 
by the number (1) inexperienced, (2) experienced but not teach- 
ing in the county one or more years previously, and (3) previ- 
ously employed in another county, shows a decrease for each of 
these groups during the three-year period. This is probably due 
to the improving professional status of the group which brings 



72 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



about a lower turnover. The number inexperienced in 1925 — 
411 — dropped to 380 in 1927. The number experienced but out 
of service one or more years preceding, dechned from 190 in 
1925 to 101 in 1927. Transfers from one county to another 
decreased from 71 in 1925 to 53 in 1927. (See Table 40.) 

Changes from County to County 

The number of teachers changing from county to county over 
a four-year period is exhibited in Table 41. 

TABLE 41 

Number of White Elementary School Teachers Changing Counties 
in a Four- Year Period, 1923-24, 1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27 



Number Number 
Coming Leaving 
County to County 

County 



Total 


223 


223 


Allegany 


46 


9 


Anne Arundel 


9 


8 


Baltimore 


12 


5 


Calvert 


6 


9 


Caroline 


5 


10 


Carroll 


17 


33 


Cecil 


4 


3 


Charles 


7 


5 


Dorchester 


5 


7 


Frederick 


13 


16 


Garrett 


13 


31 



Number Number 
Coming Leaving 
County to County 

County 



Harford 


6 


3 


Howard 


4 


16 


Kent 


3 


3 


Montgomery 


9 


7 


Prince George's. . . 


33 


24 


Queen Anne's. . . . 




4 


St. Mary's 


9 


5 


Somerset 


6 


4 


Talbot 


5 


10 


Washington 


7 


8 


Wicomico 


2 


2 


Worcester 


2 


1 



Partly because their salary schedules are above the minimum, 
Allegany, Baltimore, and Prince George's attract more teachers 
from other counties than they lose to other counties. Allegany 
has more graduates from the Frostburg Normal School than it 
has vacancies in which to place them. Many of the Allegany 
County graduates gain their experience in other counties and 
return later to Allegany, when vacancies occur. Charles, Har- 
ford, Somerset, and St. Mary's also had more gains than losses. 
On the other hand, Garrett, Howard, Carroll, Talbot, Freder- 
ick, Calvert, Caroline, and Dorchester have considerably more 
losses to other counties than gains. Several of these counties 
send so few of their own high school graduates to normal school 
that they must use the excess graduates from other counties to 
fill their vacancies. Many of these graduates leave as soon as 
they have an opportunity to obtain a school nearer home. 



See pages 281 to 287 in report on normal schools. 



Teachers Changing From County to County 



73 



Estimates of the causes would indicate that the changes were 
accompanied by larger salary (in some cases due to longer 
experience) in 56 per cent of the cases, by return to home county 
in 35 per cent, and by positions in larger schools in 31 per cent 
of the changes. Many of these factors appeared in combination 
and are so reported in Tables 42 and 43. 



TABLE 42 

Number of White Elementary Teachers Who Left One County to 
Take Positions in Other Counties, with Estimate of Reasons 
For Change For The Four- Year Period, 1923-24, 1924-25, 

1925-26, 1926-27 



COUNTY 
LEFT 



c 

3 

o 

Z CO o 



estimate of reason for change of county 



to 

u 



5 to 

-J i-i 

o eij ^ 

£ C etf 

O cuw 



c 

3 

o 
O 

B 

o 

K 



o 
o 

<i> 
be 

ca 



o 

>> ° . 

C U k. 

° k- rt 
tc 

e « c 

X 



5 bfl 

P C o 
O esOJ 



Total . . . . 
Per Cent , 



223 



63 
28.2 



27 

12.1 



23 
10.3 



24 
10.8 



16 
7.2 



11 

4.9 



18 
8.1 



Allegany 9 2 

Anne Arundel. . 8 2 

Baltimore 5 1 

Calvert 9 3 

Caroline 10 3 

Carroll 33 7 

Cecil 3 1 

Charles 5 1 

Dorchester. ... 7 5 

Frederick 16 1 

Garrett 31 6 

Harford 3 2 

Howard 16 2 

Kent 3 2 

Montgomery . 7 4 

Prince George's 24 6 

Queen Anne's. . 4 1 

St. Mary's 5 3 

Somerset 4 2 

Talbot 10 6 

Washington ... 8 2 

Wicomico 2 1 

Worcester 1 



5 
3 



5 
1 

l' 

3 

1 
1 



74 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 43 



Number of White Elementary Teachers Who Went to a County 
After Employment in Another County, With Estimate of Reason 
For the Four Year Period, 1923-24, 1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27 





+j 

c 


estimated REASON FOR CHANGING 


COUNTY 


3 

o ^ 

So S 

•9 win 


u 


C 


>> 
c 


O 


o 
o 


>> o 
■tiJ= >> 

C O t; 


S M 


03 

3 

o c 


entered 


1 Nun- 
langinj 
Four- 
riod 


J2 
Is 

72 

u 

0) 


e Cou 
d Larj 
lary 


3 

O 

r > 

a> 


er Sch 
d Sala 


bi 

a> 


3 CQ rt 


3 fc, 

o rt^ 

O 


:ellane 
iknowi 




Eh 


bc 
u 


Pert 
o rtW 


e 

Q 

w 


« « 


b£ 
u 
rt 

h:) 


o rt 


E "= ^ 

O rttW 

K 




Total 


223 


CQ 
DO 


27 


Zo 


24 


1 R 

lb 


ii 


1 Q 


41 


Per Cent 




28.2 


12.1 


10.3 


10.8 


7.2 


4.9 


8.1 


18.4 


Allegany 


46 


Q 
O 


13 


o 


5 


i 


Q 
O 


1 A 


Anne Arundel. . 


9 


Q 
O 




1 


9 


3 


Baltimore 


12 


D 


1 




4 




1 






Calvert 


6 




o 






1 


3 


Caroline 


r 



1 




2 








1 


1 


Carroll 


17 


5 


2 




2 








6 


Cecil 


4 


1 


1 






1 
i 






1 


Charles 


7 


3 




2 










2 


Dorchester. . . . 


5 


1 




3 










1 


Frederick 


13 


4 


3 






2 






4 


Garrett 


13 


4 


1 


1 




1 




1 


5 


Harford 


6 


1 


2 




1 






2 


Howard 


4 


1 




1 


1 


1 








Kent 


3 


2 


1 








Montgomery. . 


9 


5 


1 




1 






1 


1 


















Prince George's 


33 


18 






9 


2 






4 
















St. Mary's. . . . 
Somerset 


9 


1 




2 




2 






4 


6 


2 


1 


1 










2 


Talbot 


5 


1 


1 


2 










1 


Washington . . . 
Wicomico 


7 


2 


1 


1 




1 


1 




1 


2 


1 




1 








Worcester 


2 




1 






1 

























Causes of Resignations 

Marriage of teachers is the explanation of one-third of the 
resignations which took place at the end of or during the school 
years 1924-25, 1925-26, and 1926-27. Over one-eighth of the 
resignations were due to the fact, that teachers were dropped 
because they held certificates of low or provisional grade or 
allowed them to lapse by failure to attend summer school. This 
number has decreased steadily in the past three years with the 



Changes From County to County, Causes of Resignation 75 

great increase in the number of teachers appointed who hold reg- 
ular first grade certificates. About one-eighth of the teachers who 
resigned left the service in the counties to take teaching posi- 
tions in Baltimore City, Washington, or in other states. Slightly 
over one-tenth of the resignations were for teachers dropped 
for inefficiency. About one-twelfth of the resignations were 
due to accepting employment in fields other than teaching. 
Slightly over 10 per cent of the resignations were accounted for 
by retirement, death, or illness. (See Table 44.) 

TABLE 44 



Estimated Cause of Resignations of White Elementary School 
Teachers at End of or During Following School Years 
1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27 



Causes of Resignation 


1924-25 


1925-26 


1926-27 


Total 


Per 
Cent 


Marriage 




136 


158 


168 


462 


33.0 


Dropped for Low Certificate 


or 












Failure to Attend Summer School 


83 


58 


42 


183 


13.1 


Teaching, but not in Md. Counties 


51 


69 


58 


178 


12.7 


Dropped for Inefficiency 




41 


55 


56 


152 


10.8 


Work Other than Teaching. . . . 




37 


34 


42 


113 


8.1 


Retirement 




23 


16 


39 


78 


5 6 


Moved Away 




25 


18 


20 


63 


4.5 


Illness 




22 


19 


18 


59 


4.2 


Death 




9 


5 


10 


24 


1.7 


Other and Unknown 




35 


27 


26 


88 


6.3 


Total 




462 


459 


479 


1,400 


100.0 


Leave of Absence 




*14 


♦16 


*52 


82 





* Fiprures for leave of absence are higher in 1926-27 than in the two preceding years because 
those out on leave in 1926-27 had not returned to service during the school year 1927-28 
and were therefore included in the table. Those who had returned in 1927 were excluded 
from those considered on leave of absence during the two preceding years. 



The detailed figures showing resignations during or at the 
end of the school year 1926-27 in each county are included. They 
are available for the two preceding years in the files of the State 
Department of Education, but since the differences are not very 
great, it was not considered necessary to include data for all 
three years. (See Table 45.) 



76 



1928 Keport of State Department of Education 



TABLE 45 

Estimated Causes of Resignation of White Elementary Teachers, 

June, 1927 



County 



c 
Q 

0) 

<u 



? Bo 

_ o 0) 0) 
a a> rt 3 



>> 

US 



to 



CO 

■S « 

2 !3 
C O 

c >» 



c 



Total . 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll . . . . 

Cecil 

Charles . . . . 
Dorchester . 
Frederick. . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 

Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



39 

1 
2 
4 



1 
2 

6 
1 
1 



42 



2 
2 
4 

10 
1 



1 
10 
1 



56 
2 

i 

1 

3 

5 
1 
3 
1 
9 

2 
4 



168 

20 
3 

28 
1 
4 

13 
11 
5 
6 
11 

12 
7 
2 
3 
3 

7 
4 
2 
2 
2 

16 
5 
1 



18 
2 



58 

4 
8 
4 
1 
1 

3 

2 

'2 

15 
2 
1 
1 
3 

4 

i 

'2 
3 

i 



42 

1 
2 
2 



>» 

> 
o 



20 



4 
2 



1 
5 

4 

3 



03 

Q 



10 



c 

o 
c 

c 
t3 

c 

c« 

u 

a> 

.a 



26 

2 
1 
2 



2 

i 
i 

4 
2 



2 
2 



1 
2 



o 
E-i 



479 

32 
19 
41 
3 
19 

34 
19 
18 
11 
31 

52 
23 
10 
10 
22 

29 
8 
18 
12 

8 

44 

8 
8 



Turnover During the Year 

During the school year 1927-28 the counties employed 110 
teachers or 3.6 per cent more than the number of existing teach- 
ing positions in order to keep positions filled. This was due to 
changes in the teaching staff after the original appointments 
had been made. Similar information for 1922-23 shows that the 
corresponding percentage was 6.7, which means a reduction of 
one-half. Only three counties, Charles, St. Mary's, and Howard, 
had more than 5.3 per cent of the teaching staff changing during 
the year. On the other hand, Calvert, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, 
and Wicomico Counties had no changes whatever. (See 
Table 46.) 



Causes of Resignation, Turnover, Changes Within County 77 



TABLE 46 

Number and Per Cent of White Elementary School Teachers Employed in 
Excess of the Number of Teaching Positions in Order That Positions 
Be Kept Filled During the School Year Endinj^ July 31, 1928 



replacements 

County Number Per Cent 

Total and Average 110 

Calvert 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's 

"Wicomico 

Frederick 2 

Cecil 1 

"Washington 4 

Talbot 1 

Baltimore 8 

Caroline 2 



3.6 



.9 
1.0 
1.3 
1.8 
2.2 
2.9 



County 

Carroll 

Allegany 

Kent 

"Worcester 

Anne Arundel . . 

Harford 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's . 

Garrett 

Somerset 

Howard 

St. Mary's 

Charles 



replacements 



Number 


Per Cent 


5 


2.9 


10 


3.0 


2 


3.5 


3 


3.8 


7 • 


4.4 


6 


4.8 


8 


5.1 


10 


5.2 


9 


5.3 


4 


5.3 


5 


8.5 


6 


12.8 


17 


30 9 



Experienced Teachers Prefer Larger Schools in County 

In addition to the teachers new to the county, who must have 
the special attention of the supervisors, there are also the 
changes in types of schools within the county which require 
adjustments on the part of the teachers. In the study, changes 
made within a county from school to school of the same type 
were not considered, but any changes between one-teacher, two- 
teacher, graded or high schools were counted. There were 174 
of the latter changes within the counties in 1925, 216 in 1926, and 
218 in 1927. 

Of the changes which meant teaching positions in larger 
schools there were in October, 1925 — 107, in 1926 — 157, in 
1927 — 162. These comprised from 62 to 75 per cent of the 
changes made. From 60 to 65 per cent of the changes were 
made without salary increase, or with an actual decrease as a 
result of going from the principalship of a one or two-teacher 
school to an assistant's place in a graded school — the law requir- 
ing that $100 more than the usual first grade minimum salary 
be paid first grade teachers holding such principalships. The 
appeal of larger schools, with the chance for more contacts, was 
evidently stronger than the desire for additional salary in the 
teachers making these changes within the county. (See Table 
47.) 

The number of teachers changing the type of school within the 
county is greatest in Allegany and Baltimore Counties, the two 



78 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 47 

Number of Teachers Changing from One Type of School to 
Another Within The County 



TYPE OF CHANGE 


1925 


1926 


1927 


With Salary 
Increase 


Without Salary 
Increase 


With Salary 

Decrease 


Total 


With Salary 
Increase 


Without Salary 
Increase 


With Salary 
Decrease 


Total 


With Salary 
Increase 


Without Salary 
Increase 


With Salary 
Decrease 


Total 


Onp-TpapVipr to 


























Graaed 


7 


8 


29 


44 


8 


15 


40 


63 


15 


9 


39 


63 




























Graded 


1 1 


1 (\ 


Q 
O 


OD 


1 Q 


97 




OD 






1 

10 




One-Teacher to 


























1 wo- 1 eacner 


12 


11 


5 


28 


15 


16 


7 


38 


14 


17 


12 


43 


Two-Teacher to 


























One-Teacher 


7 


12 


1 


20 


16 


6 




22 


5 


8 




13 


Graded to Two- 


























Teacher 


18 


10 


1 


29 


6 


7 


4 


17 


11 


4 


2 


17 


Graded to One- 


























Teacher 


10 


2 


1 


13 


10 


2 


3 


15 


10 




3 


13 


High School to 


























Graded 




1 




1 


1 


3 




4 


2 






2 


High School to 


























Two-Teacher 






1 


1 


1 






1 






2 


2 


High School to 


























One-Teacher 






1 


1 


















Graded to High 


























School 


1 


1 




2 










6 






6 


Two-Teacher to 
High School 
















1 

2 






1 
2 


One-Teacher to 
High School 






















Total 

Per Cent 


72 
41.4 


55 
31.6 


47 
27.0 


174 


75 
34.7 


76 
35.2 


65 
30.1 


216 


86 
39.4 


61 
28.0 


71 
32.6 


218 



largest counties. Part of the change may be accounted for by the 
consolidation of one-teacher schools, e. g., in Carroll, Anne Arun- 
del, Caroline, Charles, and Frederick Counties. Allegany County 
places the inexperienced teachers it employs in the one-teacher 
schools and transfers them to the larger schools only after they 
have had successful experience in the smaller schools and as 
vacancies occur in the larger schools. (See Table 48.) 



Changes Within County, Men Teachers 



79 



TABLE 48 

Number of White Elementary Teachers Changing from One 
Type of School to Another Within the County 





Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 


COUNTY 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Total 


174 


216 


218 


Allegany 


30 


31 


24 


Anne Arundel 


9 


10 


16 


Baltimore 


22 


25 


22 


Calvert 


6 


2 


4 


Caroline 


5 


10 


14 


Carroll 


9 


15 


22 


Cecil 


3 


6 


5 


Charles 


1 


2 


12 


Dorchester 


2 


5 


1 


Frederick 


14 


20 


11 


Garrett 


12 


13 


19 





Oct. 


Oct. 


Oct. 


COUNTY 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Harford 


6 


7 


14 


Howard 


6 


5 




Kent 


4 




4 


Montgomery 


9 


18 


12 


Prince George's . 
Queen Anne's. . . 


11 


12 


7 


2 


6 


3 


St. Mary's 


3 


1 


5 


Somerset 


9 


8 


8 


Talbot 




1 


1 


Washington 


7 


12 


4 


Wicomico 


1 


6 


4 


Worcester 


3 


1 


6 



FEWER MEN TEACHING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The number and per cent of men teaching in white county 
elementary schools is steadily declining. As may be seen in Table 
49, in 1928 there were but 204 men teaching in white elementary 
schools, 6.6 per cent of the entire staff. 



TABLE 49 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teaching in County White Elementary 

Schools 



Year Number Per Cent Year Number Per Cent 

1923 287 9.4 1926 224 7.3 

1924 253 8.3 1927 218 7.1 

1925 233 7.6 1928 204 6.6 



80 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



AVERAGE SIZE OF CLASS 



The average number of pupils per white elementary school 
teacher was slightly higher in 1928 than in 1927, 32.8 as against 
32.3. All of the counties had the same or an increased average 
number of pupils per teacher, except Baltimore and Washington 
Counties, which have 40.1 and 35.3 pupils per teacher respec- 
tively, and Prince George's, Howard, Cecil, and Calvert. The 

CHART 14 



ATEIAGI NDMBffi BELaiGING PER TEACHHl IN WHITE ELEMENTABY SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Arerage 

Baltimore 

Vashlngton 

Anne Arundel 

Talbot 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Wicomico 

Frederick 

Ft. George's 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Somerset 

Howard 

Cecil 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Q^een Anne*3 

Carroll 

Charles 

Calvert 

Kent 

St. Mary»3 
Garrett 

Balto. City 
State 



1925 
32.1 



1927 1928 
32.3 




For counties arranged alphabetically, see Table XVII, page 319. 



Average Size of Class, White Elementary Schools 



81 



greatest gain in average size of class occurred in Charles County, 
which opened new consolidated schools at La Plata and Hughes- 
ville and thereby closed a number of small one-teacher schools. 
The average number per teacher ranged from 22.5 in Garrett 
which has a great many one-teacher schools to 40.1 in Baltimore 
County. Garrett, St. Mary's, Kent, Calvert, Charles, Carroll, 
and Queen Anne's, still have less than 30 pupils belonging on the 
average for each teacher employed. (See Chart 14.) 

The average number of pupils per teacher in one-teacher 
schools (24.7) is higher by .3 than in 1927. The average per 
teacher in two-teacher schools (29.6) is .2 higher and the 

TABLE 50 

Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher in County White 
Elementary Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Schools 
Having 
One 



County Teacher 



County Average. . . 24 . 7 

Baltimore 32.4 

Wicomico 29.6 

Montgomery 28.9 

Frederick 28.4 

Somerset 27.8 

Harford 27.5 

Howard 26.8 

Carroll 26.4 

Washington 26.3 

Calvert 26.1 

Talbot 26 .1 

Caroline 25 9 

Cecil 25.5 

Prince George's. . . 24.4 

Queen Anne's 23 .2 

Dorchester 22.9 

Anne Arundel .... 22 . 5 

Allegany 22.4 

Charles 22.0 

St. Mary's 21 .9 

Worcester 21.6 

Kent 18.7 

Garrett 18.5 



Schools 
Having 
Two 



County Teachers 



County Average. . 29 . 6 

Baltimore 34.9 

Allegany 32.3 

Cecil 31.4 

Washington 30.9 

Frederick 30.8 

Harford 30.3 

Queen Anne's. ... 30.3 

Carroll 30.3 

Worcester 29.0 

St. Mary's 28.7 

Garrett 27.9 

Anne Arundel ... . 27.7 

Dorchester 27.6 

Calvert 27.3 

Talbot 27.2 

Wicomico 26.9 

Montgomery 26.8 

Somerset 26.7 

Charles 26.6 

Caroline 26.5 

Prince George's.. .26.0 

Kent 25.4 

Howard 24.9 



Schools 
Having 
Three or 



County More 
Teachers 



County Average. . 37.3 

Baltimore 42.0 

Calvert 39.5 

Howard 39.3 

Caroline 39.1 

Washington 39.0 

Dorchester 38.7 

Talbot 38.2 

Cecil 37.7 

Wicomico 37.7 

Anne Arundel. .. . 37 .3 

Frederick 37.1 

Worcester 36.8 

Harford 36.7 

Prince George's. . . 35.7 

Allegany 35.7 

Queen Anne's. ... 35.5 

Charles 35,2 

Somerset 35.1 

Montgomery 35.0 

Garrett 34.8 

Kent 32.9 

Carroll 32.1 

St. Mary's 28.8 



82 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



average for each teacher in graded schools (37.3) is .1 higher 
than a year ago. (See Table 50.) In every county except four^ 
Wicomico, Montgomery, Somerset, and Howard, classes were 
smallest in one-teacher schools and largest in graded schools. In 
these four counties there were fewer pupils per teacher in two- 
teacher schools than in one-teacher schools. 

The average number per teacher in one-teacher schools ranged 
from 18.5 in Garrett to 32.4 in Baltimore County. Nine counties 
had fewer pupils per teacher in one-teacher schools in 1928 
than in 1927. They were Baltimore, Harford, Calvert, Talbot, 
Cecil, Prince George's, Dorchester, Anne Arundel, and Wor- 
cester. 

In two-teacher schools the range in number per teacher was 
from 24.9 in Howard County to 34.9 in Baltimore County. 
Twelve counties had a smaller number per teacher in two-teacher 
schools in 1928 than in 1927, viz., Baltimore, Cecil, Washington, 
Frederick, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, Anne Arundel, Dorchester, 
Montgomery, Caroline, Kent, and Howard. (See Table 50.) 

For graded schools the average number of pupils per teacher 
varied from 28.8 pupils in the one school in St. Mary's County 
to 42 in Baltimore County. Only six counties had fewer pupils 
belonging per teacher in graded schools in 1928 than in 1927. 
These were Calvert, Washington, Talbot, Cecil, Anne Arundel, 
and Prince George's. (See Table 50.) 

A few of the counties ranking low in Table 50 for two-teacher 
and graded schools have teachers in excess of the number 
required by Section 76 of the school law which reads as follows: 

"Whenever a school numbers more than forty children in average 
attendance, an assistant may be employed by the county board of edu- 
cation, in their discretion; and for every additional forty children, one 
teacher may be appointed." 

In calculating the Equalization Fund, no provision is made for 
such excess teachers. At the present time there is no scientific 
basis for the assumption that superior results are attained in 
smaller than in larger classes. Studies thus far made indicate no 
perceptible difference, as measured by tests, for pupils in classes 
having from 35 to 45 pupils. 

BETTER TRAINED, MORE EXPERIENCED TEACHERS COMMAND 

HIGHER SALARIES 

The average annual salary of county white elementary 
teachers has increased from $491 in 1917 to $1,155 in 1928. 
From 1927 to 1928 the increase was $29 or from $1,126 to $1,155. 
These increases correlate closely with the number of teachers 



Number per Teacher, Average Salary, White Elementary Schools 83 

holding regular first grade certificates (see pages 56 to 62) and 
with the increase in experience (see pages 66 to 69). (See 
Table 51.) 

TABLE 51 

Average Annual Salary Per County White Elementary School Teacher, 

1917-1928 



Year 
Ending 
June 30 



Average 
Salary 
White 
Elementary 

School 
Teachers 



1917 $491 

1918 542 

1919 521 

1920 631 

1921 881 

1922 937 



Average 
Salary 

Year White 
Ending Elementary 
June 30 School 

Teachers 

1923 $990 

1924 1,030 

1925 1,057 

1926 1,103 

1927 1,126 

1928 1,155 



The average salary per teacher was higher in 1928 than in 
1927 in every county in the State, except Baltimore, which ranks 
highest among the counties and had a slight reduction ($8), and 
Howard in which the salary remained stationary. The greatest 
increases occurred in St. Mary's, Garrett, and Somerset Coun- 
ties found at or near the bottom of the list. St. Mary's and 
Charles in 1928 were the only ones in which the average salary 
per teacher was under $1,000. Baltimore and Allegany Coun- 
ties are the only ones in which the average salaries are higher 
than $1,200 per teacher. (See Chart 15.) 

In one-teacher schools the average salary, $1,049, is $46 higher 
than it was in 1927. Salaries range between $845 in St. Mary's 
and $1,572 in Baltimore, which ranks highest for all types of 
schools. Ten counties — St. Mary's, Charles, Dorchester, Wash- 
ington, Harford, Caroline, Garrett, Carroll, Frederick, and Kent 
have an average salary under $1,050 which is the State minimum 
required for a teacher holding a first grade certificate in charge 
of a one-teacher school. All of these counties, except Charles, 
show considerable increase in salary over the amount paid last 
year. Only three counties at the top of the list, Baltimore, ]\Iont- 
gomery, and Allegany, had a slightly lower average salary per 
teacher than the preceding year. 

In two-teacher schools, the average salary, $1,142, was $93 
higher than in one-teacher schools and $23 above the amount 
paid in 1927. Charles had the lowest average salary, $860, while 
Baltimore ranked first with $1,527. All of the counties show 
increased salaries for two-teacher schools, except Baltimore and 
Allegany at the top of the list and Washington, Wicomico, 
Howard, Carroll, and Charles. The employment of a larger 



84 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 15 



A7ERAGE SAIARY PER TEACHER IN WHITE ELEvENTART SCHOOLS 



County 
Co. Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

IfontgonBry 

Pr. George's 

An. Arundel 

Cecil 

Qu. Anne*3 

Calvert 

Washington 

^felbot 

WiCOTiico 

Kent 

Frederick 

Caroline 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Hovrard 

Barford 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Garrett 

Charles 
St. Mary » 3 

Balto. City 
State 




number of inexperienced teachers in these schools probably 
accounts for the decreases in these counties. In the graded 
schools the 1928 average salary of $1,206 was $14 higher than 
the preceding year. Salaries ranged from $976 in St. Mary's 
to $1,486 in Baltimore. 

Baltimore and Worcester Counties are the only ones in the 
State which have the highest average salary paid to teachers in 
one-teacher schools and the lowest to teachers in graded schools. 
The exact reverse, viz., highest salary for graded schools and 



Average Salary per White Elementary Teacher 



85 



lowest for one-teacher schools, appears in Queen Anne's, Dor- 
chester, Washington, Harford, Caroline, Frederick, Kent, Cecil, 
and Garrett Counties. Somerset pays the highest salary in one- 
teacher schools, and the lowest in two-teacher schools. The 
reverse is true in Montgomery, St. Mary's and Talbot, in which 
the highest salary is paid in two-teacher schools and the lowest 
in one-teacher schools. Calvert pays the highest salary in two- 
teacher schools and the lowest in its graded schools. Exactly 
the opposite, i. e., the highest salary in graded schools and the 
lowest in two-teacher schools prevails in Anne Arundel, Carroll, 
Charles, Howard, Prince George's, and Wicomico. Allegany has 
the same salary in two-teacher and graded schools and a lower 
salary for one-teacher schools. (See Table 52.) 

TABLE 52 

1928 Average Salary Per Teacher in County White 
Elementary Schools Having 



One Teacher 


Two Teachers 


Three or More Teachers 


County 


Average 
Salary 


County 


Average 
Salary 


County 


Average 
Salary 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's. 

Allegany 

Calvert 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . . 
Anne Arundel . . 
Cecil 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Howard 

Kent 

Frederick 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Caroline 

Harford 

Washington .... 

Dorchester 

Charles 

St. Mary's 



$1,049 

1,572 
1,162 
1,156 
1,151 
1,108 

1,101 
1,100 
1,093 
1,082 
1,080 

1,074 
1,068 
1,053 
1,032 
1,029 

1,001 
999 
996 
990 
967 

943 
898 
845 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

Cecil 

Calvert 

Prince George's. 

Talbot 

Queen Anne's. . 
Washington. . . . 
Kent 

Anne Arundel . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Garrett 

Frederick 

Howard 

Harford 

Somerset 

Caroline 

St. Mary's 

Carroll 

Dorchester 

Charles 



$1,142 

1,527 
1,283 
1,209 
1,167 
1,158 

1,144 
1,126 
1,125 
1,122 
1,085 

1,072 
1,054 
1,054 
1,050 
1,041 

1,039 
1,036 
1,033 
1,014 
999 

974 
969 
860 



County Average 

Baltimore 

Allegany 

Montgomery. . . 

Cecil 

Prince George's. 

Queen Anne's. . 
Anne Arundel . . 
Washington. . . . 

Kent 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Talbot 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Harford 

Somerset 

Garrett 

Calvert 

Howard 

Worcester 

St. Mary's 



For counties arranged alphabetically, sec Table XVIII. pape 320. 



86 



1928 Keport of State Department of Education 



The distribution for October, 1928, of salaries of county 
teachers in one-teacher, two-teacher, and graded schools and of 
principals in graded schools for the school year 1928-29, indi- 
cates that median salaries of $1,050 in one-teacher schools and 
$1,150 in two-teacher and graded schools are the same as last 
year. However, because there are fewer one-teacher schools and 
more teachers in graded schools, the median for all white ele- 
mentary county teachers is $1,150, $50 more than a year ago. 
The median salary of principals is $1,550, $50 less than in 
October, 1927. (See Table 53.) 

TABLE 53 

Distribution of Salaries of White Elementary School Teachers in 
Service in Maryland Counties, October, 1928 



salary 



teachers in white elementary 

SCHOOLS 



Having 

One 
Teacher 



Having 

Two 
Teachers 



Graded 
Schools 
Excluding 
Principals 



All Teachers 
Excluding 
Principals 
of Graded 
Schools 



SALARY 



550 

600 

650 

700 

750 

800 

850 

900 

950 

1,000 

1,050 

1,100 

1,150 

1,200 

1,250 

1,300 

1,350 

1,400 

1,450 

1,500 

1,550 

1,600 

1,650 

1,700 

1,750 

1,800 and 
over . . . 



Total . . 
Median 



2 
1 
20 



3 
6 
39 
4 

19 
9 

328 
30 
84 
41 
89 
19 
22 
8 
4 
5 
5 
2 



1 
11 



752 
$1,050 



1 
2 
14 
3 
60 
15 
73 
26 
43 
37 
72 
13 
22 
13 
3 
6 
3 
11 
1 
1 



12 



438 
$1,150 



3 
1 
5 



25 
12 
176 
84 
251 
146 
246 
185 
220 
103 
47 
37 
24 
14 
11 
68 
7 
11 
4 



1,683 
$1,150 



2 
1 
30 
1 
9 
8 
78 
19 
255 
108 
652 
202 
373 
263 
381 
135 
91 
58 
31 
25 
19 
81 
8 
12 
5 

26 



2,873 
$1,150 



fl$l,150 and 
under 
1,200. . . . 
1,250. . . . 
1,300. . . . 
1,350. . . . 
1,400. . . . 
1,450. . . . 
1,500. . . . 
1,550. . . . 
1,600. . . . 
1,650. . . . 
1,700. . . . 
1,750. . . . 
1,800. . . . 
1,850. . . . 
1,900. . . . 
1,950. . . . 
2,000. . . . 
2,050. . . . 
2,100. . . . 
2,150. . . . 
2,200. . . . 

2,250 

2,300 

2,350 

2,400 



2,450. . . . 
2,500 and 
over. . . 



Total . . 
Median 



a Includes one at $1100, three at $1050. 
b Includes one at $3000. 
* $1932, $1860, $2000. 



Salaries October, 1928, Current Expense Cost per Pupil 87 



CURRENT EXPENSE COST FOR EACH COUNTY WHITE 
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPIL $48 

Excluding general control and fixed charges, the current 
expense* cost for each Maryland county white elementary school 
pupil in 1928 was $47.81, an increase of 55 cents over 1927. 
Cost per white elementary school pupil was greater than last 
year in every county, except the six following, which showed 
decreases : Baltimore, Montgomery, Frederick, Wicomico, 
Washington, and Harford. 

Cost per pupil ranged from $39 in Washington County, which 
was the only county which spent less than $40 per pupil, to $60 
in Kent. The only counties which spent more than $50 for each 
white elementary school pupil were Kent, Calvert, Garrett, Mont- 
gomery, Queen Anne's, Anne Arundel, and Allegany. At the 
bottom of the list, Washington, Harford, Frederick, Wicomico, 
and Somerset were the only counties which spent less than $45 
per pupil. Nearly one-half of the counties spent from $45 to 
$50 for each white elementary school pupil belonging. (See 
Chart 16.) 

Salary Cost per Pupil 

The chief item in the cost of educating pupils is the salary of 
the teacher. This is low or high, depending on the size of class 
and on the training and experience of the teacher, and the salary 
schedule which prevails. Comparison with Chart 14 on page 80 
will indicate that, with the exception of Allegany, Baltimore and 
Montgomery Counties, all of the counties having the highest 
salary costs per pupil have the smallest number belonging per 
teacher. On the other hand the counties having the largest 
classes have the smallest salary cost per pupil, except in Alle- 
gany, Baltimore, Montgomery, Cecil, and Prince George's, which 
pay salaries above the minimum required by the law and there- 
fore counterbalance the low salary cost per pupil due to large 
classes with the higher salary schedule. The correlation between 
large salaries and large classes is rather high. (See Columns 2 
and 10 in Table 54.) 

The salary cost per pupil was 31 cents higher in 1928 than in 
1927, because of the increase in the number and per cent of 
teachers holding first grade certificates. Every county had 
higher salary costs per pupil except Allegany, Baltimore, Caro- 
line, Charles, Frederick, Harford, Queen Anne's, Talbot, and 
Wicomico. In these counties the increase in size of class counter- 
balanced the higher salary roll which was required by better 
trained, more experienced teachers. (See columns 2 and 10 in 
Tabic 54, page 90.) 



Excludes debt sei^nce and capital outlay. 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 16 



COST PER PUPIL BELQITGING IN WHITE ELEI^TTARY SCHOOLS 
FOR GUHREIIT EXPENSES EXCLUDING GEtJlEAL CONTROL 



County 



1926 1927 1928 



Co. Average 


046 


$47 


Kent 


56 


57 


Calvert 


54 


57 


Garrett 


51 


53 


Montgcanery 


55 


57 


Queen Anne's 


53 


54 


Anne Arundel 


49 


49 


Allegany 


50 


50 


St. L&ry»3 . 


40 


43 


Charles 


47 


50 


Pr. George's 


45 


49 


Baltimore 


50 


51 


Carroll 


46 


45 


Worcester 


47 


47 


Cecil 


43 


43 


Caroline 


46 


46 


Talbot 


50 


46 


Howard 


42 


45 


Dorchester 


44 


46 


Somerset 


40 


44 


Wicomico 


43 


45 


Frederick 


40 


42 


Harford 


40 


41 


Washington 


37 


39 


Balto. City 


69 


70 


State 


56 


57 




39 






59 





For expenditures in white elementary schools, see Table XXVI, page 328. 

Supervision Costs per White Elementary School Pupil $1.49 

The average cost of supervision for each white elementary 
pupil in Maryland counties was $1.49, an increase of seven cents 
over 1927. The only large increases are found in Cecil and 
Worcester Counties, each of which had only one supervisor in 



Current Expense Cost per White Elementary Pupil 



89 



1926-27 and added a second in 1927-28. Their costs in 1928 were 
$1.80 and $1.87 per pupil for supervision. The expenditure xDer 
pupil varied from 89 cents in Washin^on County, 93 cents in 
Somerset and $1.01 in Allegany, all of which counties employed 
fewer supervisors than the number to which the size of the ele- 
mentary teaching staff entitled them, to $2.25 in Queen Anne's, 
$2.32 in St. Mary's, $2.66 in Calvert, $3.01 in Kent, and $3.13 
in Garrett County. In these counties, which have a large propor- 
tion of one-teacher schools, there is a small number of pupils per 
teacher. The help of the supervising or helping teacher is prob- 
ably most urgently needed by the teachers in the rural schools 
which are isolated in order to equalize as far as possible oppor- 
tunities for the children in them. Teachers in the one-room 
schools are the least well trained and most inexperienced of any 
of those employed. The time required for travel to many one- 
teacher schools is greater than to the larger consolidated schools. 
Except for Garrett, all of the counties spending over $2.00 per 
pupil for supervision employ only one supervising or helping 
teacher. Garrett County is the largest county in area in the 
State, has a larger number of one-teacher schools than any other 
county, and a smaller number of pupils per teacher. (See 
columns 1 and 9 in Table 54.) 

Books, Materials, and Other Instruction Items Cost $2.09 per Pupil 

The counties spent for each pupil an average of $2 for costs 
of instruction other than supervision and salaries. This amount 
includes books and materials of instruction. The expenditure 
was thirteen cents less per pupil than in 1927. Aside from the 
aid for these purposes furnished to counties sharing in the 
Equalization Fund, the counties received from the State for the 
purchase of books and materials approximately one dollar per 
pupil belonging. The amounts spent varied from 98 cents in 
Calvert County to $3.78 in Allegany County. Calvert and Fred- 
erick provided little more than the bare minimum available in 
the State book and materials fund while, Allegany, Montgomery, 
Kent, and Carroll found it necessary, in order to equip their 
schools adequately, to triple and double the amount provided by 
the State with county funds. It would seem not too much to 
expect the counties, and especially those receiving the Equaliza- 
tion Fund, at least to duplicate the amount contributed by the 
State from the fund for books and materials, in order to supply 
the necessary aids to instruction. Such a requirement would 
mean an increased expenditure for these purposes in Calvert, 
Caroline, Worcester, St. Mary's, Charles, Somerset, Garrett, and 
Wicomico Counties. Some of the wealthier counties like Fred- 
erick, Washington, Talbot, Cecil, Anne Arundel and Harford are 
not providing much from county funds to add to the State funds 
available for books and materials. (See columns 3 and 11 in 
Table 54.) 



90 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Current Expense Cost per White Elementary Pupil 



91 



Cost of Cleaning, Heating, and Repairing Buildings Lower 

The cost in the average county for operation — ^cleaning and 
tieating buildings, $3.61, was 11 cents lower in 1928 than in 1927. 
The range in operation costs per white elementary pupil was 
from slightly over $5 in Kent and Montgomery to amounts less 
than $2 in Dorchester and Calvert. Considerable increases in 
expenditure for fuel over last year occurred in Caroline and 
Talbot, for janitors' wages in Cecil and St. Mary's, for all items 
of operation in Charles, and for "other costs of operation" in 
Washington. Decreases were found in Baltimore, Calvert, Dor- 
chester, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Wicom- 
ico. (See columns 4 and 12, Table 54.) 

Expenditure per pupil in the average county for maintenance 
of buildings was $1.72, nineteen cents less than the preceding 
year. Expenditures for the repair and upkeep of buildings 
naturally fluctuate from year to year. Expenditures varied from 
only 34 and 40 cents per pupil in Queen Anne's and Calvert, 
respectively, to $4.22 in Prince George's, and $5 in Montgomery. 
Caroline and Carroll Counties, each of which employs a man for 
repair work, show costs of $1.05 and $1.57 respectively. Mont- 
gomery employs a superintendent of buildings who supervises 
new construction, repairs and the physical care of the school 
plant. More emphasis is perhaps placed on the care of the build- 
ings in Montgomery than in any other county. (See columns 5 
and 13, Table 54.) 



Auxiliary Agencies Affect Cost 

From 1927 to 1928, the expense per pupil for auxiliary agen- 
cies, which include transportation of pupils, libraries, health, 
and community activities, increased by sixty cents, making the 
cost for these purposes for each white elementary pupil in the 
counties average $3.75. There was. more variation in these items 
than in any others reported. While Harford spent only 82 cents 
per pupil and Washington $1.32, Calvert at the opposite extreme 
put $11.89 into auxiliary agencies per pupil, Anne Arundel 
$9.74, Queen Anne's $8.62, and Caroline and Charles, each $7.38. 
Every county, except Baltimore, Montgomery, and Worcester, 
showed larger expenditures for auxiliary agencies in 1928 than 
in 1927. The greatest increases were found in Charles and St. 
Mary's Counties, both of which undertook a big program of 
transportation involved in the consolidation of a number of small 
one-teacher schools in new larger school buildings erected for the 
purpose of caring for these pupils more advantageously. (See 
columns 6 and 14 in Table 54.) 



92 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



In Table 55 expenditures for transportation, libraries and 
health are shown separately, together with the number of pupils 
transported and the cost per pupil transported, the expenditure 
per school and teacher for libraries, and per pupil for health. 
The counties appear in the order in which they rank in expendi- 
ture per pupil for auxiliary agencies in Table 54. (See 
column 14.) 

Pupils Transported and Cost of Transportation 

In 1928, there were 11,774 pupils transported to white ele- 
mentary schools at county expense. This was an increase of 
1,990 pupils over the number transported the year before. Every 
county, except Cecil and Washington, transported a larger num- 
ber of pupils in 1928 than in 1927. Harford provided transpor- 
tation for 53 white elementary pupils, Garrett for 101, St. 
Mary's for 119, and Wicomico for 122. At the opposite extreme 
Baltimore County transported 1,805 and Anne Arundel 1,783 
pupils to white elementary schools. 

The cost of transportation varied greatly. The lowest costs 
per pupil transported appeared in Baltimore and Montgomery 
Counties — $21.05 and $22.95 respectively. These counties own 
a large proportion of the busses used in transporting pupils. 
The highest costs per pupil transported appeared in Garrett 
County $64.74, Calvert $48.95, St. Mary's $47.05, Cecil $45.45, 
and Harford $41.72. The high costs in Calvert and St. Mary's 
are attributed in part to the gravel roads which are especially 
hard on tires. The motor boat used at Solomons in Calvert 
County is also expensive. Harford and Garrett are transporting 
small numbers of pupils. In the last named counties more 
experience with transportation contracts, a longer term of years 
for them, and larger vehicles will undoubtedly bring costs down 
to amounts found to be adequate in the majority of the counties. 
(See first three columns in Table 55 and also Table 145, page 
234.) 

Expenditures for Libraries 

For libraries, expenditures varied from nothing in Calvert 
County, and $20 in St. Mary's to relatively large amounts in 
Kent, Queen Anne's, Montgomery, and Wicomico Counties. The 
average expenditure per school from county funds was $10.31 
and per teacher $4.49. Kent spent over $45 per school and 
nearly $25 per teacher, Queen Anne's $30 per school and nearly 
$18 per teacher, Montgomery $39 per school and $14 per teacher, 
Wicomico $23 per school and nearly $12 per teacher. The fol- 
lowing counties — Calvert, St. Mary's, Washington, Frederick, 
Prince George's, Cecil, Dorchester, and Charles — spent less than 



Cost per White Elementary Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies 93 



TABLE 55 

Expenditures and Cost per Pupil for Auxiliary Agencies in Maryland 
County White Elementary Schools--- Year Ending July 31, 1928 





TRANSPORTATION 


LIBRARIES 


HEALTH 


COUNTY 


Pupils 
Trans- 
ported 


Amount 
Spent 


Cost per 
Pupil 
Trans- 
ported 


Total Ex- 
penditures 

for 
Libraries 


Amount 

per 
School 


Amount 

per 
Teacher 


Total Ex- 
penditures 
for 
Health 


Amount 
per 
Pupil 



Total and 
























i 


A VOT"0 (TO 


1 1 774 


t.'\'\7 7^6 










77? 




'Sin 






49 


Calvert 


167 


8,649 


60 


48 


95 
















Anne Arundel . . . 


1,783 


49,280 


00 


27 


64 




577 


37 


13 


43 


3 


63 


Queen Anne's . . . 


387 


13,270 


00 


34 


29 




990 


86 


30 


03 


17 


69 


Caroline 


591 


16,118 


00 


27 


27 




340 


39 


10 


64 


5 


06 


Charles 


412 


10,972 


00 


26 


63 




100 


86 


3 


15 


1 


89 


Talbot 


465 


11 ,679 


00 


25 


12 




155 


80 


7 


08 


2 


86 


Dorchester 


648 


15,955 


00 


24 


62 




164 


09 


3 


22 


1 


76 


Howard 


255 


9,914 


00 


38 


88 




160 


00 


4 


71 


2 


71 


St. Mary's 


119 


5,599 


00 


47 


05 




20 


00 




53 




43 


Worcester 


424 


11 ,675 


00 


27 


54 




248 


28 


6 


37 


3 


20 


Somerset 


364 


10,961 


00 


30 


11 




635 


00 


19 


84 


8 


39 


Kent 


152 


5,489 


00 


36 


11 


1, 


408 


70 


45 


44 


24 


93 


Carroll 


663 


17,712 


00 


27 


53 




980 


66 


10 


32 


5 


79 


Montgomery. . . . 


694 


15,926 


00 


22 


95 


2, 


310 


00 


39 


15 


14 


17 


Baltimore 


1,805 


37,857 


20 


21 


05 


1, 


645 


00 


18 


08 


4 


60 


Allegany 


763 


28,045 


00 


36 


77 




734 


34 


8 


96 


2 


26' 


Prince George's. . 


538 


15,120 


00 


26 


95 




268 


00 


3 


94 


1 


37 


Frederick 


684 


19,908 


40 


28 


83 




260 


00 


2 


48 


1 


15 


Cecil 


145 


6,743 


10 


45 


45 




150 


89 


2 


60 


1 


51 


Garrett 


101 


6,539 


00 


64 


74 




811 


06 


5 


83 


■1 


81 


Wicomico 


122 


4,300 


00 


35 


25 


1. 


250 


61 


23 


16 


11 


91 


Washington 


439 


13,680 


60 


31 


54 




255 


13 


2 


36 




84 


Harford 


53 


2,363 


70 


41 


72 




305 


00 


4 


55 


2 


43 



$15,302.69 

360 . 00 
1,540.00 



270.00 



11.50 



2,120.00 
3,065.00 
5,631.52 

352 54 
1,770.46 



176.67 
5.00 



$2 for libraries per teacher, hardly enough for the cost of one 
new book for each classroom for the year. Even with these small 
amounts, St. Mail's, Cecil, and Dorchester spent more for libra- 
ries in 1928 than they did in 1927. (See middle columns of 
Table 55.) 

There is probably variation among the counties in the method 
of reporting expenditures for school libraries. Undoubtedly 
some of the counties report this item under books, or under 
"Other Costs of Instruction." Recent reports of the N. E. A. 
and U. S. Bureau of Education on School Records and Reports 
recommend reporting libraries used in classrooms or for school 
purposes only, which are not open to the public, under instruc- 
tion costs. This is evidently done in several of the counties. No 
matter where expenditures for libraries are reported, however, 
they need to be made if the pupils are to capitalize and put to 
use the instruction in reading given in the elementary school. 



94 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Promotion of Health by County Boards of Education 

Expenditures for health activities are reported by Calvert, 
Anne Arundel, Caroline, Carroll, Montgomery, Baltimore, Alle- 
gany, Prince George's, Washington, and Harford Counties, al- 
though the amounts spent were very small in Harford, Somerset, 
Washington, Allegany, and Caroline. In four of the five coun- 
ties spending $1,500 or more the county Board of Education 
pays the salary of at least one full time nurse. These counties 
are Anne Arundel, Carroll, Montgomery, and Prince George's. 
Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director of the State Department of Health, 
reports that in these four counties the local or State health 
department supports one or more nurses in addition to those 
employed and paid by the School Board. The counties are dis- 
tricted and each nurse, whether paid by the School Board or by 
the Health Department, does school and general health work in 
her district. 

In no county in the State are nurses doing specialized work, 
i. e., there are no school nurses, tuberculosis nurses, child 
hygiene nurses. All are public health nurses which makes possible 
satisfactory nursing service for the county as a whole. It per- 
mits a maximum amount of work with a minimum personnel 
and expenditure of money. 

Every county in the State now has the service of at least one 
nurse. Since this information may not be known to the teachers 
and school ofRicials, the *list of nurses, together with their 
addresses and the means by which their salaries are financed is 
included here. 



County Name Address Source of Support 

Allegany ......Mar>' F. Ankeney Cumberland County Commissioners. 

Anna Hardy Cumberland Cumberland. 

Nela L. Woods Cumberland -...County Commissioners. 

Margaret Morrissey Cumberland State Dept. of Health and 

Cumberland. 

Connie Williams Cumberland. .Cumberland. 

Isabel le Thompson Mt. Savage State Dept. of Health. 

Rose C. Wright Cumberland Cumberland. 

Anne Arundel Sara S. Green _ Annapolis Red Cross, Md. T. B. Asso. 

Julia Kauffman Annapolis County School Board. 

Margaret C. Wohlgemuth.. Glen Burnie State Dept. of Health. 

Baltimore ..Marion Gibson Jikesville *=■' Baltimore County Public 

Health Asso. 

Lillian Hiss _ Catonsville First Dist. Public Health 

Asso. 

fCharlotte Stromberger _Essex. **Baltimore County Public 

Health Asso. 

Miriam C. Wesley Towson _ State Dept. of Health. 

Calvert .Frances E. Allen Prince Frederick -State Dept. of Health, Cal- 
vert Co., Md. T. B. Asso. 
Myrtle Patton ( Col.) .Prince Frederick State Dept. of Health, Na- 
tional Health Circle for 
Colored People. 



* Furnished by the courtesy of Dr. Robert H. Riley, Director, State Department of Health. 
** Baltimore County Commissioners contribute $3,000 each year for nursing work, 
t Deceased. 



Health Work in the Counties 



95 



County Name Address Source of Support 

Caroline...- H. Ruth Jackson.... Denton State Dept. of Health, Caro- 
line Co., Red Cross, Md. 
T. B. Asso. 

Carroll...- _ Emily Baechtel - Westminster State Dept. of Health. County 

Commissioners, Red Cross, 
Md. T. B. As.so. 

Maude N. Manahan .....Westminster County School Board. 

Cecil _ Elizabeth Yerger Elkton County Commissioners. Md. 

T. B. Asso. 

Charlea Bessie M. Gavit La Plata. State Dept. of Health. County 

Commissioners. 

Dorchester -.Elizabeth Hirst Cambridge County Commissioners, Md. 

T. B. Asso., Dorchester 
County. 

Frederick Martha Flynn ..Prederick State Dept. of Health. County 

Commissioners. 

Gould Leckie Frederick State Dept. of Health, County 

Commissioners. 

Florenca Gamer _ Frederick Associated Charities. 

Garrett. „Yolonda C. Cole Kitzmiller State Dept. of Health. County 

Commissioners. 

Rhesa King Oakland County Commissioners. 

Harford Louise MacConney Bel Air State Dept. of Health, County 

Commissioners. 

Mabel S. Yewell Bel Air Jled Cross. Md. T. B. Asso., 

County Commissioners. 

Howard...- Louise Sitler „ 1123 Madison Ave., Howard Co. Public Health 

Baltimore Asso. 

Eva Daley 1123 Madison Ave., Howard Co. Public Health 

Baltimoi-e Asso. 

Kent Margaret F. White .Chestertown...- County Commissioners, Pub- 
lic Health Asso., Md. T. B. 
Asso. 

Marjorie A. Forte - Chestertown State Dept. of Health. 

Montgomery Hermine Badenhoop Rockville County School Board. 

Mary A. Potter...- Rockville Social Service League, Md. 

T. B. Asso. 

Julia C.Foley _ JRockville County School Board, Stat© 

Dept. of Health. 

Prince George's Jennie Hartman JVIarlboro State Dept. of Health. 

Ruth Tighe Hyattsville County School Board. 

Queen Anne's. Mabel H. Resley Centreville. Stat« Dept. of Health. Cx)unty 

Commissioners. Md. T. B. 
Asso., Public Health Asso. 

Somerset.™ „..Ruth Yingling Crisfield State Dept. of Health, Md. 

T. B. Asso., Crisfield, and 
Rotary Club. 

St. Mary's _ Lillian Gardiner Leonardtown _ State Dept. of Health, County 

Commissioners, Md. T. B. 
Asso. 

Talbot -....Katherine Lee: Easton _ State Dept. of Health. 

Washington. Mrs. Isabell Hull _Hagerstown Washington County Public 

Health Asso. 

Ethel Middlekauff Hagerstown Washington County Public 

Health Asso. 

Helene Wingerd _..Hagersto\\Ti State Dept. of Health. 

Anna F. Diehl Hagerstovsn. County School Board. 

Wicomico...- Miss Pryor „ Salisbury „ .Welfare Association. 

Miss Fisher Salisbury Welfare Association. 

Worcester Mary Partrick _ Snow Hill State Dept. of Health. County 

Commissioners, Md. T. B. 
As.so.. Red Croes. 

Dr. Riley, Director of the State Department of Health, has 
furnished the following statement regarding the activities of the 
State in the promotion of public health. Since the work is so 
closely and vitally related to that of the school system, it is 
included here for the information of school olhcials and teachers. 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

"Maryland was one of the first states to organize a Department of 
Health covering the entire state. There are only five states in the 
Union that can claim priority in placing health on a high plane and 
assuming official responsibility for its promotion among all its people. 

"Legislative efforts in the direction of sanitary health government 
were begun in 1865 and the Department was established in 1874, to 
administer the sanitary laws of the State. It is particularly charged 
with the duty of preventing disease and promoting the public health 
of the citizens of the State. 

"The Director of Health is the administrative head of the State 
Department of Health and is the Chairman of the State Board of 
Health. He is appointed by the Governor for a term of six years. 
In addition to the Director there are seven other members, all of whom 
are appointed by the Governor, with the exception of the Commissioner 
of Health of Baltimore City and the Attorney-General, who are ex- 
officio members. The terms of the Governor's appointees are six years. 
The membership of the Board shall consist of four physicians, a civil 
engineer, a pharmacist, in addition to the ex-officio members. The 
Board exercises executive, legislative, and judicial functions. 

"The work of the department is administered by the Director at the 
Central Office, 2411 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, through the following 
bureaus and divisions: 

Bureau of Sanitary Engineering — Abel Wolman, Director. 
Bureau of Child Hygiene — Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, Director. 
Bureau of Chemistry — W. W. Randall. 
Bureau of Bacteriology — Herbert C. Ward. 
Bureau of Foods and Drugs — A. L. Sullivan. 
Bureau of Vital Statistics — Dr. John Collinson. 
Division of Legal Administration — J. Davis Donovan. 
Division of Personnel and Accounts — Walter N. Kirkman. 

and through the field officers: deputy and assistant deputy State health 
officers, county health officers, and nurses. 

"In nine of the counties full-time county health officers or deputy 
State health officers have been employed jointly by the State Depart- 
ment of Health and the County Commissioners. In the remaining 
fourteen counties, health activities are under the immediate direction 
of deputy State health officers who are also full time and are available 
for any demands made upon them by the school authorities. In addi- 
tion to this there are forty-eight nurses who are ready to go into the 
schools when the need arises, it being understood always that they go 
only when requested by the superintendent of schools and through the 
health officer under whom they work. 

"The public health nursing work is financed differently in the various 
counties. The sources from which the financial support comes include 
county commissioners, school boards, the State Department of Health, 
Red Cross Organizations, the Maryland Tuberculosis Association 
through the sale of Christmas Seals, and county public health asso- 
ciations. 

"The school boards of four counties are now budgeting with the 
local and State health officials for conducting health work in the 
schools. This joint carrying of the responsibility for health supervision 
promises to be the solution of the proper allocation of this function. 
It seems to be the most economical method. The county health officers 
or the deputy State health officers and nurses upon request from school 
boards are doing health work in the public schools of all the counties 
except Baltimore County. 

"There are in Maryland many inter-related responsibilities of the 
State Department of Education and the State Department of Health. 



Work of State and County Health Departments 



97 



The compulsory vaccination requirement is a very good example of a 
law M'hose successful enforcement rests largely on the cooperation of 
the two departments. Both departments have very large responsibili- 
ties in the education of the school child in the home and in the class- 
room. 

*'It is believed by health authorities that one of their most important 
functions is the medical examination of school children in cooperation 
with the school authorities. It is very largely within the powder of the 
medical inspector to obviate defects, deformities, and disease during 
the early period of school life so that a breakdown may be prevented 
during the later years of compulsory school attendance. The control 
of incipient diseases, such as tuberculosis and heart disease, becomes 
of the utmost importance when cure or relief of these conditions depends 
upon their early detection. Furthermore, by affording attention to the 
general physical health of school children, there is an opportunity 
for increasing the vitality of the growing generation. In the course of 
school inspection the advice given to families tends to lessen develop- 
ment of defects in future school children. Medical inspection aids the 
community in securing health as the first wealth. The number of 
examinations of county school children made by the health officers is 
increasing each year, 

"The two State Departments are agreed that the safest and surest 
way to start a child on the road to success and usefulness is to develop 
his body properly and furnish him with every opportunity and condition 
for good health and a well-rounded physical growth. 

"There was a time when schools closed on the first appearance of an 
epidemic. This has all changed in Maryland. Nothing short of an 
epidemic, such as that which swept the country in 1918, would inter- 
fere substantially with the school attendance. This has all been 
brought about as the result of the cooperation between the school 
boards and the local health authorities. It is entirely possible for the 
school authorities to continue school sessions even in the presence of 
epidemics. Indeed it is more desirable, since, with proper medical and 
school supervision, children are under far better control at school than 
they are outside the school, in homes, stores, 'movies,' etc. 

"The mere enumeration of defects of school children is suggestive 
but valueless, unless fortified by some follow^-up plan which will bring 
about a correction of defects noted. This can best be done by the public 
health nurse who is known to the children and to the parents and who 
can persuade them of the necessity of improving the child's health by 
having corrections made. Both Departments, too, are in entire sym- 
pathy with the following paragraphs: 

" 'Public schools are a public trust. When the parent delivers his 
child to their care he has a right to insist that the child under the 
supervision of the school authorities shall be safe from harm and shall 
be handed back to him in at least as good condition as when it entered 
school. Even if the parent does not insist upon it, the child himself 
has a right to claim protection. The child has a claim upon the state 
and the state a claim upon the child which demands recognition. 

" 'Education without health is useless. It would be better to sacrifice 
the education if, in order to attain it, the child must lay down his good 
health as a price. 

" 'Education must comprehend the whole man and the whole man 
is built fundamentally on what he is physically.' 

"Just as important and probably of more value to the individual 
child is the campaign of the State Health Department to prepare the 
pre-school child for entrance into school. In this way conditions that 
need correction may be discovered and corrected before the child starts 
to school. At these examination centers particular attention is given 



98 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



to the weight, heart, lungs, vision, hearing, throat, nose, and teeth, 
because of their important bearing upon the general health of the 
child and upon his freedom from, or susceptibility to, disease. 

"In 1927 there were examined by the Department 6,725 babies and 
young children in the counties of Maryland. Over one-half of that 
number were between four and seven years of age. There were 419 
conferences for this purpose in connection with which 267 places were 
visited. 

'*0f the 6,725 children examined, more than one-fourth were in need 
of dental attention, 1,818 having decayed teeth. Unfavorable throat 
and nose conditions came next, 1,321 having enlarged tonsils and 332 
infected tonsils. Adenoids were found to be present in one out of every 
ten, and 268 were mouth breathers. 

"Nearly one-seventh, 908, were underweight and 14 overweight. 
Unfavorable heart conditions were found in 82, and lung conditions 
below par in 62. Bone changes due to rickets were observed in 471, 
and faulty posture in 116. Vision was defective in 75. Mental retarda- 
tion was found in 32. Hearing was impaired in 39 and diseased con- 
ditions of the ears in 46. 

"Over two-thirds of the older children, 2,049, had not been vaccinated 
against smallpox, and the parents were notified that in accordance with 
the Maryland law children could not be admitted to school until they 
were vaccinated. 

"There remains much to be accomplished in this direction and if the 
good relations can be maintained and as full-time health officers are 
added in the counties, the health of the pre-school and school child 
will be much better safeguarded." 

Graded Schools Cost Less Per Pupil Than Rural Schools 

Chiefly because of small classes, current expense was generally 
highest per pupil in one-teacher schools, somewhat less in two- 
teacher schools, and least of all in graded schools. Unfortunately 
the schools which are the least effective are actually the most 
expensive to maintain. Excluding cost of general control and 
supervision, the cost per pupil in one-teacher schools was $50.13, 
in two-teacher schools $48.94, and in graded schools $44.66. 
These amounts were higher than in 1927 by $1.56 in one-teacher 
schools, by 47 cents in two-teacher schools, and by 34 cents per 
pupil in graded schools. In seven counties — Kent, Baltimore, 
Garrett, Frederick, Harford, Cecil, and Washington, the one- 
teacher schools were relatively most expensive and the graded 
schools least costly per pupil belonging. In eight counties — 
Montgomery, Prince George's, Caroline, Somerset, Talbot, Dor- 
chester, Wicomico, and Howard — the cost per pupil in two- 
teacher schools was higher than in one-teacher schools. In 
Queen Anne's, Anne Arundel, Allegany, and Worcester, the 
graded schools cost more than the two-teacher schools. In 
Charles, St. Mary's, and Carroll the two-teacher schools cost 
least per pupil and the graded schools most. In Calvert the two- 
teacher schools were most costly and the one-teacher schools 
were the least expensive. (See Table 56.) See Tables XXVII 
to XXIX, pages 329 to 331, for disbursements in these three 
types of schools. 



Cost per Pupil in Rural and Graded Schools 



99 



TABLE 56 



Cost Per Pupil Belonj^inji in One-Teacher, Two-Teacher and Graded 
Schools for Year Ending July 31, 192S, Exclusive of Expenditures for 
General Control, Supervision and Fixed enlarges 





One- 




Two- 








Teacher 




Teacher 




Graded 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 


County 


Schools 



County Average. . $50 


.13 


Kent 


72 


V i 


Anne Arundel. . . 


63 


91 


Baltimore 


61 




Allegany 


61 


70 


Garrett 


60 


27 


Prince George's. 


56 


64 


Montgomery . . . 


55 


81 


Worcester 


54 


84 


Queen Anne's . . . 


54 


19 


Cecil 


49 


56 


Talbot 


49 


20 


Calvert 


48 


15 


Howard 


47 


11 


Dorcliester 


46 


76 


Caroline 


46 


19 




45 


95 


Carroll 


45 


65 




45 


20 


Wicomico 


44 


12 


St. Mary's 


43 


64 


Harford 


43 


15 


Washington .... 


42 


49 


Frederick 


41 


31 



County Average. $48. 94 

Calvert 65.01 

Montgomery.... 64.95 

Kent 61.12 

Baltimore 57 .00 

Prince George's. . 56.83 

Howard 53.32 

Talbot 53.23 

Wicomico 51.04 

Dorchester 49 . 97 

Anne Arundel. . . 49.62 

Allegany 48.08 

Queen Anne's. . . 47.86 

Carohne 47.43 

Cecil 46.53 

Somerset 46.11 

Garrett 44.59 

Worcester 42.92 

Washington 4 1 . 54 

Carroll 41.25 

St. Mary's 41.13 

Frederick 40.39 

Harford 39.44 

Charles 37.94 



County Average . $44 . 66 

St. Mary's 91 .64 

Calvert 63.94 

Queen Anne's. . . 52.91 

Charles 52.90 

Montgomery .... 51 . 57 

Anne Arundel. . . 50.13 

Kent 49.33 

Carroll 48.49 

Allegany 48.35 

Prince George's. . 46 . 27 

Baltimore 45.04 

Caroline 44.70 

Garrett 43.82 

Talbot 43.75 

Worcester 43 . 55 

Cecil 42.67 

Somerset 42 . 64 

Dorchester 41.09 

Howard 40.81 

Wicomico 40.40 

Frederick 39.07 

Harford 37.59 

Washington 36.29 



Capital Outlay Expenditures 

The average expenditure per white elementary school pupil for 
capital outlay in 1928 was $9.46. Nothing was spent in Calvert 
and Worcester, and less than $1.00 per pupil in Carroll, Kent, 
and Wicomico. A different policy was in evidence in I\lont- 
gomery which invested $50 per pupil in land and buildings, Tal- 
bot $25, Charles $21, Prince George's $19, St. Mary's $15, Balti- 
more $l:>, and Frederick $10. (See columns 8 and IG in 
Table 51.) See Table 1 18, page 2:)9, for capital outlay expend- 
itures in the various types of white elementarv schools. 



100 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



SIZE OF COUNTY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Largely due to the reduction in one-teacher schools there were 
only 1,336 public school buildings in use for white elementary 
school pupils in 1928. Of these 824 were schools having only 
one teacher and 228 having two teachers. There were 98 schools 
having staffs sufficiently large to permit organizing classes on 
the basis of one-teacher to a grade. 

There are just three counties having over 100 schools — Gar- 
rett with 139, of which 122 have only one teacher, Washington 
with 108, of which 67 have but one teacher, and Frederick with 
105, of which 64 are one-teacher schools. Carroll, which had 
over 105 last year reduced the number by 10 to 95. Nearly one- 
half of the counties have fewer than 44 white elementary schools, 
Talbot and Calvert having only 22 and 23, respectively. (See 
Table 57.) 



TABLE 57 

Number of White Elementary Schools Having Following Number of 

Teachers, School Year 1927-1928 



WHITE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAVING FOLLOWING 
NUMBER OF TEACHERS 



COUNTY 


• Less 






1 


\n 

1 


to 

1 


t- 

1 


00 

1 


C5 

1 


o 
1—1 

1 


1—) 

1 


1 


eo 

1 


•<*' 

1 


in 

1 


1 


1 


00 

1 


05 

1 


o 

1 


o 

IM 
li 


Total 




o 


1 


1 


eo 


1-1 
■«t 


id 




1— ( 
t> 


.— I 
00 


1—1 
oi 


d 




c<i 


CO 






to 


t> 


00 


05 


> 

o 




Total 


824 


228 


83 


49 


24 


3C 


22 


19 


xl5 


9 


5 


6 




4 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1 


1 


7 


1,336 


Allegany 


^36 


14 


4 


4 


2 


8 


2 


2 


3 


2 




1 






1 


1 










2 


a82 


Anne Arundel 


15 
29 


9 


6 


3 


2 


1 


2 




1 


1 




1 






1 












1 


43 


Baltimore 


25 


9 


5 


2 


2 


2 


' 2 




3 


1 


1 




1 




2 




1 




1 


1 


b9l 


Calvert 


19 


3 




1 




































23 


Caroline 


18 
69 
41 


5 


" 4 


1 


1 


2 


1 






























32 


Carroll 


11 


3 


2 


2 


4 


3 




1 


























95 


Cecil 


11 


1 


1 




1 


1 


' 1 




1 






















58 


Charles 


23 
t35 
64 
122 
41 
23 
20 
25 
29 
22 
30 
19 
12 
67 
37 
28 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 






























32 


Dorchester 


t7 
21 


3 


3 






1 


1 


1 


























51 


Frederick 


7 


5 




1 


1 


2 


1 




1 






1 






1 










105 


Garrett 


9 


5 


1 




2 




























139 




16 


5 


1 


1 




1 


1 














1 














67 


Howard 


6 


2 


2 






1 


























34 


Kent 


5 


3 


' 1 




1 




1 




























31 


Montgomery 


18 

tm5 

5 


2 


3 


4 


1 


1 


2 




1 




1 




1 
















59 


Prince George's 


10 

5 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


' 1 


1 


2 






1 












68 


Queen Anne's 












1 


























33 


St. Mary's 


7 




1 




































38 


Somerset 


6 


2 


3 








1 






















1 






32 


Talbot 


3 




3 


2 


1 






1 


























22 


Washington 


17 

*6 


' 6 


4 


2 


3 


] 


2 


1 






1 




1 














3 


108 


Wicomico 


4 


3 






2 


1 


1 
























54 


Worcester 


5 


1 




1 


1 


2 








1 




















39 













































a Excludes 9.3 special teachers. 

b Includes Playground Athletic League teachers. 

t Includes one or two room school with a graded organization. 

* Excludes Salisbury Normal Elementary School. 

X Excludes Towson Normal Elementary School. 



Size of White Elementary Schools, One-Teacher Schools 101 

The first row in Table 57 gives a distribution of the schools 
of various sizes in the counties — and similar information is 
available for each county. The last column shows the total num- 
ber of white elementary schools in each county. (See Table 57.) 

A reduction of 75 in one-teacher schools in 1928 brought the 
number to 823. Slightly over one-fourth of the white elemen- 
tary school teaching staff, 26.8 per cent, is teaching in one- 
teacher schools having all of the elementary grades. There has 
been a gradual reduction each year since 1920 when 39 per cent 
of the white elementary teaching staff were in charge of schools 
in which they were the only teacher of all of the elementary 
grades. There are 348 fewer one-teacher schools in 1928 than 
there were in 1920. (See Table 58.) 



TABLE 58 



Decrease in White One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1928 





White Elementary Teachers 


School Year Ending June 30 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


2,992 


1,171 


39.1 


1921 


3,037 


1,149 


37.8 


1922 


3,054 


1,124 


36.8 


1923 


3,063 


1,093 


35.7 


1924 


3,065 


1,055 


34.4 


1925 


3,047 


1,005 


33.0 


1926 


3,067 


956 


31.2 


1927 


3,088 


898 


29.1 


1928 


3,070 


823 


26.8 



Reference to the results of State-wide tests in reading given in 
all of the schools in October, 1927, and May, 1928, indicates that 
a much smaller percentage of pupils in one-teacher schools than 
in any other type do work considered standard for progressive 
school systems. From the point of view of improving the 
achievements of pupils in the school subjects, the abandonment 
of the one-teacher schools is to be heartily welcomed. (See 
Tables 1 to 5 and Charts 1 to 3, pages 13 to 22.) 



102 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The greatest reductions in one-teacher schools appeared in 
Charles and Frederick Counties — each of which had 12 fewer in 
1928 than in 1927. Carroll had 8 fewer, Anne Arundel 7, and 
Caroline 6 fewer one-teacher schools than they had the year 
before. Baltimore, Allegany, St. Mary's and Garrett each 
decreased the number of one-teacher schools by 4. Garrett, Cal- 
vert, and St. Mary's still have from one-half to two-thirds of 
their teachers and pupils working in one-teacher schools. In 
Charles, Carroll, and Cecil Counties, 42 per cent of the teachers 
and from a third to three-eighths of the pupils are in one-teacher 
schools. There are still 20,329 pupils, 20 per cent of the county 
white enrollment in one-teacher schools. Garrett has over 2,200 
pupils and Talbot, which has the smallest number, has 313. 
(See Table 59.) 



TABLE 59 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers and Pupils in White One-Teacher 
Elementary Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1928. 





Teachers in 


Pupils 


in 




Teachers in 


Pupils 


in 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




One-Teacher 


One-Teacher 




Schools 


Schools 




Schools 


Schools 


County 










County 










Num- 


Per 


♦Num- 


Per 




Num- 


Per 


*Num- 


Per 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 




ber 


Cent 


ber 


Cent 


Total and Average . 823 


26.8 


20,329 


20.1 


Wicomico 


37 


35.2 


1,094 


30.5 










Kent 


20 


35.4 


373 


24.9 


Baltimore 


30 


8.4 


985 


6.7 


Worcester .... 


28 


36.1 


606 


25.8 


Anne Arundel . . 


. 14 


8.9 


320 


5.8 


Dorchester 


34 


36.6 


779 


26.9 


Allegany 


36 


11.0 


803 


7.3 


Howard 


23 


39.0 


617 


33.2 


Prince George's . 


. 29 


14.8 


707 


11.0 


Queen Anne's . 


. 22 


39.3 


510 


30.6 


Montgomery . . . 


. 25 


15.3 


722 


13.7 


Cecil 


42 


41 .7 


1,062 


33.8 


Talbot 


12 


22.0 


313 


16.7 


Carroll 


71 


41.9 


1,873 


37.5 


Washington 


67 


22.2 


1,762 


16.5 


Charles 


22 


41.9 


492 


32.5 


Somerset 


19 


25.1 


528 


21.8 


St. Mary's 


29 


62.2 


633 


55,6 


Caroline 


17 


25.9 


451 


19.8 


Calvert 


19 


65.5 


496 


60,6 


Frederick 


64 


28.2 


1,817 


23.9 


Garrett 


120 


71.2 


2,222 


58.6 


Harford 


43 


33.8 


1,164 


28.9 













* Average number belonging. 

JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Since two of the counties, Allegany and Montgomery, are com- 
mitted to the establishment of junior high schools, data summar- 
ized by counties for the schools which now exist and the form of 
organization are included in Table XXX, page 332. 

The Allegany County High School in Cumberland is now a 
senior high school providing courses for only the last three years 
of high school work — Grades 10, 11, and 12. The Green Street 
Junior High School in Cumberland has only grades 7, 8, and 9, 
and most of the remaining elementary schools in Cumberland 
have only the first six grades of work. 



One-Teacher Schools, Junior High Schools 



103 



The Pennsylvania Avenue School in Cumberland, however, has 
all grades of work — from the first to the twelfth inclusive, the 
grades above the sixth appearing as a junior-senior type of 
organization. Similar conditions are found at Oldtown, Barton, 
Lonaconing, Midland, and Frostburg. 

At Westernport the work in the elementary grades 1 to 6 is 
provided for by an organization separate from that for the 
junior-senior high school, grades 7-12, which are housed in a 
separate building under another principal. 

In these junior high schools there is an extension of the de- 
partmental plan of w^ork to the regular subjects and also manual 
training, home economics, music, and physical education are 
offered by the special teachers of these subjects who formerly 
taught only pupils in grades 9-12. 

Montgomery County has also started its first junior-senior 
high school at Bethesda in which grades 7-12 are to be under a 
single organization. The school has been established so recently 
that only grades 7 to 11 are at present provided for. Montgom- 
ery is taking the first steps toward the 6-3-3 plan of organization 
in this school. The rest of its schools are organized on the 7-4 
plan. Proximity to Washington, which has the 6-3-3 type of 
organization, has no doubt influenced the county authorities. 
There is little doubt but that the plan will later be extended to 
other schools in the county. The program in this school has been 
greatly enriched. 

Ten years ago Baltimore City established the first junior high 
school. The tenth anniversary of this organization was recently 
celebrated at the school originally organized on the junior high 
school plan. The majority of the Baltimore City elementary 
schools have only six grades, although a few in outlying districts 
still have eight grades. There are 11 white and 3 colored junior 
high schools having only grades 7 to 9. There is one white and 
one colored junior-senior high school, but the teaching staff and 
organization for the junior school when housed in the same 
building with a senior school is kept separate and distinct from 
that of the senior school. The senior high schools have grades 
9-12, although the enrollment in grade 9 is very small, recruited 
as it is from the elementary schools near the outskirts of the 
city which continue to house grades 7 and 8 with the first six 
grades. 

By concentrating the pupils from many schools in these few 
centers, it is possible to classify pupils according to ability groups 
and to offer a greater variety of courses than would be possible 
w^ere pupils to continue the work of grades 7 and 8 in the local 
elementarj^ schools near their homes. 

The teachers in Baltimore City junior high schools have a 
salary schedule intei-mediate between that in force for elemen- 
tary schools and the one used in high schools. 



104 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



HIGH SCHOOLS CONTINUE TO ATTRACT MORE PUPILS 

The enrollment in county white high schools, 21,811, in 1928 
was 7 per cent higher than the preceding year, while the attend- 
ance, 19,080, showed an increase of 1,576, or 9 per cent over 1927. 
(See Chart 17 and Table 60.) The enrollment in 1928 is over 
three times the enrollment in 1916 and attendance is three and 
one-third times as great as the corresponding figures in the 
earlier year. 

TABLE 60 



Enrollment and Attendance in Approved White County High Schools 

of Maryland, 1916-1928 



Year Ending 
July 31 


Enroll- 
ment 


Average 
Attend- 
ance 


Annual Increase 


Per Cent of 
Increase 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


Enroll- 
ment 


Attend- 
ance 


1916 


7,000 


5,804 


787 


528 


12.6 


10.0 


1917 


7,567 


6,327 


567 


523 


8.1 


9.0 


1918 


7,936 


6,477 


369 


150 


4.9 


2.4 


1919 


8,302 


6,685 


366 


208 


4.6 


3.2 


1920 


9,392 


7,798 


1,090 


1,113 


13.1 


16.7 


1921 


10,900 


9,294 


1,508 


1,496 


16.1 


19.2 


1922 


12,815 


11,188 


1,915 


1,894 


17.6 


20.4 


1923 


14,888 


12,716 


2,073 


1,528 


16.2 


13.7 


1924 


16,026 


13,696 


1,138 


980 


7.6 


7.7 


1925 


17,453 


14,982 


1,427 


1,286 


8.9 


9.4 


1926 


19,003 


16,218 


1,550 


1,236 


8.9 


8.2 


1927 


20,358 


17,504 


1,355 


1,286 


7.1 


7.9 


1928 


21,811 


19,080 


1,453 


1,576 


7.1 


9.0 



Per cent of attendance has increased steadily in the county 
white high schools. In 1928 the per cent was 93.6. The range 
was from 91.4 per cent in St. Mary's to 95.8 per cent in Wicomico. 
To have the lowest county with an attendance so high is grati- 
fying. The greatest increase in per cent of attendance appeared 
in Calvert County, which ranked third, with 95.3 per cent. De- 
creases under 1927 occurred in Charles, Anne Arundel, Har- 
ford, and St. Mary's Counties. (See Table 61.) 

The ratio of number attending county high schools to number 
attending high and elementary schools combined is higher in 
both counties and city than at any other time. Of every 100 
white attendants in county schools, 17 were in high school and 



Growth in County High School Enrollment 

CHART 17 
OOWTH IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



105 



6.213 
7,000 
7,567 




7,936 



8.302 
10,900 




12.815 



14,888 
16,026 
17,453 




19.003 



1914- 1915 

1915- 1916 

1916- 1917 

1917- 1918 

191S-1919 

1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 

1924- 1925 

1925- 1926 

1926- 1927 

1927- 1926 



TABLE 61 

Per Cent of Attendance in White High Schools, 1923-1928 



County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County Average . . 


. 91 


9 


92 


6 


93 


2 


93 


6 


Anne Arundel 


92 


1 


93 


9 


93 


7 


93 


1 




















Queen Anne's . . . . 


91 


9 


92 


3 


91 


6 


93 


1 


Wicomico 


92 


3 


94 


5 


95 


2 


95 


8 


Somerset 


91 


4 


93 


1 


91 


8 


93 


1 


Allegany 


94 


8 


95 


2 


95 


4 


95 


4 


Garrett 


90 


2 


92 


7 


92 


5 


92 


5 


Calvert 


93 


5 


90 


8 


92 


3 


95 


3 


Montgomery 


88 


9 


90 


4 


92 





92 


4 


Talbot 


93 


2 


93 


3 


94 


6 


94 


9 


Cecil 


92 





92 


3 


92 





92 


3 


Washington 


93 


1 


93 


1 


94 


1 


94 


9 


Kent 


90 


2 


91 


1 


91 


3 


92 


3 


Dorchester 


92 


4 


93 


.5 


93 


9 


94 


2 


Carroll 


88 


7 


91 





91 


3 


91 


8 


Frederick 


91 


5 


92 


4 


93 


8 


94 


1 


Howard 


89 


9 


89 


8 


91 


3 


91 


8 


Worcester 


91 


7 


92 


1 


93 


1 


93 


9 


Harford 


91 


2 


91 


5 


91 


7 


91 


6 


Charles 


88 


7 


92 


4 


95 


4 


93 


8 


St. Mary's 


86 


8 


95 


1 


93 


3 


91 


4 


Prince George's. . 


91 


8 


91 


.8 


93 


2 


93 


7 


















Caroline 


91 


2 


92 


5 


92 


9 


93 


6 


Baltimore City . . . 


. 91 


5 


91 


8 


*92 


8 


*92 


8 




91 


3 


91 


8 


92 


4 


93 


2 




































State Average 


91 


6 


92 


3 


92 


9 


93 


2 



♦Excludes the 9th prrade of Junior Hi^h Schools — 91.9 for 192S. 

83 in elementary school. If every one went through hi^h school 
in our counties having' seven grades in the elementary school 
course, the saturation point would be perhaps 33 in high school 
and 67 in elementary school. We therefore have on the average 
one-half of the total population of high school age actually in 



106 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



attendance. It is quite impossible for the large number of 
small high schools in the counties to offer a sufficient variety 
of courses to meet the interests and needs of the entire group 
of boys and girls of high school age. (See Chart 18.) 



CHART 18 

THE NUI/BER OF FUPIIS ATTEUDHIG WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 
FOR EVERY 100 WHITE PUPILS ATTEITOING SCHOOIS 
IN THE COUMTES AM) BALTLvIORE CnT 
1917 - 1928 



Maryland Counties 



Baltimore City 



1917-1918 



1918-1919 WKKUKKKKO/mK^IKBSSk 



1919- 1920 

1920- 1921 

1921- 1922 

1922- 1923 

1923- 1924 



V/////////////////////////////////////^^^ \Z.\'X 

1924- 1925 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i^^r 

1925- 1926 



1926- 1927 

1927- 1928 




For the individual counties similar data are furnished regard- 
ing ratio of number belonging in white high schools to number 
belonging in high and elementary schools combined. Every 
county shows increases over 1927 except Dorchester, which 
showed a slight decrease, and Anne Arundel, which remained 
stationary. The range is from a ratio of 12.9 in St. Mary's to 
one of 23.5 in Kent. The greatest increase appears in Charles 
County, largely due to the opening of two new public high 
schools at La Plata and Hughesville. As heretofore, the nine 
Eastern Shore counties head the list of counties. (See Table 
62.) 



Lafger Proportion of Pupils Going to High School 



107 



TABLE 62 

Ratio of "Number Belonging" in White High Schools to "Number Belong- 
ing" in White Elementary and High Schools Combined by Counties 



County 1924 1927 1928 County 1924 1927 1928 



County Average. . . . 


13 


.3 


15 


9 


16 


.8 


Charles 


5 


5 


10 


6 


17 


8 














Frederick 


14 


9 


17 


1 


17 


4 


Kent 


15 


2 


21 


2 


23 


5 


Allegany 


13 


5 


15 


6 


16 


5 


Talbot 


18 


7 


20 


8 


23 


3 


Prince George's 


11 


6 


15 





16 


2 


Worcester 


18 


9 


21 


9 


22 


3 


Howard 


12 


7 


16 


1 


16 


2 


Somerset 


15 


2 


20 





21 


5 


Calvert 


15 


5 


15 


2 


15 


5 


Wicomico 


19 


9 


20 





20 


8 


Anne Arundel 


10 


2 


14 


2 


14 


2 


Queen Anne's 


18 


3 


19 





19 


5 


Baltimore 


11 





13 


4 


14 


1 


Dorchester 


16 


7 


20 


1 


19 


3 


Garrett 


8 


4 


11 


9 


13 


9 


Caroline 


18 


8 


18 


7 


19 


1 


Washington 


11 


1 


12 


2 


13 


1 


Cecil 


14 


3 


15 


6 


18 


5 


St. Mary's 


3 





11 





12 


9 


Harford 


14 


8 


17 





18 


2 












Montgomery 


13 


9 


17 


7 


18 





Baltimore City 


9 


7 


13 


3 


13 


8 


Carroll 


13 


7 


17 





17 


9 






























Total State 


11 


8 


14 


8 


15 


5 



TABLE 63 



Number of Boys in High School for Every 100 Girls 



COUNTY 


1922 


1924 


1926 


1927 


1928 


County Average 


74 


3 


76 


.2 


78 


.6 


78 


.7 


79.8 


Howard 


56 


8 


63 


1 


87 





88 


9 


89.6 


Montgomery 


63 


7 


76 


7 


90 


9 


88 


2 


86.2 


Talbot 


79 


7 


78 





79 


5 


81 


6 


86.1 


Carroll 


72 





74 


2 


83 


8 


82 





84.5 


Frederick 


85 


5 


84 


8 


89 


9 


85 


7 


84.4 


Baltimore 


79 


2 


87 


4 


85 


2 


82 


7 


84.3 


Anne Arundel 


75 


5 


60 


1 


82 


6 


81 


3 


82.7 


Prince George's 


74 


8 


77 


8 


80 


2 


76 


2 


81 .5 


Charles 


82 


8 


69 


4 


89 


6 


99 





80.5 


Somerset 


82 


1 


86 


1 


74 


2 


72 





80.5 


Worcester 


63 


4 


67 


3 


69 


6 


73 


5 


80.5 


Dorchester 


78 


6 


71 


7 


74 


/ 


78 





80.4 


Harford 


66 


2 


84 


8 


72 


5 


80 


8 


80.2 


Wicomico 


72 


5 


68 


6 


66 


3 


67 


8 


79.9 


Washington 


94 


6 


87 


6 


81 


2 


82 





78.0 


Cecil 


85 





74 


2 


69 


4 


76 


7 


76.8 


Kent 


68 


5 


75 


7 


69 


4 


69 


3 


76.4 


St. Mary's 






96 


6 


68 


5 


82 


4 


76.2 


Caroline 


68 





69 


4 


68 


o 


76 


4 


72.5 


Garrett 


76 


5 


78 


5 


/ 


7 


68 


3 


72.4 


Allegany 


61 


9 


67 


7 


75 


7 


75 


1 


71 .9 


Queen Anne's 


61 


8 


68 





63 





65 


5 


66 9 


Calvert 


77 


6 


71 


8 


59 


1 


67 


7 


62 



108 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



RATIO OF BOYS TO GIRLS IN HIGH SCHOOLS 

The steady increase in the ratio of boys to girls in white high 
schools continued, there being 79.8 boys for every 100 girls, an 
increase of 1.1 boys over last year. The range ran from 62 
high school boys for every 100 high school girls in Calvert 
to 90 in Howard, at the top of the list. Although the coun- 
ties as a group increased the ratio of boys, nine counties de- 
creased the ratio of the preceding year. Calvert, Allegany, 
Caroline, St. Mary's, and Washington, all of which have fewer 
than 79 boys for every 100 girls, decreased the ratio of boys 
to girls under 1927. There were also decreases in Harford, 
Charles, Frederick, and Montgomery. Charles had almost equal 
numbers of boys and girls in 1927, so that a drop was to be 
expected. Large increases over 1927 occurred in Talbot, Prince 
George's, Somerset, Worcester, Wicomico, and Kent. Howard, 
Talbot, Carroll, and Worcester have made steady increases each 
year since 1922 in the ratio of boys to girls. (See Table 63.) 



NEARLY 3,000 GRADUATES FROM FOUR YEAR COUNTY HIGH 

SCHOOLS 

In 1928 there were 2,993 graduates from the four-year course 
in county high schools, 106 more than the preceding year. Of 
these, 1,142 were boys and 1,851 girls. (See Table 64.) 



TABLE 64 

Four-Year White High School Graduates in Maryland Counties, 

1919 to 1928 



Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Annual 
Increase 


1919 


323 


681 


1 .004 




1920 


378 


772 


1 .150 


146 


1921 


470 


893 


1.363 


213 


1922 


599 


1.034 


1.633 


270 


1923 


686 


1,267 


1 ,953 


320 


1924 


813 


1 ,405 


2.218 


265 


1925 


929 


1 ,610 


2,539 


321 


1926 


1 ,045 


1 ,574 


2.619 


80 


1927 


1 ,071 


1 ,816 


2.887 


268 


1928 


1 ,142 


1,851 


2,993 


106 



More High School Boys and Boy and Girl Graduates 

CHART 19 



109 



HDMBES OF BOYS AND GIHIS QlAimTED FRCM WHITE HIGB SCHOOLS 



1928 



County 


1927 


IVco 




340 


364 




302 


311 


Washinfirton 


251 


266 


ftt* 4 p V 


217 


242 




1B6 


171 




109 


158 




157 


149 


ffl A W 11 A 


143 


140 


Worcester 


113 


140 


BELrford 


135 


129 


Anne Arundel 


130 


111 




97 


105 


T&lbot 


88 


98 


Garrett 


76 


90 


Somerset 


84 


89 


Dorchester 


138 


86 


Caroline 


80 


72 


Kent 


56 


70 


Queen Anne's 


71 


61 


Charles 


16 


55 


Howird 


51 


42 


Calvert 


25 


23 


St. Mary's 


22 


21 



134 


230 1 


106 


203 1 



101 1 


165 1 


107 


1 135 1 




19 



Nearly one-half of the counties decreased the number of grad- 
uates in 1928 under the number in 1927, while the remainder 
showed increases. Carroll, Harford, and Howard, Prince 
George's, Anne Arundel, Calvert, and St. Mary's, Wicomico, 
Dorchester, Caroline, and Queen Anne's had fewer graduates in 
1928 than in 1927. Montgomery, Charles, Frederick, and 
Worcester had considerable increase in the number of graduates 
in 1928. St. Mary's County is the only one in which the num- 
ber of boys graduated exceeded the number of girls. (See 
Chart 19.) 



For data on individual high schools, see Table XXXIV, pages 336 to 341. 



110 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 20 ^ 



County 
Ifetal and 
Co. Average 

Charles 

Washington 

Allegany 

Worcester 
Talbot 

Kent 
Cecil 
Garrett 
Frederick 
Queen Anne's 

Calvert 

Mantgomery 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Barford 

Pr. George's 

Somerset 

St. IJary's 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Howard 

Caroline 



PER CENT OF PERSISTENCE TO HIGH SCHOOI GSUDFATIOR 

First Tfear Persistence to Graduation 

Enrollment 

1925 1928 1928 — Boys ^rzTTX Girls 

6772 44.2 



V///////A 




50.0. - ■ ~ ♦ 



81 67.9 

472 56.4 

695 52.4 

271 51.7 

195 50,3 ^^^^^^2^^SS^SzZZZZ^ 

hzzzzzzzzzzzzA 



41.9- : < ■■ . ^- - __ 



40. Oo,^.: - ; 



144 48.6 

224 46.9 

194 46.4 

531 45,6 

154 45.5 

51 45.1 

360 43.9 

407 42.0 

760 40.9 

272 40.8 

320 40.3 

372 40.1 

227 39.2 




''•34. :;''>* : '•• ■ 



7T////////////7 7777^ 




I 47.7 //////////////////////^A 




223 32*3 



The county graduates of 1928 included 44 per cent of the first- 
year enrollment in the school year 1924-25. The first-year enroll- 
ment of 1924-25, of course, includes not only the high school 
entrants of that year, but also the failures of preceding years 
who continue to rank as first-year pupils. The graduates of 1928 



Persistence to Graduation, Normal School Entrants 111 



also include some pupils who required more than four years to 
complete the work. The persistence of first-year boys to gradua- 
tion was 35.6 per cent and of first-year girls 52 per cent. For 
boys the range in persistence was from 22.7 in Howard to 52.8 
per cent in Charles, while the lowest county, St. ]\Iary's, had a 
persistence for girls of 29.2 per cent, as against its neighbor, 
Charles, with 80 per cent persistence for girls. (See Cliart 20.) 



CHART 21 



GIRL GSIADHATES 07 WHITE COUNTY HIGB 3CH0OI5 
KHTERING MARYLAND ITCKLIAL SCHOOLS 
1927 AlID 1928 

County number Per Cent 





1927 


1928 


1927 


Co . ATerage 








Calvert 


8 


4 


44.5 


Wicomico 


16 


26 


15.7 


Q;a. Anne* 3 


10 


11 


21.7 


Dorchester 


8 


13 


9.5 


Talbot 


10 


12 


IS. 5 


Howard 





6 


0.0 


Allegany 


59 


51 


28.4 


Worcester 


28 


19 


35.0 


Soiaeraet 


8 


12 


15.7 


BaJLtinore 


38 


37 


20.9 


Washington 


21 


26 


14.5 


St. lfery»3 





1 


0.0 


Harford 


20 


ID 


24.7 


Garrett 


14 


7 


25.9 


Carolina 


8 


5 


14.0 


Kent 


9 


5 


22.0 


Cecil 


3 


6 


4.7 


Carroll 


14 


9 


12.3 


Frederick 


11 


11 


9.3 


An. Arundel 


13 


5 


14.6 


Montgoiaery 


7 


5 


ID. 6 


Pr. George'^3 


3 


1 


2.9 


Charles 


2 





IB. 2 





15.8 • V A.^ 



t3.5> . ' 




112 



1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 



RELATION BETWEEN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AND 

NORMAL SCHOOLS 

Of the 1851 county high school girl graduates in 1928, 282, 
or 15.2 per cent, entered Maryland State Normal Schools. This 
number was fewer by 28, and the per cent by 1.9, than in 1927. 
Charles sent no girl graduates to normal school, while 4 of the 
14 girls who graduated in Calvert County went to normal school. 
(See CJmrt 21.) 

Charles sent no girl graduates to the normal school, as stated 
before. Prince George's sent only 1, and Montgomery and Anne 
Arundel sent only 5 each. Howard had six entrants in the nor- 
mal school in the fall of 1928, a notable improvement over none 
the preceding year. More girls also entered the normal schools 
from Wicomico, Washington, Somerset, Dorchester, and Cecil in 
1928 than in 1927. The decrease in Allegany is probably due to 
the fact that the number of Allegany County normal school grad- 
uates is far in excess of the number of positions available in the 
home county. The reduction for Garrett County is regrettable, in 
view of the great need of filling teaching positions in Garrett with 
home county normal school graduates. Several counties attribute 
the decrease in normal school entrants to the higher standard of 
work required by the normal schools. (See Chart 21.) 

TABLE 65 



Boy Graduates from White County High Schools Entering Maryland 

Normal Schools, 1928 





Total 


Boy Graduates Entering 




Maryland Normal 




Number 


Schools 


County 


White 








Boy 








Graduates 


Number 


Per Cent 


Total and County Average 


1,142 


20 


1.8 




31 


2 


6.5 




108 


5 


4.6 




48 


2 


4.2 


Allegany 


134 


4 


3.0 




101 


3 


3.0 




68 


2 


2.9 




60 


1 


1.7 




107 


1 


.9 



Only 20 county boy high school graduates entered the normal 
schools in 1928 — 5 from Baltimore County, 4 from Allegany, 3 
from Washington, 2 each from Dorchester, Wicomico, and Car- 



Graduates Entering Normal Schools and Other Occupations 113 



roll, and 1 each from Montgomery and Frederick. The number 
of men teaching in elementary schools is decreasing. (See Table 
65.) There is, however, need of men in elementary schools who 
are well trained, willing to work hard, and to continue their 
studies and who have capacity for leadership. For such men 
there are positions as teachers of the upper elementary grades 
and as principals of the larger elementary schools. (See Table 
65.)* 

WHAT DO HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES DO? 

The number and per cent of 1927 high school graduates con- 
tinuing their education beyond high school graduation were 
lower than for 1926. Of the boys, 44.1 per cent went on for 
further study, and of the girls, 50.3 per cent. The corresponding 
figures last year were 48.8 and 54.3 per cent, respectively. (See 
Table 66.) The liberal arts colleges and universities, the normal 
schools, and the colleges of law and pharmacy had fewer of the 
1927 high school graduates than of those for 1926. On the other 
hand, there was a considerable increase in the number of boys 
entering engineering courses. The decreases are probably ex- 
plained by the following legislation enacted in 1927 : 

Chapter 121, Laws of 1927. 

Any State-supported or State-aided institution of higher learninj? 
shall accept as a student any graduate of an approved public high 
school ivho is certified by the high school principal as having the quali- 
fications to imrsue a course of stwdy in the particular institution of 
higher learning, said qualifications being based upon standards deter- 
mined, for graduates of the county high schools, by the State Board of 
Education and for the graduates of the Baltimore City high schools, 
by the Board of School Commissioners of Baltimore City; or who shores, 
by passing examinations set by the particular State-aided or State- 
supported institution of higher learning, that he or she lias the qualifi- 
cations to pursue a course of study in that institution. 

This was followed by the adoption by the State Board of Edu- 
cation of the following recommendation of the Certification Com- 
mittee of the County Superintendents, the recommendation hav- 
ing been formulated after conference with the high school super- 
visors, the Credential Secretary, and representatives of the 
State-aided and State-supported Maryland institutions of higher 
leaniing : 

Maryland high school principals shall certify for entrance to any 
Maryland State-supported or State-aided institution of higher learning 
any student who has met the published subject-matter requirements of 
the particular higher institution, and who has made a grade of A or B 
in at least GO per cent of the college entrance courses which have been 
pursued in the last two years of the high school course, and a grade 



* For data on individual hi^'h schools, see Table XXXIV, paKes 336 to 341. 



114 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



of C or higher in all other college entrance courses which have been 
pursued during the last two years of the high school course. 

The A, B, and C refer to the marking systems recommended by a com- 
mittee of the Secondary Section of the Maryland State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, 1922, D being the lowest passing grade. 

High school graduates of previous years had been able without 
examination to enter State-supported or aided institutions 
without the certification by the high school principal that they 
were qualified to pursue the course of study in the institution 
they wished to enter. Probably because this legislation pre- 
vented high school students who had not done work above the 
average from entering State institutions, there was an increase 
in the number of 1927 high school graduates who entered college 

TABLE 66 

Occupations of 1927 Graduates as Reported by Principals of White County 

High Schools 



OCCUPATION 



Number 



Per Cent 



Boys 



Girls 



Boys 



Girls 



Continuing Education- 
Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities . . 

Normal Schools 

Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, Law 
and Ministry 

Engineering Courses 

Art and Music Schools 

Physical Education, Home Economics 
and Kindergarten Training Schools . . 

Army and Navy Academies 

Commercial Schools 

College Preparatory Schools 

Post Graduate High School Courses. . . 

Hospitals for Training 

Office Work and Banking 

Clerks in Stores, Salesmen and Women, 

Business 

Staying at Home 

Work at Home 

Farming, Fishing Nurserymen 

Married 

Manufacturing, Mechanical (Garage), 

Building 

Transportation, Railroad, Chauffeur 

Communication, Newspaper, Telephone. 

and Telegraph Operators 

Teaching and Library Work 

Army and Navy 

Miscellaneous and Unknown 



Total. 



226 
19 

27 
52 
5 



3 

107 
25 
7 
1 
97 

128 
35 
64 
77 



77 
25 

9 
1 
4 
81 

1070 



202 
310 



13 



192 
10 
16 
164 
229 

101 
199 

143 
1 
75 

10 



16 
10 



116 
1813 



21.1 
1.8 

2.5 
4.9 
.5 



.3 
10.0 

2.3 
.6 
.1 

9.1 

11.9 
3.3 
6.0 
7.2 



7.2 
2.3 

.8 
.1 

.4 
7.6 

100.0 



11.1 
17.1 



.7 
.3 

10. 6 " 
.6 
.9 
9.0 

12.6 

5.6 
10.9 
7.9 
.1 
4.1 

.6 



.9 
.6 

' '6.4 

100.0 



Occupations of 1927 White High School Graduates 



115 



preparatory schools or who returned to high school for post- 
graduate work. This may also explain the increase of 32 in 
girls entering hospitals for training as nurses. 

There was a decrease for boys and an increase for girls in the 
number entering commercial schools, the 1927 figures showing 
107 boys and 192 girls. The number of girls staying at home, 
working at home, and married increased considerably, which also 
may have resulted in some cases from a failure to receive certifi- 
cation for ability to do the work at college. 



Higher Education for County Graduates of 1927 

In all of the counties 29 per cent of the high school boys who 
graduated in 1927 went to colleges or universities during the 
school year 1927-28. The interest shown by the boys in the sev- 
eral counties in higher education varied greatly. Howard led 
the State in sending 11, or 55 per cent, to college or university, 
while Queen Anne's was a close second with 13, or 52 per cent. 
Montgomery and Anne Arundel sent 42 per cent to college, 
Prince George's and Talbot 38 per cent, Washington 35 per cent, 
and Baltimore 33 per cent. At the opposite extreme, Calvert and 
Charles sent none, Cecil and Frederick 15 per cent, and Dor- 
chester and Wicomico 19 and 20 per cent, respectively. (See 
Table 67.) 

Only 11 per cent of the 1927 girl graduates from the counties 
went to colleges or universities. Kent and Carroll sent 29 and 
27 per cent, respectively, the large majority probably attending 
Washington and Western Maryland Colleges within their boun- 
daries. Queen Anne's sent 22 per cent, thus ranking high for both 
boys and girls. Charles, Garrett, and St. Mary's sent no girls to 
college, while Talbot sent only 2 per cent, Wicomico 5 per cent, 
and Calvert and Somerset 6 per cent. The high schools recruit 
their teaching staffs from the graduates of the colleges. The 
counties which send none of their high school graduates to col- 
lege are among those having a very high percentage of turnover 
in the high school teaching staff. It is perhaps this high turn- 
over which causes an inadequate preparation for further educa- 
tion for the high school pupils. Yet stabilization of the high 
school staff will probably come only as a greater proportion of 
county girls prepare for the high school field. (See Table 67.) 

Normal schools and teacher training attracted only 2 per cent 
of the 1927 boy graduates. Over half the counties had no boys 
going to normal school. Garrett reported 14 per cent, and Alle- 
gany and Howard each 5 per cent. As stated before (see page 
113), the field of education has many important positions for 
young men of the right personality. 



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Occupations of 1927 White High School Graduates 



117 



On the other hand, normal schools, kindergartens, home eco- 
nomics, and physical education schools attracted 18 per cent of 
the 1927 girl graduates of the county high schools. St. Mary's 
was the only county which sent none, and Howard and Prince 
George's sent only 3 and 4 per cent, respectively, to these schools. 
Calvert, however, sent 9, or 50 per cent; Allegany 31 per cent, 
Garrett 26 per cent, Baltimore 25 per cent. Queen Anne's and 
Worcester 24 per cent, and Harford and Kent 22 per cent. These 
figures are for a year earlier than those discussed before for the 
normal school entrants for September, 1928, on pages 111 to 113, 
and for normal schools on pages 284 to 287. (See Table 67.) * 

Commercial schools drew about 10 per cent of the 1927 boy 
and girl graduates from county high schools. Charles sent no 
boys and Calvert no girls to these schools. Most of the smaller 
high schools offer no commercial courses, and it is probably 
from these schools that most of the graduates who enter com- 
mercial schools come. This explains the enrollment of 14 per 
cent of the boys from Calvert, 18 per cent of the girls from 
Charles, 33 per cent of the boys and 11 per cent of the girls 
from St. Mary's, and 12 per cent of the boys and 22 per cent 
of the girls from Queen Anne's. Prince George's and Howard 
sent very few to commercial schools. On the other hand, Kent, 
Harford, Worcester, Wicomico, and Caroline sent a rather large 
proportion. (See Table 67.) 

Nursing Attracts Many Girls 

Nine per cent of the girls entered hospitals to take training as 
nurses. Every county except Calvert contributed to the number. 
Three of the 11 graduates from Charles went into nursing, 18 
per cent of the graduates from Dorchester, 15 per cent from 
Queen Anne's and Harford, 14 per cent from Cecil, and 13 per 
cent from Howard. Anne Arundel, Garrett, Baltimore, and Som- 
erset sent only 3 and 4 per cent of their girls to become nurses. 
(See Table 67.) 

College preparatory schools or post-graduate courses attracted 
only a small percentage of graduates. The percentages were 
rather high in Somerset and Wicomico and for boys in Caroline 
County. 

OflFice Work, Business, and Selling 

Nearly one-fourth of the boys and girls from Baltimore County 
went directly into office work after high school graduation in 
1927. Prince George's, Somerset, Washington, and Talbot sent 
a large proportion of their graduates into this field. Work in 



* For normal school entrants from individual schools, see Table XXXIV, pages 336 to 341. 



118 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



stores, selling, and business were especially attractive to boys 
and girls in Wicomico, Allegany, Howard, and Dorchester, and 
to boys in Calvert, Frederick, Montgomery, and Washington. 
(See Table 67.) 

Work at Home or on Farm 

Nearly one-fourth of all the girls who graduated in 1927 are 
either staying or working at home or married and running 
their own homes. This is proof of the need of home economics 
training in high school, if the girls are to make their homes more 
attractive and real centers of wholesome worth-while activity. 
Several of the counties which have a large proportion of their 
girls at home have no home economics courses in high school. 
This is true of Calvert, St. Mary's, and Charles, which have 39 
and 27 per cent of their girls at home. In Dorchester over a 
third of the girls are at home or married, but home economics 
courses were taken by just over one-fourth of the high school 
girls. It is not only the girls who definitely stay at home who 
will be homemakers, but all girls, in addition to their nursing, 
teaching, or office work, or other pursuits outside the home, will 
be members of some home and as such can spread the desire and 
means of securing more ideal conditions. (See Table 67.) 

Some of the counties report over 10 per cent of their boys 
staying or working at home. Many of these are probably work- 
ing on the farms or water. These counties are Prince George's, 
Garrett, Frederick, Cecil, Carroll, Kent, Dorchester, Caroline, 
Somerset, and Worcester. Farming, fishing, and nursery work 
are reported as the occupation of a large proportion of 1927 boy 
graduates in Calvert, St. Mary's, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Dor- 
chester, Worcester, Montgomery, Wicomico, Somerset, and Har- 
ford. If education is for the purpose of helping people to do 
better that which they will do anyway, then Calvert, Caroline, 
Cecil, Kent, St. Mary's, and Wicomico, which have no specific 
courses in agriculture, are not taking advantage of the opportu- 
nity of meeting the needs of this particular group. (See Table 
67.) 

Allegany, Cecil, Charles, Calvert, and Frederick report a largw 
proportion of boys engaged in manufacturing, mechanical worK, 
or building trades. Allegany has organized evening courses to 
take care of the needs of the men engaged in industrial work, bui 
thus far has established no day school courses. Washington 
is the only county which has provided a technical trade course as 
a department in the high school. For further description of this 
work in vocational education see pages 160 to 161. 



I 



Occupations of Graduates, Subjects Available in High School 119 

SUBJECTS AVAILABLE TO COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL PUPILS 

The Academic Subjects 

English is the only study required for four years of all students 
in all county high schools. It is therefore available in all high 
schools and taken by 100 per cent of the high school pupils. 
Mathematics was offered in every high school for at least one 
year. Every high school except two offered at least one year of 
the social studies and of science. Over 81 per cent of the boys 
and girls in county high schools were enrolled in courses in the 
social studies, which include civics, history, and problems in 
American democracy. In mathematics courses 82 per cent of 
the boys and 74 per cent of the girls were enrolled, and in science 
72 per cent of the boys and 65 per cent of the girls. There is 
little change from the preceding year, except that the per cent 

TABLE 68 

Distribution of Enrollment* in Maryland County White High Schools by 



Subjects Taken for Year Ending July 31. 1928 



SUBJECT 


Number 
Enrolled 


Per Cent 


High Schools 
Offering Subject 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


Total 


9,548 


11,978 






153 




English 


9,628 


11,961 


100.0 


99.9 


153 


100.0 


Social Studies 


7,759 


9,810 


81.3 


81.9 


151 


98.7 


Mathematics 


7,881 


8,850 


82.5 


73.9 


153 


100.0 


Science 


6,884 


7,806 


72.1 


65.2 


151 


98.7 


Latin 


2,494 


3,510 


26.1 


29.3 


105 


68 6 


French 


1,420 


2,690 


14.9 


22.5 


110 


71.9 


Spanish 


19 


10 


.2 


.1 


1 




Manual Training 


5,341 


8 


55.9 


.1 


71 


46.4 


Home Economics 










103 


67 3 


General 


1 


7,797 




65.0 


88 


57.5 


Vocational 




587 




4.9 


17 


11.1 


Agriculture 








41 


26.8 


All Day Courses 


813 


1 


8.5 




33 


21 6 


Unit Courses 


135 




1.4 




8 


5 2 


Stenography, Typewriting, 










Bookkeeping 


871 


1,648 


t29.1 


t37.1 


54 


35.3 


Other Commercial Subjects. . 


460 


641 


:7.o 


J8.5 


25 


16 3 


Physical Education 


2,749 


3,181 


28.8 


26 6 


39 


25 5 


Music 


4,942 


6,327 


51.8 


52.8 


89 


58 2 


Art 


234 


231 


2.5 


1.9 


3 


2.0 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer and death. 

t Fijrures represent the percentage of 2,988 boys and •1.-147 prirls enrolled in third and 
fourth years. 

+ Ki.irures represent the percentage of 6,560 boys and 7.331 girls enrolled in first and 
second yeai-s. 

For data for individual high schools, see Table XXX\'. pages 342-317. 



120 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



of boys enrolled in science was nearly 3 per cent higher in 1928 
than in 1927. (See Table 68.) 

Latin was offered in only 105, or 69 *per cent, of the high 
schools to 26 per cent of the boys and 29 per cent of the girls. 
The enrollment of girls was lower than in 1927. French was 
studied in 110 high schools by 15 per cent of the boys and 22 
per cent of the girls. One school in Cumberland offered Spanish. 
(See Table 68.) 

Similar data are available for individual counties in Table 67, 
and for individual high schools in Table XXXV, pp. 342 to 347. 

The Special Subjects 

Instruction in manual training was open to boys in 71, or 46 
per cent, of the high schools, and since these were the larger 
schools, 56 per cent of the boys were enrolled for the work. 
Vocational agriculture was chosen as a major subject by 813 
boys and unit courses were elected by 125 boys in 41 high schools, 
27 per cent of all. The number taking agriculture was practically 
the same as last year. 

Home economics, general and vocational, was one of the sub- 
jects in the course of study in 103 schools, over two-thirds of the 
entire number, and was taken by 70 per cent of the girls en- 
rolled in high schools. 

Physical education was offered in one-fourth of the high 
schools and taken by 29 per cent of the boys and 27 per cent 
of the pupils enrolled. There were about 900 more taking it 
than in the preceding year. 

Music shows an advance in that 89 schools, 58 per cent of all, 
included it in their curriculum. It was taken by over one-half 
of the pupils enrolled in the high schools. In 1928 there were 
1840 more high school pupils reached by instruction in music 
than in 1927. (See Table 68.) 

Subjects Available in Individual Counties 
Academic Subjects 

Fewer high school pupils in Frederick and Worcester Counties 
take mathematics than in the other counties. The offering in the 
social studies in Garrett, Baltimore, and Queen Anne's seems to 
be lower than in other counties. The enrollment for science of 
boys and girls in Anne Arundel, Caroline, Dorchester, Queen 
Anne's, and Washington, and of girls in Somerset and Talbot, 
is lower than in the majority of the counties. (See Table 69.) 

Latin is not offered in any high school of Calvert County, 
and it is taken by only a few pupils in Charles, Cecil, and Garrett 
Counties. At the other extreme, nearly 60 per cent of the Queen 
Anne's pupils and between 40 and 50 per cent of those in Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, and Talbot Counties take Latin. 



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122 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The highest enrollment in French, as in Latin, is found in 
Queen Anne's County. Cecil, Caroline, and Wicomico have be- 
tween 20 and 28 per cent of the boys and girls enrolled for 
French. 

Special Subjects 

No work in manual training is offered in Calvert, Charles, 
Garrett, Howard, and St. Mary's. In Garrett and Howard, 
however, vocational agriculture takes its place for some of the 
boys. Baltimore, Kent, and Queen Anne's provide manual train- 
ing for all of the boys enrolled. In Carroll 81 per cent of the 
boys take manual training, and in Caroline, Allegany, Prince 
George's, and Worcester, about 70 per cent of the boys take it. 

The same counties offering manual training to the entire en- 
rollment of boys take care of the girls with work in home econom- 
ics. This is true in Baltimore, Carroll, Kent, and Queen Anne's. 
The girls are denied opportunities for instruction in home eco- 
nomics, as are the boys in manual training in Calvert, Charles, 
and St. Mary's public high schools. Garrett and Howard have 
a considerable proportion of the girls enrolled for vocational home 
economics. All day and unit courses in vocational agriculture 
were available in one or more schools of 14 counties. Calvert and 
Queen Anne's are the only counties giving no courses in stenog- 
raphy and typewriting, and in St. Mary's they are available only 
at St. Mary's Seminary. The largest proportion of the third and 
fourth year enrollment for stenography and typewriting ap- 
peared in Prince George's and Somerset, and for girls in Anne 
Arundel and Montgomery. Eleven of the counties offered com- 
mercial subjects to first and second year pupils. From a fifth 
to a fourth of the Carroll, Howard, and Somerset County first 
and second year pupils were enrolled for commercial subjects. 

Nine of the counties reported classes in physical education in 
the public high schools. Baltimore County provided physical 
education for nearly the entire enrollment, and Allegany for two- 
thirds of the boys and three-fourths of the girls. Frederick, 
Howard, Carroll, and Washington offered physical education to 
from a fourth to a half of their pupils. Talbot, Wicomico, and 
Montgomery made a beginning in providing work in physical 
education. 

Every county except Caroline and Charles offered music in one 
or more of their high schools. St. Mary's, Carroll, Howard, and 
Baltimore had special teachers of music in all high schools, so 
that from 90 to 100 per cent of the pupils took advantage of the 
instruction given. Nearly three-fourths of the Allegany County 
high school pupils and two-thirds of those in Washington, Cecil, 
Talbot, and Wicomico received instruction in music. Most of 
the other counties which offered music in only a few schools are 
planning to extend it to more schools. (See Table 69.) 

Table XXXV, on pages 342 to 347, shows the enrollment by 
subject in individual high schools. 



Subjects Offered, and Failures by Subject 



123 



FAILURES IN HIGH SCHOOL SI BJECTS 

Although about one-fourth of the white high school boys and 
about 15 per cent of the girls left school or failed of promotion 
in the various subjects studied, both withdrawals and failures 
are noticeably lower in 1928 than they were in 1927. The only 
exceptions appear in an increase in failures for both boys and 
girls in French and commercial subjects, and for girls also in 
science. For boys, Latin, French, and mathematics proved the 
greatest stumbling blocks to promotion, and for girls, mathe- 
matics, Latin, social studies, and French. (See Table 70.) 



TABLE 70 

Number and Per Cent of Withdrawals and Failures in Maryland County 
White High Schools by Subject for Year Ending July 31, 1928 





Number 


Per Cent 




Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Subject 




























c 




c 




c 




c 




c 




c 






? 


T3 




13 


? 


13 




•a 






? 


t5 






01 

4-> 


at 


& 
-tJ 


a 






01 


a 


o 


a 


o 
■i^ 




b. 
'O 


O 


u 
T3 


O 


TS 


o 




o 


u 
13 


c 


I- 

T3 


c 




ji 












ji 




J= 




J= 










-t-> 




■t-> 




■«-> 








■>-> 
^ 


l£ 


English 


2,270 


1.900 


1,303 


1,241 


967 


659 


10.5 


8.8 


13.5 


12.9 


8.1 


5.5 


Mathematics 


1 ,840 


2,103 


1,079 


1,196 


761 


907 


11.0 


12.6 


13.7 


15.2 


8.6 


10.2 


Social Studies 


1,766 


1.514 


970 


805 


796 


709 


10.1 


8.6 


12.5 


10.4 


8.1 


7 2 


Science 


1,705 


1,152 


1,007 


627 


698 


525 


11.6 


7.8 


14 6 


9.1 


8.9 


6.7 


Latin 


474 


778 


241 


465 


233 


313 


7.9 


13. C 


9.7 


18.6 


6.6 


8.9 


French and Spanish 


298 


411 


149 


222 


149 


189 


7.2 


10.0 


10.4 


15.4 


5.5 


7.0 


Stenography, Typewriting, and 


























Bookkeeping 


237 


210 


102 


104 


135 


106 


9.4 


8.3 


11.7 


11.9 


8.2 


6.4 


Other Commercial Subjects 


110 


102 


57 


54 


53 


48 


10.0 


9.3 


12.4 


11 .7 


8.3 


7.5 


Agriculture 


174 


44 


174 


44 






17.6 


4.5 


17.6 


4.5 





















The individual counties vary considerably from the averages 
just given. For example, in English, less than 20 per cent of the 
boys in St. Mary's, Charles, Worcester, Allegany, and Washing- 
ton Counties withdrew and failed, while in Baltimore, Dor- 
chester, Queen Anne's, Prince George's, and Frederick this was 
the case for over 30 per cent of the boys. In mathematics less 
than 20 per cent of the boys withdrew and failed in Charles, 
Washington, and St. Mary's, while this happened to one-third or 
more of the boys enrolled in mathematics in Garrett, Prince 
George's, Baltimore, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Dor- 
chester. In Latin, Cecil, Carroll, Garrett, and ^Montgomery had 
less than one-fifth of the boys enrolled for the subject withdraw 
and fail, while Harford, Dorchester, Howard, Caroline, Kent, 
Queen Anne's, and Somerset lost over one-third of their Latin en- 



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Failures and Teachers According to Subject 



125 



rollment by withdrawal or failure. Certain counties, like Somerset 
and Prince George's, appear to have a high rate of withdrawal 
and failure in all subjects for both boys and girls, while other 
counties, like Charles, St. Mary's, and Washington, have a con- 
sistently low rate of withdrawal and failure. What should be 
the guiding policies for teachers in determining status and prog- 
ress of pupils? (See Table 71.) 

If each pupil who is considering leaving school were inter- 
viewed to determine in what way the school is not meeting his 
needs, and if the information so gathered were applied thought- 
fully, the withdrawal of other pupils who could profit by remain- 
ing in school might be checked. Likewise, the per cent of fail- 
ures may be lowered, since in many cases it may be the result of 
poor teaching. The principal and teachers must be on their 
guard to make their teaching effective, so that withdrawal and 
failure for this reason may be eliminated. (See Table 71.) 

DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS BY SUBJECTS 

The high school teaching staff of 1927-28, consisting of 964 
teachers, was distributed by subjects to which time was given. 
The English offered would have required the full-time service 
of 170 persons, seven more than the preceding year, but since in 
many of the smaller high schools it did not take the full time of 
a. teacher, there were actually more than 170 teachers of English. 
The social studies were offered in 151 high schools, so that there 
was at least this number of teachers of these subjects, as well as 
additional ones in the larger high schools which had enough 
work to need the services of more than one teacher of the social 
studies. However, the number of periods of the social studies 
provided for pupils would have required the full-time service of 
138 teachers, 1 more than the preceding year. The work offered 
in science and in mathematics would have required the full-time 
service of 135 and 132 teachers, respectively. This was an in- 
crease of 7 in science and 4 in mathematics over last year. (See 
Table 72.) 

The amount of Latin provided required the full-time service of 
53 teachers, although there were at least 105 teachers giving 
some time to Latin, since it was offered in that number of schools. 
This is 6 fewer than the number of schools offering it the preced- 
ing year. In French and Spanish the number of teachers on a 
full-time basis needed in 1928 was only 48, although French was 
taught in 110 schools. 

There were 6 more teachers of commercial subjects in 1928 
than in 1927 — the full-time service of 76 being required in 54 
schools which offered work in these subjects. 

Training in home economics was given in 103 schools and 
required the full-time service of 65 teachers. Nine of the teach- 



126 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 72 

Number of Teachers of White Gountv High Schools", Year Ending 

July 31, 1928 



subjects 


Number of 
Teachers on 
Full-Time 
Basis 
Distributed by 
Time Devoted 
to Different 
Subjects 


Number of 
High Schools 
Offering 
Subjects 


Number of Cases Where 
Special Teachers Instruct in 
More Than One School 
Each Week or Term 


Approximate 
Number of 
Different 
Teachers of 
Special 
Subjects 


Teachers 


Schools 


English 


169.8 
138.0 
135.3 
132.4 
53.3 
48.0 

75.8 
64.5 
34.8 
28.4 
^24.9 
14.5 
8.0 

36.2 


153 

1 

lOi 

151 
153 
105 
110 

54 
103 
71 
89 
41 
39 
10 








oociai otuQies 








Science 
















Latin 








French and Spanish. . 

Commercial Subjects. 
Home Economics .... 
Manual Training .... 
Music 














19 
16 
*19 
11 
t2 


50 

39 
49 
25 
3 


81 
50 
59 
27 

38 


Agriculture 


Physical Education.. . 
Library 


Administration and 
Supervision 








Total 










963.9 


153 

















° Excludes the teaching staff of St. Mary's Seminary. 

* Includes orchestra leader in Carroll County who instructs in 10 schools already having a regular 
music teacher. 

t One instructs boys, the other instincts girls in three schools. 
a Includes 2.5 teachers of Vocational Industrial Arts. 



ers of home economics taught in more than one school, actually 
reaching 50 schools by traveling about each week or each term. 
The approximate number of women giving some time to home 
economics last year was 81, three more than the preceding year. 

Manual training offered in 71 schools would have required the 
full-time service of 35 men. There were approximately 50 men 
teaching manual training, 16 of whom visited 39 schools each 
week or during the two terms. 

Music, in which instruction was given in 89 schools, required 
the full-time service of over 28 teachers, but was actually taught 
by approximately 59 teachers, 19 of whom visited 49 schools. 
There was an increase of 1 in full-time service over 1927. 

Agriculture was taught in 41 schools by 27 teachers, 11 of 
whom taught in 25 schools. The periods of agriculture taught 
during the regular school day would have required the full-time 
service of 25 teachers. 



SuBJECiS Taught by and Certification of High School Teachers 127 



Ten schools had libraries in charj^e of a teacher-librarian. The 
periods devoted to library work would have required the full 
time of 8 teacher-librarians. 

Principals reported many periods spent in administration of 
the school. On the basis of full-time service, 36 persons would 
have been required for this work in 1928. (See Table 72.) 

*CERTIFICATES OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 

In 1928-29 the certification of the Maryland high school teach- 
ers was checked for the eighth consecutive year. As will be seen 
from Table 73, the percentage of high school teachers who were 
uncertificated at the time of the check in the years indicated 
dropped from 26.1 to 6.2. There has been practically an unin- 
terrupted improvement in this respect, although the progress in 
the last three years has not been marked. It is hoped that efforts 
to see that the teachers apply promptly for certificates will in- 
crease, so that each year all of the high school teachers will be 
certificated early in the fall. (See Table 73.) 



TABLE 73 

White High School Teachers Uncertificated 



Fall of 


Number 


Per Cent 


1923 


197 


26.1 


1924 


139 


17.6 


1925 


125 


14.4 


1926 


76 


7.2 


1927 


83 


8.5 


1928 


64 


6.2 



As will be seen from Table 74, four of the counties — Prince 
C^icorge's, Wicomico, Garrett, and Baltimore — had all of their 
high school teachers certificated at the time of the check, the 
first three having succeeded in doing the same thing during the 
previous year also. Though Carroll, Cecil, and Caroline reached 
the goal in 1927, each had one teacher uncertificated in Novem- 
ber, 1928. All the other counties, with the exception of Washing- 
ton, Talbot, and St. ]\Iary's, showed improvement over 1927. 
(See Table 74.) 

In 1928, in connection with the regular high school check, a 
check was made also of the teachers w4io were handling subjects 
for which they were not certificated. It was found that about 
one-third of the teachers were giving at least one course each in 
a field in which they had not met the subject-matter requirement. 
In the two-teacher schools this condition was unavoidable, and 
in some other instances the subjects handled by inadequately 



* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman. Credential Secretary, 



128 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 74 



White High School Teachers in Each County Uncertificated in November, 

1927, and November, 1928 



COUNTY 


Total Num- 
ber White 
High School 

1 cdcners 
November 
1928 


White High S( 
Not Ce 

Number 


3hool Teachers 
rtificated 

Per Cent 


Nov. 
1927 


Nov. 
1928 


Nov. 
1927* 


Nov. 

1928 


1 otai 


1,040 


83 


64 


8.5 


6.2 


Prince George's 


69 














Wicomico 


45 














Garrett 


33 














Baltimore 


93 


4 





4.3 





Carroll 


72 





1 





1.4 


Harford 


45 


1 


1 


2.4 


2.2 


Cecil 


40 





1 





2.5 


Caroline 


28 





1 





3.6 


Kent 


21 


2 


1 


9.5 


4.8 


Worcester 


39 


4 


2 


10.8 


5.1 


Frederick 


74 


6 


4 


8.3 


5.4 


Anne Arundel 


49 


6 


3 


14.6 


6.1 


Charles 


16 


3 


1 


23.0 


6.3 


Montgomery 


74 


8 


7 


13.5 


9.5 


Allegany 


106 


14 


11 


13.7 


10.4 


Dorchester 


36 


8 


4 


22.8 


11.1 


Washington 


75 


2 


3 


2.9 


12.0 


Somerset 


29 


8 


4 


27.5 


13.8 


Calvert 


7 


3 


1 


42,8 


14.3 


Talbot 


32 





5 





15.6 


Howard 


25 


5 


4 


20.0 


16.0 


St. Mary's 


11 





3 





27.3 


Queen Anne's 


21 


9 


7 


40.9 


33.3 



prepared teachers are not counted for credit toward graduation. 
It is thought, however, that the lists furnished the high school 
supervisors and county superintendents will, by directing special 
attention to the situation, tend to improve conditions. 



Provisionally Certificated White High School Teachers 

There were 81 white high school teachers in service in October, 
1928, who hold only provisional certificates. They constitute 7.8 
per cent of the staff of 1,040 high school teachers and principals. 
Last year the per cent holding provisional certificates included 
8.3 per cent of the staff, indicating a slight improvement. Of the 



Uncertificated and Provisionally Certificated Teachers 

CHART 22 



PER CENT OF FROYISIONAIXT CERTinCATKD 
WHITE HIGH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS 



Total No. 
Principal 3 
&. Teechers 





Oct . 


Oct . 


Oct . 




1928 


1926 


1927 


Total and 
Co. Average 


1040 


9.3 


8^3 


Garrett 






u .u 


rr " -E^ i c it 


74, 


2 9 




fl CAO i.^^ W W 


75 


7.9 


4.4 


'Ra T + ^'mo■T*ft 

XJci JL w 1 Nil /X 9 


93 


0,0 


3.3 















10 






72 


13.6 


7.0 




29 


22.2 


10-3 




28 


10.3 


11.1 


OwV^ x^ 




a ..8 


13-5 




106 


13.5 


5-9 


Worcester 


39 


14.3 


13.5 


Dorchester 


36 


8.6 


14.S 


Harford 


45 


12.5 


7.3 


Talbot 


32 


7.1 


6.9 


An. Arundel 


49 


17.1 


12.2 


HoTOrd 


25 


9.1 


20.0 


Pr. Georg€te 


69 


10.2 


7.7 


Calyert 


7 


0.0 


14.3 


Q^. Anne* 3 


21 


13.6 


18.2 


UonteGmary 


74 


ii.a 


15.3 


St. Mary»s 


11 


0.0 


11.1 


Charles 


16 


0.0 


0.0 



Per Cent Holding Provisional Certificates 



Oct. 
1928 




81 who hold only provisional certilicates, 50 are teachers oi spe- 
cial subjects. The State high school supervisors and the super- 
visors of special subjects, as well as the county superintendents, 
are seeking means of remedying this condition as soon as pos- 
sible. 

Garrett was the only county wiiich employed no high school 
teachers on provisional certificates in October, 1928, and since 



130 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



this has been the case at least for the past three years, it is a 
record of which the superintendent may well be proud. Charles 
County, which ranked at the top last year, dropped to the bot- 
tom. Evidently the difficulty of securing the staffs for the two 
new high schools at La Plata and Hughesville accounts for the 
employment of 3 teachers holding provisional certificates. In 
addition to Charles, St. Mary's, Prince George's, Talbot, Har- 
ford, Allegany, and Baltimore Counties had to employ a larger 
proportion of teachers on provisional certificates than in the pre- 
ceding year. Most of the Eastern Shore counties — Kent, Som- 
erset, Caroline, Cecil, Worcester, Dorchester, and Queen Anne's — 
and also Howard County show a considerable reduction in the 
per cent of provisionally certificated teachers employed. In six 
counties — Garrett, Frederick, Washington, Baltimore, Wicomico, 
and Kent — the county superintendent had to apply for provision- 
al certificates for less than 5 per cent of the white high school 
staff. (See Chart 22.) 

TABLE 75 

County White High School Teachers In Service October, 1928, Who 

Attended Summer School in 1928. 



County 


Distributed by 
County 


School or College 


Distributed 
by School 
Attended 




Number 


Per Cent 




Number 



Total and Average 


296 


28 


4 


Kent 


11 


52 


4 


Calvert 


3 


42 


9 


Prince George's. . 


27 


39 


1 


Charles 


6 


37 


5 


St. Mary's 


4 


36 


4 


Garrett 


12 


36 


4 


Dorchester 


13 


36 


1 


Allegany 


37 


34 


9 




32 


34 


4 


Howard 


8 


32 





Cecil 


12 


30 





Montgomery. . . . 


22 


29 


7 


Harford 


13 


28 


9 


Somerset 


8 


27 


6 


Carroll 


18 


25 





Caroline 


7 


25 





Talbot 


8 


25 





Frederick 


16 


21 


6 


Washington 


16 


21 


1 


Anne Arundel. . . . 


9 


18 


4 


Wicomico 


8 


17 


8 


Worcester 


4 


10 


3 


Queen Anne's. . . . 


2 


9 


5 



Total 

University of Maryland . . . 

Johns Hopkins 

Columbia University 

University of Virginia 

George Washington 

University 

University of Pennsylvania . 
University of West Virginia 

Cornell University 

Ashville Normal 

Other Schools and Colleges 



296 

89 
64 
54 
22 

8 
6 
6 
6 
4 
37 



Provisional Certificates, Summer School, Inexperienced Teachers 131 



NEARLY 300 HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS IN 1928 SUMMER SCHOOLS 

County superintendents reported the names of 296 white high 
school teachers in service in October, 1928, who had taken 
courses at a college or university during the preceding summer. 
This included 28.4 per cent of the teaching staff and showed a 
range from 52.4 per cent for Kent County, which ranked at the 
top, to 9.5 per cent in Queen Anne's County. The teachers of 
problems of democracy in the latter county were at work on 
course of study making on the unit Public Opinion, which was 
recently published as a State Department Bulletin. The follow- 
ing counties had more than one-third of their staffs studying 
last summer: Kent, Calvert, Prince George's, Charles, Garrett, 
St. Mary's, Dorchester, Allegany, and Baltimore. At the opposite 
extreme. Queen Anne's, Worcester, Wicomico, Anne Arundel, 
Washington, and Frederick had less than 22 per cent of their 
staff away studying. (See Table 75.) 

The University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins and Columbia, 
and the University of Virginia attracted 77 per cent of the 
attendants from the Maryland county high school staff. (See 
Table 75.) 

FEWER INEXPERIENCED HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS EMPLOYED 

There was an increase of .1 years in the median years of expe- 
rience of white high school teachers over 1927 — 4.3 years being 
the figure for 1928. The per cent of inexperienced w^hite high 
school teachers — 14.2 per cent in 1928 — was 1.5 below the per 
cent for 1927. (See Table 137, page 223.) 

In October, 1928, the number and per cent of white high school 
teachers employed who were without experience decreased to 
148, or 14.2 per cent. The per cent of inexperienced teachers 
employed varied from none in Kent to 36.4 per cent, in St. 
Mary's. St. Mary's, Calvert, and Charles are the three counties 
at the bottom of Chart 23. and they have a large proportion not 
only of inexperienced teachers, but also of teachers holding 
provisional certificates. (See Charts 22 and 23.) 

In Howard, Carroll, Washington, and Montgomery Counties 
it was necessary to employ considerably fewer inexperienced 
teachers than were required the preceding year. Baltimore, 
Prince George's, Allegany, and Montgomery Counties, which 
pay salaries above the minimum State schedule, are able to attract 
experienced teachers to fill the vacancies which arise in their 

counties. 



132 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 23 



HUMBER AND PER CHrr 0? WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS 
IN MiBYLAND COUl^TIES 
IN FIRST YEAR OF TEACHING E3CPERIENCE 
OCTOBER 1927 AND OCTOBER 1928 



1928 



County 


Kumbor 


Per 




1927 


1928 


1927 


Total and 
Co. Average 


153 


148 


15.6 


£k.all.b 


2 





9*0 


AJx* AXUDUSX 


5 


4 






10 


9 


Xx»U 




8 


7 






13 


11 


1 O »7 




12 


8 






13 


9 


1 1 




8 


9 


11 1 




14 


9 


19 7 


Ou . Anne • s 


1 


3 






7 


7 




HOwaird. 


8 


4 


32 »0 


Somerset 


6 


5 


20.7 


Caroline 


4 


5 


14.8 


Talbot 


6 


e 


20.7 


Dorchester 





7 


0.0 


Garrett 


6 


7 


19.4 


Harford 


6 


10 


14.6 


Cecil 


10 


9 


27.0 


lorcesxer 


8 


9 


21,& 


Charles 


2 


4 


15.4 


Calvert 


2 


2 


28.6 


St. Mary»3 


2 


4 


22.2 




New Positions and Vacancies in High Schools Annually 

In order to fill the new positions created because of increased 
enrollment and the vacant positions due to resignations from the 
staff, Maryland counties needed 307 high school teachers in Octo- 
ber, 1926, and 279 in 1927. In 1926 nearly 40 per cent of these 
appointments were required for new positions, and in 1927, 22 
per cent. The counties filled 55 per cent of their new and vacant 
positions by employing college graduates without experience. 



Inexperienced Teachers and Teachers New to Counties 133 



This group formed 64 per cent of the high school teachers who 
were new to Maryland in 1927. The remaining vacancies in the 
counties were filled by experienced teachers from other States, 
from other counties of Maryland or from the same county in 
Maryland, the latter being counted as new for the year in ques- 
tion if they had not been in service the preceding year. In 1926 
there were 47 high school teachers who taught in the high schools 
of a county different from the one they had been in during the 
preceding year, and in 1927 this was the case with 39 teachers. 
(See Table 76.) 

TABLE 76 

Number and Per Cent of White High School Teachers New to Counties 

in October, 1926 and October, 1927 





1926 


j 1927 


County 


Number of 


Per Cent 


Number of 


Per Cent 






Addi- 


INeW LO 


T'paphprs! 


Addi- 


iNew to 




New to 


tional 


County 


New to 


tional 


County 




County 


Positions 




County 


Positions 


Total Average. . . 


307 


124 


33.6 


279 


62 


28.6 


Queen Anne's. . . 


4 


-2 


18.2 


2 




9.1 


Dorchester 


9 


4 


25.7 


2 




5.7 


Kent 


2 


-1 


10.0 


5 


1 


23.8 


Frederick 


22 


11 


32.4 


10 


4 


13.9 


Baltimore 


28 


26 


30.4 


22 


-1 


24.2 


Anne Arundel. , . 


10 


4 


28.6 


11 


6 


26.8 


Carroll 


20 




30.3 


18 


5 


25.4 


Cecil 


8 


2 


23.5 


12 


3 


32.4 


Wicomico 


15 


1 


34.9 


11 


2 


24.4 


Talbot 


9 


1 


32.1 


8 


1 


27.6 


Washington 


22 


17 


34.9 


18 


5 


26.5 


Prince George's. . 


19 


15 


32.2 


21 


6 


32.3 


Allegany 


37 


10 


38.5 


28 


6 


27.5 


Montgomery. . . . 


19 


15 


37.3 


19 


8 


32.2 


Caroline 


12 


3 


41.4 


8 


-2 


29.6 


Worcester 


10 


-1 


28.6 


16 


2 


43.2 


Somerset 


12 


2 


44.4 


10 


2 


34.5 


Harford 


17 


5 


42.5 


16 


1 


39.0 


Garrett 


12 


2 


40.0 


14 


1 


45.2 


Howard 


9 


4 


40.9 


12 


3 


48.0 


St. Mary's 


3 


4 


50.0 


4 


3 


44.4 


Calvert 


4 




57 1 


4 




57. 1 


Charles 


4 





57.1 


8 


6 


61 .5 



134 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Annual Turnover in Each County 

In Tables 76 and 77 the counties are arranged in order of per 
cent of turnover in the teaching staff for the two years, the coun- 
ties having the lowest turnover appearing at the top and those 
with the highest turnover at the bottom. Queen Anne's, at the 
top, has consistently followed the policy of paying high salaries 
to successful high school teachers and principals in order to hold 
them in the county. Baltimore and Anne Arundel pay salaries 
above the minimum schedule, which helps reduce the turnover 
in the county. The six counties at the bottom of the list have a 
turnover varying from 40 to 60 per cent from year to year.^ 
It is almost impossible to expect good high school work from 
pupils who must meet a new staff of inexperienced teachers each 
year. The counties at the bottom of the list (Charles, Calvert, 
St. Mary's, Howard, Garrett, and Harford) need to do some care- 
ful planning toward having promising high school graduates in 

TABLE 77 

Number of High School Teachers October, 1926 and 1927, Employed in 
Each County (1) Who Were Inexperienced, (2) Experienced but not 
in Service in County One or More Years Previously, (3) Formerly 
Teaching in Another County 





1926 


1927 






Experienced 






Experienced 




COUNTY 




but not Teach- 






but not Teach- 






Inex- 


ing in County 


From 


Inex- 


ing in County 


From 




perienced 


One or More 


Another 


perienced 


One or More 


Another 




Years 


County 




Years 


County 






Previously 




Previously 




Total 


166 


94 


47 


153 


87 


39 




3 




1 


1 




1 


Dorchester 


6 


3 






2 




Kent 


2 






2 


2 


1 


Frederick 


11 


8 


3 


8 


1 


1 




9 


7 


12 


10 


5 


7 


Anne Arundel 


3 


5 


2 


5 


5 


1 


Carroll 


15 


3 


2 


14 


2 


2 


Cecil 


8 






10 


1 


1 


Wicomico 


12 


1 


2 


7 


4 




Talbot 


6 


3 




6 


2 




Washington 


11 


10 


1 


13 


4 


1 


Prince George's 


5 


6 


8 


8 


7 


6 


Allegany 


15 


21 


1 


13 


13 


2 


Montgomery 


13 


5 


1 


12 


6 


1 


Caroline 


6 


5 


1 


4 


3 


1 




3 


4 


3 


8 


7 


1 


Somerset 


9 




3 


6 


3 


1 


Harford 


10 


5 


2 


6 


5 


5 


Garrett 


6 


5 


1 


6 


8 






6 


1 


2 


8 


3 


1 


St. Mary's 


3 






2 


1 


1 


Calvert 


2 


1 


1 


2 




2 




2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 



TuENovER IN Counties, Changes From County to County 



135 



the county take training for high as well as elementary school 
positions, and toward eliminating the small high schools, which 
require teachers to give instruction in a wide range of subject- 
matter, with some of which they are usually quite unfamiliar. 
(See Table 77.) 

Changes from County to County 

There were 86 teachers who changed from one county to an- 
other in 1926 and 1927. The records of these changes were 
studied to show number leaving and coming to each county, with 
an estimate of the reason for the change, as far as this was evi- 
dent on the record card. Baltimore County had 4 teachers leave 
to go to another county, while 19 were attracted from other 
counties. In every case Baltimore County offered salary in- 
creases. Caroline and Wicomico Counties each lost 6 teachers 
to other counties and gained 2 from them. Carroll lost 11 to 

TABLE 78 

Number of White High School Teachers Who Left Counties to Take 
Positions in Other Counties with Estimate of Reason for Change 

October 1926 and 1927 





Total 
Number 
Leaving 
County 

For 
Another 
County — 
2-Year 
Period 


Estimated Reason for 
Leaving 


Total 
Number 
Coming to 
County 
From 
-Another 
County — 
2-Year 
Period 


Estimated Reason for 
Coming 


County Left 


Larger Salary 


Home County 


Home County 
and Larger 
Salary 


Unknown and 
Miscella- 
neous 


Larger Salary 


Home County 


Home County 
and Larger 
Salary 


Unknown and 
Miscella- 
neous 


Total 


86 


40 


15 
17.5 


12 
13.9 


19 
22.1 


86 


40 
46.5 


15 
17.5 


12 
13.9 


19 
22.1 


Per Cent 


46.5 


Allegany 


2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


Anne Arundel .... 


3 


2 


1 






3 


1 




2 


Baltimore 


4 




1 




3 


19 


11 




8 




Calvert 


3 


i 




2 


3 


2 


1 




Caroline 


6 


3 


2 




1 


2 


2 






Carroll 


11 


5 




5 


1 


4 


1 


1 




2 


Cecil 


1 


1 






1 


1 






Charles 


1 








1 


4 


1 


2 




1 


Dorchester 


1 


1 
















Frederick 


5 


2 


2 




1 


4 


3 


1 






Garrett 


4 


3 


1 






1 






1 


Harford 


6 


3 


1 


1 


1 


7 


3 


3 




1 


Howard 


5 


2 




2 


1 


3 


2 






1 


Kent 


2 


1 






1 


1 




1 






Montgomery 


1 






1 


2 


1 


1 




Prince George's . . 
Queen Anne's. . . . 


12 


6 


4 




2 


14 


5 


1 


1 


7 


1 


1 








2 


1 


1 






St. Mary's 










1 


1 






Somerset 


1 






1 




4 


2 


1 




1 


Talbot 


3 


1 




1 


1 










Washington 


4 




2 


1 


1 


2 






1 


1 


Wicomico 


6 


5 


1 




2 




1 




1 


Worcester 


4 


3 




1 




4 


1 


2 




1 





















136 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

other counties and brought in 4 from other counties. In Charles 
and in Somerset one teacher left to teach in another county, 
while 4 entered each of these counties after teaching in other 
counties. Garrett figures show just the reverse of those in 
Charles and Somerset — 4 left, while 1 entered the county. Har- 
ford had 6 teachers leave for other counties, whereas 7 entered 
the service of Harford County after teaching in other counties. 
Prince George's figures are just double those of Harford. Dor- 
chester and Talbot are the only ones which took no teachers from 
other counties. (See Table 78.) 

Three-fifths of the changes were accompanied by a salary in- 
crease and nearly one-third meant a return to the home county. 
The reason for changing was not obvious for just over one-fifth 
of the records available in the office. Some of these changes may 
be explained by the desire of teachers for an opportunity to do a 
better piece of work in a new environment if their previous 
work was not satisfactory. (See Table 78.) 

TABLE 79 

Causes of Resignation of High School Teachers Who Resigned During 
or at End of School Year 1924-25, 1925-26, 1926-27, with Data for 

Individual Counties 1926-1927 



COUNTY 


Total Number 
Resignations 


Teaching But 

Not in Maryland 

Counties 
.. ... 


Marriage j ^ 


Work other 
Than Teaching 


Dropped for 
Inefficiency 


Moved Away 


Dropped Because 
of Provisional 
Certification or 
Failure to Attend 
Summer School 


Illness 


Retirement 


Death 


Other and 
Unknown 


*Leave of 
Absence 


Total 1927. 


171 


52 


42 


23 


20 


6 


5 


5 


3 


1 


14 


13 


1926 


194 


66 


46 


18 


20 


10 


11 


6 




3 


14 


7 


1925 


158 


68 


24 


17 


19 


3 


6 


1 


■ 2' 


2 


16 


5 




20 


3 


8 


1 


4 




3 








1 


2 


Anne Arundel 


5 




3 










1 






1 






17 


4 


5 




3 


1 










4 




Calvert 


2 








2 


















5 


1 


1 


1 








1 


1 






2 




15 


2 


7 


5 




1 














Cecil 


6 


2 




1 


2 












1 




Charles 


2 








1 
















Dorchester 


2 




1 














1 








4 


1 




1 


1 












1 


2 




14 


7 


3 




1 












3 


1 




13 


6 


3 


3 














1 


2 




5 


3 


1 


1 


















Kent 


1 


1 
























11 


3 


1 




2 


3 




1 






1 


2 


Prince George's 


7 


3 




2 


1 








1 








Queen Anne's 


3 








1 


1 


1 












St. Mary's 


1 






1 


















Somerset 


7 


3 


1 


2 






1 












Talbot 


6 


5 


1 






















10 


4 




3 








2 






1 






6 


1 


' '3' 




2 


















9 


3 


3 


2 










1 






1 





























* Not included in Total. 



Causes of Resignation, Turnover During Year 137 

Causes of Resignation of High School Tearhers 

Of 171 high school teachers who left the service in Maryland 
counties during or at the end of 1927, 52, or 30 per cent, remained 
in teaching, but not in Maryland counties ; 42, nearly one-fourth, 
married; 23, or 13 per cent, entered work other than teaching; 
20, or 12 per cent, were dropped for inefficiency ; and 5, or 3 per 
cent, were dropped because of provisional certificates and failure 
to attend summer school; 6 moved away; and 9, or 5 per cent, 
resigned for illness, retirement, or death. For 14, or 8 per cent, 
of the resignations there were still other or unknown causes. 
(See Table 79.) 

Turnover During the Year 1928 

Of the teaching staff who signed contracts for beginning serv- 
ice in white high schools in September, 1927, 31, or 3.2 per cent, 
of the staff left during the year, necessitating the employment of 
other persons to fill the vacancies. Seven counties had no changes 
during the year. In the other individual counties the number 
whose positions had to be filled later in the year varied from 
1 to 6. Over 5 per cent of the staff changed in Charles, St. 
Mary's, Howard, Caroline, Baltimore, Dorchester, and Carroll 
Counties. If teachers were found to be incompetent and 
incapable of meeting the teaching situation because of illness or 
personality difficulties, no doubt the changes were necessary and 
desirable. (See Table 80.) 



TABLE 80 

Number and Per Cent of White High School Teachers Employed in Excess 
of the Number of Teaching Positions in Order that Positions Be 
Kept Filled DURING the School Year Ending July 31, 1928 



County 



Kent 

Queen Anne's. . 

Somerset 

Washington . . . . 

Worcester 

Frederick 

Prince George's 
Montgomery . . . 



REPLACEMENTS 
Number Per Cent 



1 1.4 
1 1.6 
1 1.7 



County 



Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Carroll 

Dorchester . . . 
Baltimore . . . 

Caroline 

Howard 

St. Mary's. . . 
Charles 



REPLACEMENTS 
Number Per Cent 



2 2.0 

1 2.2 

1 2.4 

1 2.7 

1 3.3 

2 4.9 
4 5.6 
2 5.7 
6 6 7 
2 6 7 

2 8.0 
1 11.1 

3 23.1 



Total Average. 

Calvert 

Garrett 



31 3.2 Allegany. 

Wicomico , 
Harford . . 
Cecil 



138 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



MEN TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOLS INCREASING 

There has been a steady increase in the number of men teach- 
ing in the county white high schools from 1923 to 1928, there 
being 80 more in the later than in the earlier year. This increase, 
however, has not kept pace with the total increase in white high 
school teachers, so that the percentage of men teaching has de- 
clined from 36.9 in 1923 to 34.3 per cent in 1928. (See Table 
81.) 

TABLE 81 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County White High Schools 



Year Number Per Cent Year Number Per Cent 

1923 253 36.9 1926 303 35.0 

1924 271 36.2 1927 307 33.7 

1925 283 35.1 1928 333 34.3 



NUMBER OF APPROVED HIGH SCHOOLS 

With 153 approved white high schools in the counties in 1928, 
there was only one more than the number in 1927. As a result 
of legislation which took effect in September, 1927, with one 



TABLE 82 

Number of Approved High Schools in Maryland Counties, 1920-1928 



Year 


White High Schools 


Colored High Schools 


Total 


Group 
*1 


Group 
*2 


Group 
t*3 


Total 


Group 
*1 


Group 
*2 


Group 
t*3 



82 
115 
127 
139 
142 
148 
150 
152 
153 



34 
74 
78 
92 
106 
115 
120 
130 



141 



35 
18 
25 
25 
14 
15 
16 
7 



13 
23 
24 
22 
22 
18 
14 
15 
tl2 



4 
5 
6 
9 
13 
16 
16 
19 
21 



3 
4 
4 
8 
12 



14 



71 



72 



— 1 



17 



14 



* First group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 30, an attendance of 25, and 
two teachers. They give a four-year course. 

Second group schools have as a minimum an enrollment of 15, an attendance of 12, and 
1 teacher. They give a two-year course. Five two-teacher schools in Baltimore County giv- 
ing a one-year course were classified as third group schools. 

tSchools designated as third group schools prior to 1928 are now designated as second 
group schools. Most of the second group schools became first group schools. 



Men Teachers, Number of Approved High Schools 



139 



exception (Winfield, Carroll County), schools classified as second- 
group schools before that time became first-group schools with a 
four-year course. Schools classified as third-group schools be- 
fore September 1, 1927, were automatically designated as second- 
group schools after that time. The number of white first-group 
schools increased by 11, to 141, and the number of second-group 

TABLE 83 

Number of Approved High Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



County 



Number of Approved High Schools 



White 



Total 



Group 



Colored 



Total 



Group 



12 
1 


21 

1 
1 


14 

1 
1 


7 




4 












1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 




1 


1 


1 
1 
1 
1 






1 
1 








1 
1 














1 
1 

1 
1 


1 




1 
1 


1 


1 


1 








2 
2 

1 
1 
3 

1 


2 
1 

1 
1 






1 










3 




1 






12 


22 


15 


7 



Total Counties 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 
Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City 

Total State .... 



153 

11 
4 

10 
3 
6 

12 
8 
4 
7 
9 

5 
8 
6 
4 
10 

9 
5 
4 
4 
6 

6 
7 
5 



158 



141 

10 
4 
6 
3 
6 

11 
8 
4 
6 

8 

5 
7 
5 
4 
9 

8 
5 
4 
4 
6 

6 
7 
5 



146 



Location of All and New White High Schools 



141 



schools dropped to 12, which was 3 less than the number of 
so-called third-group schools in 1927. (See Table 82.) 



TABLE 84 



New High Schools and Change in Group of High Schools During 
School Year Ending July 31, 1928 



County 


From To 


County 


From 


To 


High School 


Group Group 


High School Group Group 


Allegany 






Howard 






rrrppTi St Tiininr 


3 


*9 


West Friendship 


2 


1 


Penn. Ave 


2 


1 


Savage 


3 


*2 


Midland 


2 


1 


Kent 






Oldtown 


2 


1 












Fairlee 


a 


t 


Baltimore 






Montgomery 






3 


*2 








3 


*2 


Bethesda and Junior 








3 


*2 


High (9j 


3 


1 


K.COPV 


3 


*2 


Dickerson 


3 




Cockeysville. . . . 


3 


t 


Germantown 


3 


*2 


VyAKROLL 






Queen Anne's 






Winfield 


2 


*2 


Colored 


o 
6 


'J 


Mechanicsville 


3 


1 


Qt TVTapv'c 
o 1 . iVl A rt I o 






Colored 


3 


*2 


Great Mills 


. . . 1 


new 


Charles 






Charlotte Hall 


1 




La Plata 




1 new 


Somerset 






Hughesville 




°1 new 


Fairmount 


1 


t 


Dorchester 






Greenwood (Colored) . 


3 


1 










Eldorado 


3 


*2 


Talbot 






Hudson 


a 


t 


St. Michael's 






Frederick 




Colored 


... 2 


new 








Walkersville .... 


3 


1 


Washington 






Wolfsville 


3 


1 


Colored 


2 


1 


Adamstown 


3 


*2 


Worcester 














Harford 






Pocomoke City 






Dublin 


2 


°1 


(Colored) 


3 


♦9 


Darlington 




*2 Re- 


Berlin (Colored) 


3 


*2 




opened 


Snow Hill (Colored) . . 


3 


*2 


" Two-teacher four- 


■year first group high 


school. 






* The- former classification of 


group 2 


discontinued, and all third group 


schools 


auto- 


matically became 


2nd group. 











t Abandoned. 



a Not approved. 

b No county pupils attending. 



142 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of approved high schools of each group in each 
county is shown in Table 83, and the changes in grouping which 
occurred from 1927 to 1928 in Table 84. Two new white schools 
were established in Charles County at Hughesville and La Plata, 
and one new one in St. Mary's, at Great Mills, all of the first 
group. (See Tables 83 and 84.) 

A map showing the distribution of the various high schools is 
included as Chart 24. 



SIZE OF SCHOOL 

The median white high school in Maryland counties had 84 
pupils and 4.4 teachers in 1928. In making this calculation, not 
only first-group schools were included, but also 12 second-group 
schools. The middle 50 per cent of the high schools had from 
50 to 150 pupils and from 3 to 7 teachers. Eight county schools 
have an enrollment above 500. 

It will be noted that schools having approximately the same 
enrollment varied considerably in the number of teachers. For 

TABLE 85 

Relation of Teaching Staff in High School and Size of Enrollment 
(Average Number Belonging) for Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Average 



Number of Teachers Employed in White Approved 
High Schools 



Total 
No. 



Belonging 


*1 


*2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 + 


Schools 


15 or less 


2 
4 












































2 
4 
15 
18 
30 
21 
15 
10 
9 
1 
3 
3 
5 
2 
4 
1 
1 


16- 25 












































26- 40 


10 

8 
3 


3 
6 
14 
2 
1 


2 
4 
10 
8 
3 






































41- 50 








































51- 75 




3 
5 
8 




































76-100 




3 
3 
4 


3 
































101-125 




































126-150 






5 
6 


1 






























151-175 












3 




























176-200 














1 
1 
1 
3 


























201-225 


















1 
1 


i 

2 


1 






















226-250 






































251-275 








































276-300 




















2 






















301-325 


















1 


tl 


1 








1 
1 






















































































1 


































































































































































































































































































8 


8 


Total 


6 


21 


26 


27 


16 


10 


14 


1 


6 


7 


4 


3 








2 




1 








8 


°152 



















tNinth year of Junior high school. 
*Represents mid point of interval. 
"Excludes St. Mary's Seminary. 



Size of School, State Aid to High Schools 



143 



example, for an enrollment from 76 to 100 the teaching staff 
employed varied from 3 to 7. For this enrollment State aid is 
allowed for 4 academic and 2 special teachers. Each of the 3 
schools having 7 teachers has at least one in excess of the number 
for whom State high school aid can be received. The pupils in 

TABLE 86 

State Aid to High Schools — Section 128 of School Law 



Number of Average 

Pupils Daily 
Enrolled Attendance 



Number of 
Academic Number 
Teachers of 
Including Special 
Principal Teachers 



MAXIMUM AMOUNT 
OF STATE AID FOR 

Academic Special 
Teachers Teachers 



First Group Schools 



30— 


54 


25— 47 


2 


.4 


$1 ,500 


$180 




HQ 




3 


1 


2,100 


450 


on 


194. 


80 109 


A 


2 


2 ,550 


900 




1 59 


1 1 1 43 

J. J. V/ J. 


5 




2,700 


975 


160 — 


194 


144—174 


6 


3 


2,850 


1,050 


195— 


229 


175—206 


7 


3^ 


3,000 


1,125 


230— 


264 


207—237 


8 


4 


3,150 


1,200 


265— 


299 


238—269 


9 


4K 


3,300 


1,237.50 


300— 


334 


270—300 


10 


43^ 


3,450 


1,275 


335— 


369 


301—332 


11 


4M 


3,600 


1,302.50 


370— 


404 


333—363 


12 


5 


$5,000 




405— 


439 


364—395 


13 




5,000 




440— 


474 


396—426 


14 




5,000 




Alb— 


509 


427—458 


15 


5^ 


5,000 




510— 


544 


459—489 


16 


6 


5,000 




545— 


579 


490—521 


17 


6^ 


5,000 




580— 


614 


522—553 


18 




5,000 




615— 


649 


554—584 


19 


en 


5,000 




650— 


684 


585—616 


20 


7 


5,000 




685— 


719 


617—647 


21 


7^ 


5,000 




720— 


754 


648—679 


22 


7^ 


5,000 




755— 


789 


680—710 


23 


73^ 


5,000 




790— 


824 


711—742 


24 


8 


5,000 




825— 


859 


743—773 


25 


8^ 


5,000 




860— 


894 


774—805 


26 




5,000 




895— 


929 


806—836 


27 




5,000 




930— 


964 


837—868 


28 


9 


5,000 




965— 


999 


869—899 


29 




5,000 




1,000— 


1,035 


900—932 


30 


9K2 


5,000 





Baltimore City Senior High Schools 6,000 



15 



Second Group Schools 
12 1 



650 



144 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



the schools with an enrollment of 76 to 100 with from 3 to 7 
teachers vary from a meager program with large classes to a 
rich program with small classes. Likewise, schools having 9 
teachers vary in enrollment from 176 to 325, depending on the 
size of building, the size of rooms and of classes and the policy of 
the county with respect to electives and special teachers. (See 
Table 85.) 

CHART 25 



AVERACaS NDMBER BKLONGINCJ PER TEACHER IN WHITE HIGH SCHOOLS 



County 
Co, Average 

Baltimore 

Charles 

Weu3hington 

Somerset 

An. Arundel 

Flrederick 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Kent 

Calvert 

Wicoraico 

Allegany 

St. MEiry»3 

Pr. George's 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Caroline 

GaiTett 

Qii. Anne's 

Worcester 

Csxroll 

Howard 

Balto. City 

State 




Above data for counties arranged alphabetically are available in Table XVII, page 319. 



High School Aid, Size of Classes, Salaries 



14o 



BASIS OF ALLOWANCE OF STATE HIGH SCHOOL AID 

The size of the enrollment and attendance and the number of 
academic and special teachers employed determine the allotment 
of State aid to high schools. The maximum allowance possible, 
provided the salaries paid are at least double the amount avail- 
able for State aid, viz., $900 for the principal, S600 for each of 
the first two academic teachers, ?450 for the third academic 
teacher, $450 for each of the first two special teachers, are shown 
in Table 86. 

HIGH SCHOOLS HAVE LARGER CLASSES 

The average number of pupils belonging per teacher was 21 
for 1928, an increase of .6 over 1927. The number per teacher 
ranged from 14.5 in Howard to 26 in Baltimore County. Whereas 
Howard in 1927 had 17 pupils per teacher, in 1928 there were 
only 14.5 pupils for every teacher. Only a few of the counties 
showed reduction from 1927 in the pupil-teacher ratio, viz., How- 
ard, mentioned before, Worcester, Dorchester, Anne Arundel, 
and Charles. All of the remainder showed increases for 1928 
over 1927, and the following a considerable increase : Montgom- 
ery, Harford, Kent, Allegany, St. Mary's, Cecil, Talbot, Caro- 
line, Garrett, and Carroll. Some of the counties, such as Carroll 
and Worcester, are restricted to small classes by the size of the 
rooms used in antiquated buildings. The provision of modern 
buildings will make possible a reduction in maintenance costs in 
so far as they are determined by size of class. (See Chart 25.) 

WHITE HIGH SCHOOL TK4CHERS RECEIVE SLIGHTLY HIGHER 

SALARIES 

The average salary of white high school teachers in the coun- 
ties in 1928, $1,544, increased by $10 over 1927. (See Table 87.) 
Salaries ranged from $1,378 in Wicomico, which ranked lowest in 
the State, to $1,867 in Baltimore County, which was far ahead 
of any other county on the list. A few counties — Allegany, Fred- 
erick, Garrett, Prince George's, Worcester, and Cecil — showed 
salary reductions from 1927 to 1928, probably due to a change 
in the experience status of their teaching staffs. Considerable 
increases appeared in Anne Arundel and Washington Counties. 
Only three counties — Wicomico, Cecil, and Kent — had an average 
salary of $1,400 or less. (See Chart 26.) 



146 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 26 



AVERAGE SAIART Pffi TEACHER IN WHITE HIGE SCHOOLS 



County 


1925 


1926 


1927 


Co. Average 


$1485 $1517 $1534 


Baltimore 


1B41 


1798 


1842 


Allegany 


1640 


1622 


1656 


Washington 


1561 


1510 


1545 


Anne Arundel 


1496 


1522 


1496 


Anne*s 


1501 


1522 


1557 


Frederick 


1518 


1559 


1593 


Uontgomery 


1557 


1634 


1553 


Charles 


1645 


1612 


1508 


Harford 


1453 


1527 


1495 


Carroll 


1391 


1451 


1477 


Calvert 


1339 


1401 


1469 


Caroline 


1246 


1427 


1447 


Talbot 


1482 


1530 


1460 




1439 


1468 


1525 




1392 


1443 


1434 


Pr. George's 


1338 


1414 


1458 


St. liELty's 


1350 


1335 


1407 


Worcester 


1407 


1423 


1452 


Somerset 


1323 


1376 


1398 


Howard 


1351 


1437 


1395 


Kent 


1392 


1423 


1344 


Cecil 


1413 


1409 


1416 


Wicomico 


1334 


1334 


1338 


Balto, City 


2565 


2684 


2572 


State 


1787 


1834 


1809 



^1544 




Salaries in Effect in October, 1928 

Distribution of salaries of white high school teachers in service 
in October, 1928, shows the median for assistant teachers to be 
$1,350, the same as in 1927, and for principals a median of 
$2,175, which is $75 higher than the preceding year. The great- 
est concentration for assistant teachers is found for salaries from 
$1,200 to $1,300, inclusive. The 28 assistant teachers receiving 
salaries of less than $1,150 are either holding provisional cer- 



Salaries of White High School Teachers 147 



TABLE 87 

Average Salary Per County White High School Teacher 1917-1928 





Average 




Average 




Salary 




Salary 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


Year Ending June 30 


White 


High School 


High School 




Teachers 




Teachers 


1917 


$ 798 
841 
908 
1,017 
1,289 
1,345 


1923 


$1,436 
1,477 
1,485 
1,517 
1,534 
1,544 


1918 


1924 


1919 


1925 


1920 


1926 


1921 


1927 


1922 


1928 







tificates or serving only for part-time. The assistant teachers 
receiving very high salaries are in almost every instance teachers 
of vocational agriculture. In some cases the salaiy of special 
teachers is made high enough to cover the expense of traveling 
daily between two schools. (See Table 88.) 



TABLE 88 



Distribution of Salaries of White High School Teachers in Service 

October, 1928 



ASSISTANT 


TEACHERS 




PRINCIPALS 




Salaries 


Number 


Salaries 


Number 


Salaries 


Number 


Salaries 


Number 


$ 950 




$1,850 


11 


$1,400 


2 


$2,350 


6 


or less 


14 


1,900 


7 


1,450 


1 


2,400 


10 


1,000 


2 


1,950 


5 


1,500 


1 


2,450 




1,050 


10 


2,000 


32 


1,550 


2 


2,500 


8 


1,100 


2 


2,050 


1 


1,600 


2 


2,550 


2 


1,150 


44 


2,100 


4 


1,650 


6 


2,600 


6 


1,200 


131 


2,150 


2 


1,700 


3 


2,650 


1 


1,250 


109 


2,200 


8 


1,750 


7 


2,700 


2 


1,300 


101 


2,250 


1 


1,800 


6 


2,750 




1,350 


72 


2,300 


2 


1,850 


9 


2,800 


9 


1,400 


88 


2,350 


2 


1,900 


4 


2,850 




1,450 


26 


2,400 


4 


1,950 


11 


2,900 


2 


1,500 


82 


2,450 




2,000 


11 


2,950 


1 


1 ,550 


20 


2,500 


2 


2,050 




3,000 


7 


1,600 


30 


2,600 




2,100 


5 


3,050 


2 


1,650 


14 


2,700 


1 


2,150 


4 




1,700 


23 


2,800 


1 


2,200 


9 


3,500 


4 


1,750 


3 


2,900 


1 


2,250 


4 


3.600 


2 


1,800 


39 


3,000 


1 


2,300 


5 


4.500 


1 


Total 






895 


Total 






148 


Median 






$1,350 


Median 






$2,175 



148 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CURRENT EXPENSE COST PER COUNTY WHITE HIGH SCHOOL 

PUPIL $96 

The cost of educating a pupil in the county white high schools 
in 1928, exclusive of debt service and capital outlay charges, was 
$96, a reduction of $2 under 1927. Expenditures ranged from 
$77 in Washington County to $125 in Carroll. Howard showed 
an increase of $15 in cost per pupil, making the total in 1928 
$116, which probably resulted from the decrease in number be- 

CHART 27 



COST PER WHITE HIGH SCHCX)L RJPIL BELONGING 
FCR CURRENT iOPMSES ECCUJDING GENERAL CONTROL 









X<7W f 




& 95 






Carroll 


113 


135 


128 


Howard 


97 


102 


101 


Qu. Anne '3 


125 


124 


112 


Allegany- 


102 


111 


12a 


Worcester 


113 


105 


106 


Garrett 


109 


109 


115 


TaiDOt 


105 


122 


107 


Dorchester 


103 


99 


99 


Kontgonery 


97 


97 


94 


Cecil 


103 


99 


97 


Caroline 


93 


98 


99 


Kent 


126 


111 


96 


Baltimore 


94 


94 


96 


Pr. George's 


88 


93 


103 


Wicomico 


86 


94 


89 


St. MEiry»3 


57 


58 


83 


Calvert 


81 


108 


104 


An. Arundel 


94 


92 


75 


Soraerset 


91 


92 


90 


Frederick 


85 


86 


87 


Harford 


87 


84 


86 


Charles 


68 


78 


78 


Washington 


71 


67 


76 


Balto. City- 


136 


136 


137 


state 


109 


109 


no 




Cost per White High School Pupil 



149 



longing per teacher, evident in Chart 25, page 144. The reduction 
of $20 in Allegany County and $10 in Garrett is undoubtedly 
due to the considerable increase in size of class, shown previously 
in Chart 25. There have also been large decreases in cost per 
pupil in Prince George's and Calvert Counties. (See Chart 27.) 

Cost per Pupil for Salaries 

The average county cost per pupil for salaries of high school 
teachers ($73) ranged from $98 in Carroll to $61 in Somerset. 
The cost per pupil for salaries is determined by two factors — 
ratio of pupils to teachers and salaries of teachers. The seven 
counties having the smallest enrollment per teacher have the 
highest salary cost per pupil. These counties, in order of cost 
per pupil, are Carroll, Howard, Queen Anne's, Worcester, Caro- 
line, Garrett, and Talbot. Although Allegany County held a 
median position in size of class, it ranked fourth in cost per pupil, 
probably because it ranks second among the counties in salary 
per teacher. On the other hand, with the exception of Baltimore 
County, which has the largest classes and the highest salaries 
among the counties,* one counteracting the other to give Balti- 
more a rank of 13 in cost per pupil for salaries, the counties 
having the largest classes rank lowest in cost per pupil for sal- 
aries. Somerset, Charles, Washington, Anne Arundel, and Fred- 
erick all have low salary costs per pupil. This was also true in 
Kent and Wicomico. Kent had some of its salaries unpaid at 
the end of the school year in July, 1928, and there were over- 
crowded conditions due to lack of classrooms at Chestertown. 
Wicomico had the lowest salaries in the State. (See Table 89.) 

The greatest increases over 1927 appeared in Howard and 
Anne Arundel, the increases amounting to $15 and $11 per pupil 
for salaries, due to the decreases in enrollment per teacher. Large 
decreases w^ere evident in Allegany $14, Garrett $9, Talbot $8, 
and Cecil $5, due to increases in enrollment per teacher. 

Cost per Pupil for Books and Materials 

The counties spent for books and materials for each pupil 
belonging on the average $6.75, an increase of seven cents over 
1927. The counties ranged in expenditure per pupil from $2.49 
and $2.90 in Queen Anne's and Calvert, respectively, to $14.25 
in Allegany, $12.40 in Carroll, and $10.10 in Garrett. Each 
county received from the State textbook and materials fund ap- 
proximately $1 per pupil and the counties entitled to the Equal- 
ization Fund received additional funds which could be used for 
purchase of books and materials. Queen Anne's and Calvert, 
which spent very little for books and materials, both share in 
the Equalization Fund. Caroline, Charles, and Prince George's 



* Baltimore County also has a county supervisor of hi^^h schools whose salary is included 
with those of the teachers, and is also included as part of the per p\tpil cost for salaries. 



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Cost per White High School Pupil 



151 



also spent less than the average county for books and materials, 
although they are recipients of the Equalization Fund. At the 
opposite extreme, Carroll and Garrett, which require the Equal- 
ization Fund to carry the minimum State program, were able to 
devote a considerable portion to the purchase of books and mate- 
rials for high school pupils. Allegany probably charged expendi- 
tures for library books to the fund for books and materials, 
whereas in other counties these were reported as auxiliary agen- 
cies. In St. Mary's the large amount shown does not indicate a 
generous provision of books and materials, but merely that the 
entire sum paid St. Mary's Seminary for educating county pupils 
was reported as ''Other Costs of Instruction." 

Cecil, Garrett, and Talbot all spent at least one dollar per 
pupil more for books and materials in 1928 than in 1927, while 
Calvert, Baltimore, and Somerset spent considerably less per 
pupil for costs of instruction other than salaries in 1928 than in 
1927. (See Table 89.) 

Cost of Cleaning^, Heating, and Repairing Buildings 

The average cost per pupil of cleaning and heating high school 
buildings was $6.96, a decrease of 55 cents under 1927. Costs 
varied from $13 per pupil in Calvert to $4.69 per pupil in Dor- 
chester. In Calvert janitors were employed for the three high 
school buildings and their entire salaries charged against the 
high schools, since no other elementary schools in the county are 
furnished janitorial service. Howard, Queen Anne's, and Caro- 
line. Counties spent between $9 and $10 for this purpose, and 
these three counties showed considerable increases over 1927. 
In Caroline there was an increase in expenditure for fuel. Dor- 
chester was the only county which spent less than $5 per pupil 
for operation of high school buildings. The amount spent in 
Dorchester was considerably below that in 1927, due to a consid- 
erable decrease under 1927 in the expenditure for fuel. 

For repair of high school buildings, the cost per pupil varied 
from 63, 81, and 89 cents in Somerset, Queen Anne's, and Wash- 
ington Counties, respectively, to $7.30 in Prince George's, $7.12 
in Carroll, $6.44 in Kent, and $6.38 in Cecil County. The aver- 
age cost for all counties ($3.24) was a reduction of 38 cents 
under 1927 costs per pupil. (See Table 89.) 

Cost for Auxiliary Agencies per High School Pupil 

Expenditure per pupil for auxiliary agencies in high school 
varied from nothing in Calvert, 37 cents in St. Mary's, 60 cents 
in Harford, and 81 cents in Carroll, to sums over $10 per pupil 
in Somerset, Worcester, Queen Anne's, Kent, Talbot, Dorchester, 
and Wicomico. (See Table 89.) 



152 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Transportation Costs 

It will be seen in Table 90 that the major portion of the county 
expenditures for auxiliary agencies in white high schools, 
$93,308, was used for transportation. There were transported 
3,912 white high school pupils at an average cost to the general 
public of $24 per pupil transported. Certain counties, like Som- 
erset, Worcester, Dorchester, Wicomico, and Allegany, trans- 
ported pupils to high school without requiring any contribution 
from the family of the pupil transported. Other counties re- 
quired parents to contribute from $1 to $4 monthly toward the 
cost of transportation. In still other counties no provision what- 
ever was made for transporting any high school pupils under 



TABLE 90 

Expenditures for Auxiliary Agencies in White High Schools 



COUNTY 



Transportation 



^ c 

O O. 

a X 

CO M 

^§ 

o 



c 
a 



< 



o 



o ' 



0) XI 
to «- 

c 2 

W 0:2 

COh to 

CO o 2 



Libraries 



3 

c 
a 

X 



o 



Amount per 



o 
o 

o 



(J 
Eh 



Health 



S 

a 



o 
Eh 



a 

3 

a 
c 

3 

o 
S 



Total and Average . , 

Somerset 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Dorchester . . . . 

Wicomico 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Montgomery. . . 

Caroline 

Charles 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel . . 

Allegany 

Washington . . . . 

Cecil 

Prince George's 

Howard 

Carroll 

Harford 

St. Mary's 

Calvert 



3,912 

290 
297 
200 
158 
208 
278 
258 
646 
164 
359 
171 
120 
131 
159 
111 
117 

32 
160 

37 



16 



$93,308 

9,514 
8,568 
4,977 
5,620 
6,196 
8,067 
8,402 
13,856 
2,910 
4,232 
2,123 
1 ,425 
3,799 
1,513 
4,169 
2,815 
1,560 
2,663 
499 



400 



$24 

33 
29 
25 
36 
30 
29 
33 
21 
18 
12 
12 
12 
29 
10 
38 
24 
49 
17 
13 



25 



$33,712 



g4,000 
al,562 



tl0,288 
e2,2M 
^6,193 
a2,556 
il,713 

"*3|656 



?637 
«538 



i285 



$4,571 


$ 30 


$ 4 


.73 


$9,265 


$.45 


280 


70 


9 


79 






110 


22 


2 


98 






80 


16 


3 


64 


3 


' ' oi 


26 


7 


1 


24 


34 


.07 


238 


40 


8 


06 




59 


8 


1 


70 






888 


127 


20 


00 






235 


23 


2 


63 


'7^668 


2.92 


146 


29 


4 


55 


50 


.08 


814 


81 


15 


48 


679 


.59 


241 


40 


8 


62 


120 


.22 


10 


2 




77 


45 


.14 


50 


6 




70 






20 


5 




51 


"267 


' ' !29 


266 


24 


2 


50 


12 


.01 


893 


149 


14 


00 


299 


.19 


30 


4 




82 






40 


4 




64 


200 


' "l6 


10 


2 




41 














"482 


' ' '.44 


135 


17 


3 


29 










6 


" '. 04 





















* No charge made in 1928-29. t County pays costs over 20 cents per day. Does not include fares 
collected by bus drivers not reported to office, a $2 a month, b From $10 to $35 per pupil per year. 
c $35 per pupil per year, d $22.50 per pupil per year. ^ $15 per pupil per year. / From $25 to $40 
per pupil per year, g $20 per pupil per year, h $11 per pupil per year, i $10 per pupil per year. 



Cost of Transpobtatton, Libraries, and Health Activities 153 



county auspices at county expense, and if it was necessary, it was 
done wholly at the expense of the family. This was the case in 
Carroll, St. Mary's, and Calvert. Some of the counties included 
in their reports the amounts contributed by parents and they 
are shown in column 4. (See Table 90.) 

Library Costs 

For high school libraries the counties reported a total expendi- 
ture of $4,571, which averaged $30 per school and $4.73 
per teacher. The largest amounts per teacher were spent in 
Wicomico, Montgomery, Washington, Somerset, Caroline, and 
Talbot. Carroll, St. Mary's, and Calvert reported no expendi- 
tures for libraries, and Howard, Anne Arundel, Prince George's, 
Frederick, Charles, and Cecil spent less than $1 per teacher for 
libraries, hardly enough for one book per high school teacher. 
These amounts do not include funds raised by the school, pupils, 
parents, or teacher, which in many cases have been used for 
library purposes. (See Table 90.) 

Health Costs 

For health activities nothing was spent by the Board of Edu- 
cation in Somerset, Worcester, Talbot, Dorchester, Wicomico, 
Frederick, Cecil, Howard, Harford, and Calvert, nearly one-half 
of the counties. Baltimore County spent over $7,000, or $2.92 
per high school pupil belonging. This included the work of the 
Playground Athletic League in the high schools of the county. 
Montgomery, Carroll, and Anne Arundel, w^hich employ health 
nurses, spent from 59 cents to 22 cents per pupil. Some of the 
other counties spent small amounts for services performed by the 
Playground Athletic League. (See Table 90.) For further data 
regarding activties of the P. A. L. see pages 208-210. 

Capital Outlay Expenditures per High School Pupil 

The average county invested funds in high school buildings in 
1928 which, divided by the number of high school pupils, repre- 
sented an outlay of $21.80 per pupil. Expenditures per pupil 
for capital outlay varied in the counties from $115 in Montgom- 
ery, $66 in Charles, $42 in Frederick, $40 in Talbot, $32 in Alle- 
gany, $31 in Prince George's, and $29 in Somerset, down to less 
than $1 in Kent and Wicomico. (See Tabic 89, page 150.) For 
expenditures for capital outlay, see Table 148, page 239. 

VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE IN MARYLAND COUNTY 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

In 1928, full-time courses in vocational agriculture were avail- 
able to the pupils in 33 white high schools and 1 colored school 



154 



1928 Report of State department of Education 



in 14 counties. Four of these counties offered unit courses to 7 
additional white schools. There was no change in the counties 
which gave high school pupils the opportunity of studying 
vocational agriculture. There were 26 teachers to give the in- 
struction. Baltimore County had a course in general agriculture 
in Sparks High School, but the work offered could not be reim- 
bursed under the Smith-Hughes Act. (See Table 91.) 

TABLE 91 

Number of White High Schools Having Departments of Vocational Agri- 
culture and Vocational Home Economics for Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Number of Departments of 



COUNTY 


Vocational Agriculture 


Voca- 
tional 
Home 
Economics 


All Day 
Courses 


Unit 
Courses 


Allegany 


2 
1 
3 
*2 
*4 
4 
2 
*3 
*3 
*3 
*2 
1 
1 

*2 




2 


Anne Arundel 




Carroll 


2 


Dorchester 




Frederick 


3 




Garrett 


Harford 




Howard 




Montgomery 




Prince George's 




Queen Anne's 




Somerset 


1 




Washington 


Worcester 


1 


0-1 


Total 


t33 
866 


7 

120 


°17 
631 


Enrollment 





* One teacher takes care of 2 departments, 
t Each of seven teachers has 2 departments. 
" One department is taught by 2 teachers. 



The enrollment for vocational agriculture in each high school 
each year since 1923 is shown in Table 92. The continuity of 
the work in most of the schools is evident from the table. Cal- 
vert, Caroline, Cecil, and Talbot are the only counties which 
abandoned courses in vocational agriculture after once having 
had them. The schools in which unit courses were offered are 
shown in a note at the bottom of the table. The total of 830 in 
all day courses for 1928 includes all boys who were enrolled for 
at least one month of work. It will be noted that there has been 
a steady growth in the total number of boys enrolled for all day 
courses. 



Vocational Agriculture 



155 



TABLE 92 

Dav School Enrollment Taking Vocational Agriculture for Year Ending 

July 31, 1923-1928 



COUNTY 


SCHOOL 


1923 


1924 


1925 


1926 


tl927 


tl928 


Allegany 


. . . Flintstone 


28 


21 


37 


42 


26 


32 














12 


Anne Arundel 


.... Millersville 






17 


14 


17 


17 




















. . . .Ridgely 


20 


15 














18 


18 














16 




97 


O 1 


1 7 






Hampstead 


6 
19 


11 

23 


25 
20 
9 


11 
16 

16 


11 

16 

18 


14 

22 

20 


Cecil 




7 


9 


8 


22 




, , 




Calvert Agricultural . . . 




12 


15 


9 
















18 


16 


16 












16 


12 


7 






32 


38 


Q9 


AA 




AR 
4D 




Frederick 


21 
21 
16 


36 
30 
18 


34 
34 
17 


42 
40 
16 


38 
27 
27 






10 


14 


18 


28 


32 


32 




Accident 




OA 

30 
12 


33 
16 


04 

35 
30 


ou 
38 
27 








OA 


91 


ZO 


OR 


97 






22 


27 


26 


32 


55 


53 


Howard 




15 


18 


18 


17 


9 


10 




West Friendship 


20 
18 


19 
15 


16 
15 






23 


28 




1 Q 

1 o 


OU 


90 




Damascus 

Rockville 


18 
19 
14 


16 
10 

91 
£.1 

* 


21 
11 
1 fi 

8 


30 

97 






Z ( 


OO 


A 1 

4 1 


o4 


o4 


OO 




Baden 

Brandywine 


22 


27 


34 


26 


18 
13 


18 
10 






g 


19 


18 


15 


16 


18 




Stevensville 

Sudlersville 


4 


15 


18 


11 


12 


15 








16 


25 


26 


44 


45 




Marion 




Talbot 


. . . .Easton 


13 


40 


20 


13 










23 






Washington 




25 


23 


18 










Smithsburg 


21 


28 


22 


Worcester 


. . . Berlin 




13 


15 


12 


16 


18 




Snow Hill 

Pocomoke 




19 

9 


24 
9 


14 
* 


10 


19 


Total 




344 


599 


696 


800 


t818 


'18 30 



* Unit course. 

t The following was the enrollment in unit courses in 1927: Carroll — Manchester 11, Sykesville 4; 
Dorchester — Hurlock 10; Frederick — Adamstown 17, Liberty 8, Wa'.kersville 17. 

X The following was the enrollment in unit courses in 1928: Frederick — ^.\damstown 15, Liberty 16, 
Walkersville 12; Carroll — Manchester 16, Sykesville 15; Somerset — Marion 36; Worcester — Stockton 
10. 

" Pupils enrolled one month or more. 



156 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

TABLE 93 

Agricultural Projects Begun in 1926-1927 and Completed in 1927-1928 





Number of Pupils 


Completed Projects 


Character of Project 


Enrolled 


Com- 
pleting 
Projects 


Scope 
(Acres or 
Head) 


Total Yield 
(lbs., Bu., Etc.) 


Pupils' 
Project 
Income 



All Day Courses 



animal Production Projects 

Calf 

Dairy 

Ducks 

Dairy Herd Records 

Dairy Herd Testing 

Chickens 

Capon 

Pigeon 

Rabbits 

Turkeys 

Sheep 

Poultry 

Swine 

Total 

Plant Production 

Alfalfa 

Beans 

Beans (lima) 

Corn 

Potatoes 

Strawberry 

Tobacco 

Vegetable 

Total 

Management 

Poultry 

Horse 

Sheep 

Farm Accounts 

Landscape Gardening 

Specials 

Corn Breeding 

Peas 

Potato 

Total 

Grand Total 



71 
7 
6 
7 
25 
41 
1 
2 
4 
3 
8 

146 
191 



512 



1 
1 
1 
16 
24 
1 
1 
3 



48 



3 
2 
1 
18 
1 
6 
3 
1 
1 



36 



t596 



66 
5 
6 
6 
22 
35 
1 
2 
3 
3 
8 

121 
157 



435 



1 
1 
1 
13 
15 
1 
1 
3 



36 



3 
2 
1 
15 
1 
6 
3 
1 
1 



33 



504 



75 
8 

168 
28 

244 
2,168 
25 
60 
70 
37 

231 

8,611 
451 



1 
1 

.25 

109 
2.25 
.5 

1 
1 



8 
25 



4fl 



.50 



5,858 gal. milk 
53 



1,304 
25 



261 



149 lbs. mutton 
10 lbs. wool 



290 bu., 146 bbl. 
101 bu. 

65 crates 
730 lbs. 



9,164 lbs. 
70 bu. 



$ 3,723.79 
504.70 
35.88 
3,425.13* 
* 

1,393.30 
27.70 
25.56 
11.43 
100.35 

26.96" 
5,422.70 
7,547.03 



$22,244.47 



10.93 
493.62 
289.44 
216.50 
152.80 
130.95 



$ 1,294.24 



335.61 
65.00 
482.97 



75.11 
270.75 
68.85 



$ 1,298.29* 



$24,837.00 



Unit Courses 



2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


33 


16 


10 


705 


11 


11 


14 


1 


1 




2 


2 


3 


7 


2 




41 


30 




**637 


534 



Calf 

Ducks 

Pimltry 

Swine 

Bean 

Corn 

Potato 

Total 

Grand total 



18 bu. 
43 bbl. 
28 bu. 



56.00 
29.06 
221.73 
350.10 
10.00 
42.75 
20.00 



$ 729.64 



$25,566.64 



*Boys did not receive profits accruing from dairy herds or management projects, 
flncluded 515 different individuals. 
**Included 556 different individuals. 



Project Work in Agriculture, Vocational Education Costs 157 



In addition to the regular school work, each boy enrolled in 
vocational agriculture must select an individual project on the 
home or community farm, for the conduct of which he is respon- 
sible. The teacher is required to give time to the supervision 
of work on projects. To provide experience in both animal and 
plant production, each is stressed in alternate years. The major- 
ity of the projects begun in 1926-27 and completed in 1927-28 
were in animal production. Projects were completed by 504 boys 
in all day courses, from which a total income of §24,837 was 
earned. The average income from project work per boy was 549. 
(See Table 93.) 

The summary of the projects undertaken by boys enrolled 
during 1927-28 shows that the majority in all-day courses under- 
took plant projects, potatoes and corn being the choice of a large 
number of boys. (See Table 94.) 

Cost of Vocational Work in County High Schools 

The maximum allotment to Maryland from the Federal Gov- 
ernment under the Smith-Hughes Act is $96,052, of which a 
maximum of $33,864 is allocated to agriculture, $48,418 to indus- 
trial education and home economics, and $13,770 to teacher train- 
ing. The amount actually received from Federal Funds was 
$73,969, leaving an unexpended balance of $22,083, which had 
to be returned to the Federal Government because there were no 
part-time and continuation classes such as are required by the 
Act. Of the total received, $28,117 was expended for salaries 
of teachers of agriculture, $23,690 for salaries of teachers of 
trade and industrial subjects, $9,684 for salaries of teachers of 
home economics, and $12,478 for supervision and teacher train- 
ing in these three branches. 

In addition to the Federal appropriation, the State expended 
toward salaries of vocational teachers $9,109 and for supervision 
$7,527 ; the counties, $32,359 ; the Bureau of Mines and the Uni- 
versity of Maryland, $11,374, and Baltimore City, $92,697, mak- 
ing the total expenditure $227,035. 

Vocational Agriculture and Home Economics 

The funds provided in each county, as well as the allowances 
from State and Federal Funds, are shown for salaries of teachers 
of agriculture, home economics, and day and evening industrial 
work in Table 95. The source of funds used for these purposes — 
county .4, State .1, and Federal Government .5 — are given in the 
first three columns. The enrollment in all day courses, exclusive 
of the enrollment in unit courses, is given in the fifth column, and 
the cost of the salary of the vocational teacher per pupil enrolled 
for the full course is given in the last column. The counties are 



158 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 94 



Summary of Projects for 1927-28 in Vocational Agriculture 



Character of Project 


All Day Courses 


Day Unit 
Courses 


Prevocational 
Courses 


Scope of 
Project 

(Head or 
Acres) 


Number 
Enrolled 


Scope of 
Project 

(Head or 
Acres) 


Number 
Enrolled 


Scope of 
Project 
(Head or 
Acres) 


Number 
Enrolled 


Animal Production: 

Bull 


1 
52 
3,278 
39 
55 
75 
40 
1,390 
213 
9 


1 

43 
36 

5 

6 
12 

1 
28 
67 

1 










Calf 


3 

850 


3 
17 


9 

710 


5 
12 


Chicken 


Dairy 


Dairy Herd Records 










Dairy Herd Testing 


10 


10 






Pigeons 


6 


1 

6 
4 


Poultry 






Swine 


15 


18 


5 


Sheep 


Ducks 






10 
10 
8 


2 
1 
3 


Geese 










Rabbits 










Total 












200 

12 
4 
7 

109 
13 
1 
3 
75 
9 
10 
2 
4 

228 
5 
3 

3 
1 
9 

16 
25 
17 
3 
2 
1 
1 
1 




48 




34 
1 


Plant Production: 

Bean 


8 

9.50 
1.75 
203 75 
19.50 
10 
3.50 

32.30 
* 

66.50 
5. 

9.50 
143 75 
10. 
1 '^O 
1.50 
.25 

5 
19 
27 
97 

2 

4 

1 

1 

.50 




.25 


Buckwheat 






[Breeding 










Corn -1 Field 


12 


11 






[Sweet 


6.12 


3 








Fruit 










„ , . j Vegetable 


1 


4 


3 


12 


Gardening ] Landscape 


Oats 






























Potatoes 


25 .25 


31 


3 


5 


Soy Beans 


Sweet Potatoes 










Cabbage 










Cucumbers 










Strawberries 


2 


3 






Tobacco 






Tomato 


14.25 


14 






Wheat 






Wormseed 










IVIfisopllanpmiR T^orafrp r^rnn^ 










Mangles 










Melons 




















Total 












564 

22 
10 
9 
1 
1 




63 




21 


Management: 

Farm Accounts 


22 farms 
10 
9 

1 stand 
1 






Farm Management 










Marketing Studies (Communities) .... 
Roadside Marketing Accounts 


















Soil Survey (Community) 










Total 












43 
























t.807 




**111 




55 











*Home Grounds. 

flncludes 702 different individual boys. 
♦♦Includes 74 different individual boys. 



Project Work in Agriculture, Vocational Education Costs 159 



TABLE 95 

Salary Cost of Vocational Education in Maryland Counties for Year 

Ending July 31, 1928 



rOTTMTV 


Expenditures for Salaries of County 
Vocational Teachers from 


En- 
roll- 
mpnl" 


Voc. Ed. 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


County 
Funds 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Agriculture 
























Garrett 


$ 3,240 


15 


$ 810 


04 


$ 4,050 


19 


$ 8,100 


38 


147 


$ 55 


.10 


Frederick 


2,783 


31 


695 


84 


3,479 


14 


6,958 


29 


1 Q Q 

loo 


50 


42 


Carroll 


1,961 


68 


490 


43 


2,452 


07 


4,904 


18 


56 


87 


57 


TT„ _f ^_ J 

xiariora 


1,920 


00 


480 


00 


2,400 


00 


4,800 


00 


oU 


60 


00 


Allegany 


1,704 


00 


426 


00 


2,130 


00 


4,260 


00 


44 


96 


.82 


Montgomery . . 
°Pr. George's. . . 


1,609 


37 


402 


36 


2,011 


72 


4,023 


45 


86 


46 


.78 


1 ,529 


99 


382 


51 


1 ,912 


49 


3,824 


99 


73 


52 


40 


Howard 


1^425 


19 


356 


29 


1,781 


51 


3,562 


99 


41 


86 


90 


Worcester 


1 ,120 


00 


280 


00 


1 ,400 


00 


2,800 


00 


37 


75 


68 


Queen Anne's. . 


'900 


00 


225 


00 


1,125 


00 


2,250 


00 


33 


68 


18 


Somerset 


837 


00 


209 


25 


1,046 


25 


2,092 


50 


45 


46 


55 


Dorchester. . . . 


833 


34 


208 


33 


1,041 


67 


2,083 


34 


23 


90 


58 


Washington . . . 


650 


00 


162 


50 


812 


50 


1,625 


00 


22 


73 


86 


Anne Arundel. . 


480 


00 


120 


00 


600 


00 


1,200 


00 


17 


70 


59 


1 oiai 


$20,994 


03 


$5,248 


55 


$26,242 


54 


$52,485 


12 




$ 62 


30 


JlOME HiCONOMICS 
























Garrett 


$ 2,812 


62 


$1,055 


66 


$ 3 163 


29 


$ 7 031 


57 


225 


$ 31 


25 


Pr. George's. . . 


1,100 


00 


402 


50 


1,247 


50 


2,750 


00 


73 


37 


67 


W^orcester 


940 


00 


352 


50 


1,057 


50 


2,350 


00 


58 


40 


52 


Allegany 


896 


00 


404 


55 


939 


45 


2 ,240 


00 


80 





AA 
UO 


Howard 


860 


00 


322 


50 


967 


50 


2,150 


00 


46 


46 


74 


Harford 


480 


00 


180 


00 


540 


00 


1,200 


00 


28 


42 


86 


Frederick 


480 


00 


180 


00 


540 


00 


1,200 


00 


23 


52 


17 


Montgomery . . 


444 


16 


163 


84 


502 


40 


1,110 


40 


do 


31 


73 


Somerset 


390 


00 


139 


16 


445 


84 


975 


00 


40 


24 


38 


Anne Arundel. . 


248 


34 


93. 


33 


279 


16 


620 


83 




26 


99 


Total 


$ 8,651. 


12 


$3,294. 


04 


$ 9,682. 


64 


$21,627 


80 


631 


$ 34 


28 


Industries 
t*Bureau of 
Mines 


t$3,170.00 
2,070.73 
447 . 50 

196.00 




$ 3,170. 
2,588. 
447. 

245. 


00 
42 
50 

00 


$ 6,340 
5,176 
895 

490 


00 
83 
00 

00 


250 
85 
92 

39 


25 
60 
9 

12 


36 
90 
73 

56 


•Washington . . . 
* Allegany 


517. 


68 


*Anne Arundel 
(Colored) . . . 

Total 

Grand Total. 


49 


00 


$ 5,884. 


23 


$ 566. 


68 


$ 6,450. 


92 


$12,901. 


83 


466 


$ 27 


69 


$35,529.38 


$9,109.27 


$42,376.10 


$87,014. 


75 


1,975 


$ 44 


06 



•Evening: except for 39-day students in Washington County, 
t Includes Uriversity of Maryland as well as Bureau of Mines. 

"Includes following for Colored High School: County, $155.99; State, $39.01; Fed- 
eral. $194.99. Total. $389.99. Enrollment. 12 ; Salary Cost, $32.50. 



160 



1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 



arranged from highest to lowest in the order of the total amount 
spent for salaries of teachers of vocational agriculture and voca- 
tional home economics. (See Table 95.) 

The counties of Western Maryland have taken the most advan- 
tage of the opportunity to develop courses in vocational agricul- 
ture, Garrett having them in four of its five first-group schools. 
Frederick has three teachers giving full courses in four high 
schools, and Carroll has three teachers offering regular courses 
in three schools. The remaining counties have less than three 
teachers of agriculture. The average expenditure per pupiL 
taking the regular vocational course for salary of agricultural 
teacher was $62, and the range was from $97 in Allegany to $47 
in Somerset and Montgomery. (See Table 95.) 

For vocational home economics, there were five teachers in 
Garrett and two each in Prince George's, Worcester, Allegany, 
and Howard. The remaining counties each had one teacher for 
the subject. The average cost of the salary of the home economics 
teacher per girl enrolled was $34, with a range from $52 in 
Frederick to $24 in Somerset. 

Courses in Industrial Work 

Baltimore City and Hagerstown are the only centers in the 
State which have day vocational schools or industrial courses as 
a department in the high school. In Baltimore City there were 
2 vocational schools for white boys and 1 each for white girls, 
colored boys, and colored girls. The average net roll in the white 
vocational schools was 600 and in the colored schools 243. The 
teaching staff employed included 39 men and 15 women. 

The following courses were offered : 

Boys Girls 
Automobile Trade (white and Dressmaking (white and colored). 

colored). Institutional Cookery (white and 

Carpentry (white and colored). colored). 
Cabinet Making (white and Millinery and Novelty Work. 

colored). Personal Hygiene. 

Pattern Making. Power Machine Operation. 

Electrical Trade. 
Machine Shop Practice. 
Plumbing. 
Printing. 

Shoe Repairing (colored). 
Tailoring (colored). 

Baltimore City spent $81,580 for salaries of teachers for day 
vocational schools, an increase of $15,000 over the preceding 
year. The salary cost per pupil enrolled was $78. (See Table 
96.) 

At Hagerstown all day unit trade courses in carpentry, cabinet 
making, and automobile work were conducted in the technical 
education department of the high school. 



Vocational Work in Baltimore and Evening Industrial Work 



161 



TABLE 96 



Salary Expenditures in Baltimore City for Vocational Education, Year 

Ending July 31, 1928 



Type of School 


From 
City 
Funds 


From 
Federal 
Funds 


Total 


Enroll- 
ment 


Vocational 

HiUULdl/lUIi 

Salary 
Cost per 

Pupil 
Enrolled 


Day Industrial 

Part-time Industrial 

Evening Industrial 

Evening Home Economics 

Totals 


$73,833.52 
850.00 
8,642.75 
9,370.50 


$7,746.48 
850.00 
8,642.75 
1.00 


$81,580.00 
1,700.00 
17,285.50 
9,371.50 


1,047 
211 
1,405 
1,048 


$77.92 
8.06 
12.30 
8.94 


$92,696.77 


$17,240.23 


$109,937.00 


3,711 


$ 29.62 



Evening Industrial Courses 

Baltimore City had a varied program of evening courses in 
industrial work. In addition to the courses available for day 
schools there were courses in the following : 

Alternating and Direct Current Motors and Machinery. 

Architectural Drawing. 

Cost Estimating for Building Trades. 

Mathematics for Carpenters, Machinists, and Plumbers. 

Mechanical Drawing. 

Oxy-acetylene Welding. 

Painting and Decorating. 

Power Plant Engineering. 

Radio Practice. 

Sheet Metal Drawing. 

Show Card Writing and Sign Painting. 

Tea Room Service. 

In addition to the Federal Funds available, Baltimore City 
spent $18,022 for evening industrial and home economics courses, 
over §5,000 more than in 1927. The salary cost per pupil for in- 
dustrial work was $12.30, and for home economics $9. (See 
Table 96.) 

In Hagerstown, two evening classes in trade mathematics, 
automobile work, and blueprint reading and one class in show- 
card writing were conducted. 

In Cumberland, eight evening classes were organized for the 
first time in trade mathematics, blueprint reading, plan reading, 
estimating in building trades, and showcard writing. 

In Annapolis, evening classes in cooking were conducted for 
the colored men employed in the kitchen at the Naval Academy, 



162 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

and for colored mechanics, courses in trade mathematics were 
given. 

Under the direction of the Bureau of Mines and the Engineer- 
ing College of the University of Maryland, evening classes in 
ventilation, explosives, mine gases, electricity, and map reading 
were conducted at Frostburg, Kempton, Crellin, Finzel, and Bar- 
ton. At Frostburg and Mt. Savage there were advanced classes 
in electricity in mines. At Friendsville, first aid and ventila- 
tion were the subjects of the courses given. All of these courses 
and others in drainage and pumping, haulage, geology of coal, 
drawing, mining methods, and Maryland mining law were taught 
at the summer school conducted by the Bureau of Mines at Frost- 
burg. 

Administration, Supervision and Teacher Training 

Expenditures of $30,000 for administration and supervision 
of vocational education were $3,600 higher than in 1927. A full- 
time State supervisor of home economics was employed for the 
first time in Maryland in September, 1927. This accounted for 
one-half of the increase. The remainder was due to the increased 
expenditure by the University of Maryland for teacher training 
in trade and industry. (See Table 97.) 



TABLE 97 

Expenditures for Supervision and Teacher Training in Vocational 
Education, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Purpose 


Administration 
and Supervision 


Teacher-Training 


Total 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Univ. of 

Md. 
Funds 


State 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


State and 
University 
Funds 


Federal 
Funds 


Agriculture 

Trade and Industry. . . 


$4,400.25 
798.51 
2,024.22 


$3,026.29 
798.54 
2,021.18 


$3,227.12 
2,964.66 
2,012.11 


$303.34 


$3,530.45 
2,964.63 
2,012.14 


$ 7,930.71 
3,763.17 
4,036.33 


$ 6,556.74 
3,763 17 
4,033.32 


Total 




$7,222.98 


$5,846.01 


$8,203.89 


$303.34 


$8,507.22 


$15,730.21 
$30,0 


$14,353.23 
33.44 



COUNTY COLORED SCHOOL ENROLLMENT DECREASES 
WHILE ATTENDANCE INCREASES 

The Maryland county colored schools reported a total enroll- 
ment of approximately 29,000 pupils for the school year 1927-28. 
The decrease of 250 children under the enrollment of the preced- 
ing year is consistent with the shift of the colored population 
from rural to urban centers. Notwithstanding this decrease in 



1 



Vocational Education, Colored iSchool Enrollment, Attendance 



163 



enrollment, the average number belonging in the county colored 
schools increased by 278 over 1927 and totaled 25,922. In Prince 
George's, Montgomery, Charles, Talbot, Calvert, and Kent, the 
increase in number belonging and attending accompanied an 
increase in enrollment. Despite a smaller colored enrollment in 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Harford, Howard, Cecil, Carroll, Alle- 
gany, and Washington, the average number belonging and attend- 
ing in colored schools increased. Caroline, Dorchester, Somer- 
set, Wicomico, and Worcester had a smaller number enrolled, 
belonging, and attending in 1928 than in 1927. In Frederick, 
Queen Anne's, and St. Mary's attendance increased although 
enrollment and number belonging decreased. 

The increase in average number belonging means that more 
children were enrolled in school for a longer period than pre- 
viously, and the increase in average number attending and per 
cent of attendance (see Tables 101 and 110) indicates that pupils 
came more regularly once they had been enrolled. The average 
number attending was 21,522, an increase of 831 over 1927 and 
of 3,727 over 1920. Baltimore City's increase in enrollment, as 
well as in number belonging and attending, makes the three fig- 
ures for the State as a whole higher in 1928 than in 1927. (See 
Table 98.) 

The enrollment in 7 parochial schools in 6 counties remained 
stationary, the increase in 5 of the counties being equalled by 
the decrease in St. Mary's County. Baltimore City's enrollment 
in 16 parochial schools increased from 1927 to 1928 from 1,025 
to 1,701. (See Table IV, page 306.) 

TABLE 98 

Enrollment, Average Number Belonging, and Average Number Attending 
in County Colored Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1928. 







Average Number 






Average Number 




Total 








Total 






County 


Enroll- 






County 


Enroll- 








ment 


Belong- 


Attend- 




ment 


Belong- 


Attend- 






ing 


ing 






ing 


ing 



Total Counties 1928 
Total Counties 1927 
Total Counties 1920 

Prince George's. . . . 

Anne Arundel 

Somerset 

Baltimore 

Montgomery 

Worcester 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Wicomico 



*28,994 


25,922 


21 ,522 


Talbot 


1,264 


1 .156 


1,057 


*29,244 


25,644 


20,691 


Calvert 


1 .229 


1 .021 


710 


30.174 


t 


17,795 


St. Mary's 


1,225 


1,091 


794 






Caroline 


1,031 


869 


744 


2,895 


2,546 


2,135 


Kent 


1,023 


901 


771 


2,888 


2,618 


2,152 


Frederick 


1,013 


928 


837 


2,019 


1,799 


1,541 


Queen Anne's 


875 


745 


610 


1,968 


1,769 


1,500 


Harford 


773 


688 


591 


1,890 


1,671 


1,423 


Howard 


680 


624 


488 


1,771 


1,520 


1 ,277 


Cecil 


540 


483 


392 


1,758 


1,531 


1,125 


Washington 


400 


369 


341 


1,725 


1,501 


1,182 


Carroll 


338 


300 


231 


1,649 


1,488 


1 ,347 


Allegany 


328 


304 


274 








Baltimore City 


♦21,493 


19,413 


17.011 








State 


♦50,487 


45,335 


38,533 



t Data not available until 1923. 



Excludes duplicates. 



164 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Length of School Year and Initial Teachers' Meetings 

Seventeen counties held teachers' meetings before the opening 
of colored schools in the fall of 1928. This is one more than in 

1927. Five counties — Allegany, Baltimore, Charles, Frederick, 
and Talbot — held no meeting prior to the opening of school in 

1928, and the first four named also omitted such a meeting in 
1927. In those counties which have a large percentage of new 
and inexperienced teachers, the meeting at the beginning of the 
year is probably very important. (See Table 99 and Chart 32, 
page 184.) 

The colored elementary schools were open in the average 
county for 168.4 days, an increase of 2.2 days over 1927. Alle- 
gany leads the State with a session of 200 days, and in only two 
counties, St. Mary's and Calvert, did the schools as a whole fall 
below the legal requirement of 160 days. There are only four 
counties — Allegany, Baltimore, Cecil, and Washington — that 
kept their colored schools open more than 180 days, which is the 
legal minimum for the white schools. (See Table 99.) 

TABLE 99 

Dates of Opening and Closing of Colored Schools 



County 



Dates of Opening and Closing Colored Schools 



School Year 1927-28 



Number 
of Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day of 
School 



Last 
Day of 
School 



September, 1928 



Number 
of Days of 
Opening 
Meeting 



First 
Day of 
School 



Average Days in Session — 
Colored Elementary Schools 
1927-28 



County 



Average 
No. of 
Days 
Open 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



9/1 

9/7 
9/1 
9/6 
9/19 
9/5 
9/6 
10/3 
9/26 
9/1 
9/13 
10/3 
*9/26 
9/14 
9/12 
9/28 
10/3 
9/19 
10/3 
9/6 
9/12 
9/19 



6/22 
5/15 
6/22 
5/11 
5/25 

6/8 
6/15 
5/31 
5/25 

5/4 
5/31 

6/1 

6/1 
5/18 
5/31 
5/13 

6/8 
5/18 
5/31 

6/8 
5/11 
5/18 



9/3 
9/6 
9/4 
9/4 
9/24 
9/3 
9/6 
10/1 
9/24 
9/4 
9/11 
10/1 
t9/24 
9/11 
9/10 
9/25 
10/1 
9/17 

Jio/i 

9/4 
9/10 
9/17 



County Average 

Allegany 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Washington 

Prince George's 

Carroll 

Harford , 

Queen Anne's. . 

Kent 

Worcester 

Caroline 

Charles 

Montgomery 

WMcomico 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Dorchester .... 
Anne Arundel . . 

Talbot 

Howard 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Baltimore City 

State 



168.4 

200.0 
197.5 
193.1 
185.0 
174.9 
174.7 
173.9 
166.7 
166.0 
165.8 
165.7 
164.3 
164.2 
163.1 
163.0 
162.7 
162.5 
162.1 
161.6 
161.5 

158.8 
154.2 

190.0 

177.6 



*High School 9/12. 



High School 9/10 i High School 9/17. 



Length of Year, Per Cent of Attendance, Colored Schools 165 



TABLE 100 

Number of Maryland County Colored Schools in Session Less Than the 
Number of Days Required by Law, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Colored Schools Open 
Less Than 



County 



160 
Days 



140 
Days 



County 



Colored Schools Open 
Less Than 



160 
Days 



140 

Days 



Total 



1928 
.1927 



41 
84 



10 
13 



Allegany 

Baltimore 

Caroline 

Cecil 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Prince George's . 
Washington .... 
Worcester 



Montgomery 1 

Wicomico 1 

Queen Anne's 1 

Dorchester 3 

Kent 2 

Charles 3 

Carroll 1 

Somerset 4 

Talbot 3 

Anne Arundel 6 

Calvert 4 

St. Mary's 12 



Table 100 shows the number of individual colored schools open 
fewer than 160 and 140 days. In ten counties every school was 
in session at least 160 days, and in the remaining twelve there 
were only 41 that fell below this mark. This shows remarkable 
improvement over 1927, when 84 schools were open fewer than 
160 days. Howard, which ranked next to last in 1927 with 7 
schools failing to meet the minimum days in session required, 
had every school open more than 160 days in 1928. The same is 
true of Worcester, which, in 1927, had 3 below the minimum 
requirement. Dorchester and Montgomery showed improve- 
ment over 1927 in reducing their number of schools open too 
few days from 13 to 3 and 6 to 1, respectively. The number of 
schools with a session under 140 days has been reduced from 
13 in 1927 to 9 in 1928. 

PERCENTAGE OF ATTENDANCE HIGHER 

The percentage of average number belonging in average 
attendance in colored elementary schools (82.6) was 1.2 higher 
than in 1927 and 6.4 higher than in 1923, five years ago. Every 
county, except Somerset, Baltimore, and Cecil, showed increases 
for 1928 over 1927. Washington and Talbot counties for two 
years have had a percentage of attendance in colored elementary 
schools above 90. Of the six counties below 80 per cent in 
attendance— Calvert, St. Mary's, Charles, Carroll, Dorchester, 
and Howard — only Calvert had an attendance percentage below 
70. But every one of these counties at the bottom of the list did 
better in 1928 than in 1927. Very great improvement in attend- 
ance is evident in Montgomery, Queen Anne's, St. IMary's, and 
Calvert. (See Table 101.) 



166 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 101 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored Elementary Schools, 1923-1928 



County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County 


1923 


1925 


1927 


1928 


County Average . . 


76 


2 


80 


1 


81 


4 


82 


6 




75 


4 


81 


9 


85 


3 


84 


8 


















Prince George's. . 


. 76 


4 


78 


9 


81 


9 


83 


8 




81 


7 


88 


1 


91 





92 





Worcester 


80 


1 


83 





82 


6 


83 


5 


Talbot 


84 


3 


89 


9 


90 


3 


91 


2 




71 


2 


79 


1 


80 


8 


81 


8 


Frederick 


84 


6 


86 


7 


87 


5 


89 


9 




73 


1 


75 


4 


73 


2 


81 


7 




84 


8 


88 


1 


89 


9 


89 


9 


Cecil 


74 


4 


83 


4 


82 


5 


80 


6 


Allegany 


87 


4 


90 


3 


88 


9 


89 


8 


Howard 


71 





74 


2 


77 


2 


78 


3 


Harford 


79 


9 


85 


2 


85 


4 


85 


9 




74 


2 


76 





76 


5 


77 


9 


Caroline 


76 


4 


81 


1 


85 


3 


85 


4 


Carroll 


72 





72 


2 


74 


1 


76 


5 


Kent 


73 


4 


79 


9 


84 


3 


85 


2 


Charles 


66 


8 


68 





70 


4 


72 


9 


Montgomery 


80 


8 


81 


8 


81 


9 


85 


1 


St. Mary's 


62 


9 


68 


2 


68 


9 


72 


7 




80 


5 


86 


4 


87 


7 


85 







65 


3 


70 


6 


66 


5 


69 


6 



The improvement in percentage of attendance is borne out by 
the reduction in the number of colored elementary pupils present 
under 100 and 120 days. There were 1,000 fewer colored ele- 
mentary pupils present under 100 days in 1928 than in 1927 — 
6,610, or one-fourth, of the pupils, as against 29 per cent in 1927. 
Likewise, there was a reduction of nearly 1,300 in number pres- 
ent under 120 days — the 1928 figures being 9,563, or 35.9 per 
cent, as against 41.1 per cent in 1927. These latter figures indi- 
cate that over one-third of the pupils missed the work of at least 
one-fourth of the school year. This probably is an important 
factor in the retardation of colored pupils. It is not possible to 
promote to a higher grade pupils who have missed a large part 
of the work of the grade they are in. Very great reductions in 
number of pupils present under 100 and 120 days appear for 
Howard, Queen Anne's, and Charles Counties. On the other 
hand, there are increases for Somerset and Cecil for pupils pres- 
ent under 100 and 120 days, for those present under 120 days in 
Wicomico and Caroline, and for those present under 100 days 
in Kent. (See Table 102.) 

FEWER LATE ENTRANTS 

This reduction in the number of pupils present under 100 and 
120 days was partly brought about through a decrease in late 
entrants. In 1928, 4,739 colored children, or 16.5 per cent of the 
enrollment, entered school after the first month because of em- 
ployment, indifference, or neglect. This, however, is a reduction 
of 465 pupils and 1.3 per cent under the figures for last year. 
The reduction in late entrance due to employment more than 
counterbalanced the .3 per cent increase in those attributed to 
negligence and indifference. 

Allegany had no colored children entering school after the 
first month for these causes, and five other counties — Baltimore, 
Wicomico, Washington, Frederick, and Talbot — had fewer than 



Per Cent of Attendance, Late Entrants, Colored Schools 



16T 



TABLE 102 

Number and Per Cent of County Colored Elementary Pupils Present 
Under 100 and 120 Days, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Number Present Per Cent Present 





Under 


Under 


Under 


Under 


County 


100 Days 


120 Days 


100 Days 


120 Days 












1928 


fi filO 


9 563 


24 8 


35 9 


1927 




10 836 

X\J f iJtJXJ 


29 


41 1 

^ X . X 


1 Q2fi 


O , V 1 o 


11 295 


29 5 


41 3 


1925 


9,463 


13,195 


33 2 


46.3 


A 1 loOTQ 'M \r 


20 


2fi 


7 6 


9 9 


\A/ Q c n 1 n (T't CiY^ 


o w 


oo 


8 8 

o . o 


10 fi 


Rq 1 f I'm nrp 






12 8 


1 7 7 
±1.1 




1 09 


XtiO 


12 4 


1 8 


Talbot 


174 


230 


15.6 


20.7 


TTq rf r\Tc\ 


1 1 9 


172 


Ifi 3 


23 fi 


POTYl 1 PO 


204 




14 2 


24 2 


Cecil 


114 


138 


23.9 


29.0 


Prince George's. . . . 


519 


772 


19.5 


29.0 


Montgomery 


375 


572 


21.2 


32.4 


Kent 


225 


302 


24.3 


32.6 


Somerset 


393 


601 


22.6 


34 5 


Caroline 


192 


315 


21.4 


35,1 


Worcester 


399 


603 


25.4 


38 3 


Anne Arundel 


680 


1,040 


25 6 


39.1 


Queen Anne's 


229 


319 


28.4 


39.6 


Howard 


163 


264 


25 2 


40.7 


Carroll 


89 


138 


29 2 


45.2 


Charles 


563 


811 


35 6 


51.2 


Dorchester 


580 


836 


36.8 


53.0 


St. Mary's 


528 


734 


44.0 


61 2 


Calvert 


670 


821 


56.7 


69 5 



10 per cent in this group. Talbot reduced its late entrants for 
employment, negligence, and indifference from 22.4 per cent 
in 1927 to only 9.0 per cent in 1928. The change was mostly in 
those who were over 13 years of age and employed. Dorchester, 
Calvert, Anne Arundel, and Charles still have more than one- 
fourth of their colored children entering after the first month, 
due to employment or indifference. Calvert, however, has greatly 
reduced the number since 1927 from 42.6 to 29.8 per cent, but 
Anne Arundel and Dorchester show an increase. The latter 
county has almost 46 per cent of its colored children in this 
group, and the percentage of late entrants increased chiefly 
because of illegal employment and negligence. (See Tahle 103.) 



168 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 103 



Number and Per Cent of Colored Elementary School Pupils Entering 
School After the First Month, Because of Employment, Indifference or 
Neglect, for School Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Number and Per Cent Entering School After 
First Month for Following Reasons: 



Rank in Per Cent Entering 
After First Month for 
Following Reasons: 



County 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


13 Years 
or More, 
Employed 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


13 Years 
or More, 

T^] m r»l nvpH 


Negli- 
gence or 
Indiffer- 
ence 


Under 
13 Years, 
Illegally 
Employed 


County Average. 
Allegany 


4,739 


16 


.5 


6 


.5 


7 


.8 


2 


.2 








1 


1 


1 


Baltimore 


94 


4 


.7 


2 


1 


2 


.4 




.2 


3 


7 


2 


Wicomico 


81 


5 


.3 


3 


2 


1 


.7 




.4 


4 


5 


4 


Washington 


19 


5 


.3 




6 


3 


9 




.8 


2 


10 


9 


Frederick 


72 


7 


7 


6 


5 




8 




.4 


11 


3 


5 


Talbot 


108 


9 





4 


6 


3 


1 


1 


.3 


7 


8 


14 


Kent 


99 


10 





8 


2 




7 


1 


.1 


18 


2 


12 


Montgomery. . . . 


225 


11 


9 


6 


6 


4 


9 




4 


12 


12 


6 


Carroll 


40 


11 


9 


7 


4 


4 


2 




3 


16 


11 


3 


Prince George's. . 


356 


12 


3 


4 


5 


5 


9 


1 


9 


5 


14 


16 


Caroline 


123 


12 


3 


9 


5 


1 


8 


1 





19 


6 


11 


Somerset 


245 


12 


5 


6 


7 


3 


5 


2 


3 


13 


9 


17 


Howard 


90 


12 


7 


6 


1 


6 


1 




5 


9 


16 


7 


St. Mary's 


159 


12 


9 


5 


2 


6 


5 


1 


2 


8 


17 


13 


Cecil 


75 


14 


6 


4 


5 


9 


6 




5 


6 


18 


8 


Worcester 


264 


15 


4 


7 


8 


6 





1 


6 


17 


15 


15 




126 


15 


9 


9 


7 


5 


4 




8 


20 


13 


10 


Queen Anne's. . . 


176 


20 


2 


14 





1 


4 


4 


8 


22 


4 


21 


Charles 


432 


25 


1 


7 


3 


15 


2 


2 


6 


15 


19 


19 


Anne Arundel . . . 


792 


28 


4 


6 


1 


19 


8 


2 


5 


10 


21 


18 


Calvert 


375 


29 


8 


7 


2 


19 


6 


3 





14 


20 


20 


Dorchester 


788 


45 


7 


13 


3 


20 


4 


12 





21 


22 


22 



REDUCTION IN WITHDRAWALS 

The number of pupils withdrawing from school for all causes 
is gradually being reduced. In 1928, 2,130, or 7.4 per cent, of 
the colored pupils withdrew because of removal, transfer, or 
death. This is a reduction of 6 per cent under 1927. The num- 
ber withdrawing for causes other than removal, transfer, or 
death totaled 2,231, 258 fewer than in 1927, the reduction being 
almost evenly distributed among all causes. Allegany, Frederick, 
Baltimore, Somerset, and Wicomico have the lowest per cent of 
withdrawals for causes other than removal, transfer, or death, 
and each reduced the figure since 1927. Queen Anne's, Calvert, 
Kent, Dorchester, St. Mary's, and Caroline have between 10 and 
13 per cent withdrawn for these causes. Dorchester, however, 
shows marked improvement in reducing its withdrawals from 
19.2 in 1927 to 11.5 per cent in 1928. (See Table 104.) 



Late Entrants and Withdrawals, Colored Schools 169 



TABLE 104 



Withdrawals by Cause from Maryland County Colored Elementary 
Schools for Year Ending June 30, 1928 



County 


Withdrawals for 
Removal, Trans- 
fer or Death 


withdrawals for following causes 


Total 
Number 


Total 
Per Cent 


PER CENT withdrawing FOR 


Number 


Per Cent 


Employ- 
ment 


Mental 
and 

Physical 
Inca- 
pacity 


Over or 
Under 
Compul- 
sory At- 
tendance 
Age 


Poverty 


Other 
Causes 



Total and Av . . 


2,130 


7 


4 


2,231 


7 


8 


4 


1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


.4 


Allegany 


13 


4 


7 


11 


4 









1 


1 






2 


5 


.4 


Frederick 


55 


5 


9 


43 


4 


6 


1 


8 


8 




6 


1 


4 




Baltimore 


176 


8 


7 


97 


4 


8 


1 


3 




9 


1 


1 


1 


1 


.4 


Somerset 


215 


11 





101 


5 


2 


1 


9 




9 


1 


4 




2 


.8 


Wicomico 


88 


5 


8 


86 


5 


6 


2 


7 


1 


2 




4 


1 


1 


.2 


Anne Arundel . . 


128 


4 


6 


173 


6 


2 


2 


9 


1 


.0 


1 


2 




.9 


.2 


Prince George's 


243 


8 


4 


181 


6 


2 


3 


4 




.9 




.8 




8 


.3 


Charles 


147 


8 


5 


110 


6 


4 


3 


4 




3 


1 





1 


1 


.6 


Talbot 


88 


7 


3 


81 


6 


7 


5 


2 




2 




8 




3 


.2 


Washington .... 


17 


4 


8 


26 


7 


3 




8 


2 





2 





2 


5 




Harford 


60 


7 


6 


62 


7 


8 


3 


4 


1 


8 




5 


1 


5 


.6 


Cecil 


37 


7 


2 


41 


8 





4 


3 




4 


1 





1 


5 


.8 


Worcester 


142 


8 


3 


138 


8 





4 


9 


1 







6 




9 


.6 


Carroll 


30 


9 





27 


8 


1 


2 


7 


1 


5 


2 


1 


1 


8 




Howard 


61) 


8 


5 


62 


8 


8 


4 


6 




3 


2 


5 


1 





.4 


Montgomery . . . 


126 


6 


7 


180 


9 


5 


3 


9 


1 


6 




7 


2 


3 


1.0 


Caroline 


107 


10 


7 


102 


10 


2 


6 







8 


2 


5 




5 


.4 


St. Mary's 


42 


3 


4 


127 


10 


3 


2 


6 


1 





3 


8 


2 


7 


.2 


Dorchester .... 


148 


8 


6 


199 


11 


5 


7 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 




.4 


Kent 


63 


6 


4 


115 


11 


6 


8 


4 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


.9 


Calvert 


79 


6 


3 


158 


12 


5 


7 


5 


1 





1 


4 


2 


4 


.2 


Queen Anne's. . 


66 


7 


6 


111 


12 


7 


10 


8 




4 




6 




.8 


.1 



ENROLLMENT ABOVE FIFTH GRADE INCREASES 
IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

The total enrollment* in the Maryland county colored schools 
was 27,893. Of these, 6,432 were in the first grade and about 
4,000 in grades 2, 3, and 4. The enrollment then decreased until 
there were just over 2,000 in the seventh grade. (See Table 105.) 

There was an increase in the enrollment of colored boys and 
girls in every grade above the fifth. There were also a few 
more boys and girls in grade 2, more girls in grade 4, and more 
boys in grade 5 than in 1927. There were 410 fewer enrolled 
in grade 1 than in the preceding year. 

* Excludes withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death. 



170 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The number of boys exceeds the number of girls in grades one 
to five, but from grade six through high school the proportion 
of boys decreases until in the fourth year there are only 58 boys 
for every 100 girls. (See Table 105.) 

TABLE 105 



Enrollment by Grades in Maryland County Colored Schools 





Number in Each Grade, 


Per Cent in Each Grade Based on 






1928 




Average in Grades 2, 3 and 4 


GRADE 


















Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1928 


1927 


1926 


1925 


1 


3,341 


3,091 


6,432 


158 


166 


169 


187 


2 


2,307 


2,004 


4,311 


106 


104 


105 


102 


3 


2,106 


1,903 


4,009 


98 


100 


100 


102 


4 


2,020 


1,885 


3,905 


96 


95 


95 


96 


5 


1,602 


1,581 


3,183 


78 


78 


75 


74 


6 


1,236 


1,393 


2,629 


65 


60 


58 


51 


7 


823 


1,241 


2,064 


51 


45 


42 


37 


8 


32 


38 


70 


2 


5 


5 


3 


I 


247 


372 


619 


15 


13 


11 


11 


II 


127 


224 


351 


9 


7 


7 


5 


III 


82 


110 


192 


5 


4 


3 


3 


IV 


47 


81 


128 


3 


3 


2 


1 


Grand total 


13,970 


13,923 


27,893 



















If we assume that the number entering school each year is the 
same as the average number enrolled in grades 2 to 4, then over 
half, or 51 per cent, of those who enter the colored elementary 
schools continue until the last year of the elementary course of 
seven years. This was true of only 37 per cent in 1925. The 
colored schools held as many of their pupils to the seventh grade 
in 1928 as they did to the sixth grade in 1925. Partly because 
of a lack of high schools in several of the counties, the colored 
schools lose a large proportion of the pupils between elementary 
and high schools, but in 1928, 15 per cent were held until the 
first year of high school and 3 per cent to the fourth. This is an 
improvement over 1925, when only 11 and 1 per cent, respec- 
tively, were held to these grades. 

The number of pupils repeating the first grade is slowly de- 
creasing. Out of every 158 pupils in the first grade, 58, or 37 
per cent, were repeaters. This is 10 per cent lower than in 
1925, when the same was true of 87 out of every 187 enrolled. 
(See Table 105.) 



Enrollment by Grades and Graduates, Colored Schools 171 



CHART 28 



County 

Total and 
Co . Average 

Montgomery 

Wicomico 

Fredericlc 

Sonerset 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Caroline 

Howard 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Pr. George's 

Kent 

Washington 

Harford 

TTor'cester 

Charles 

Carroll 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

^eon Anne ' s 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 



PER CENT 07 GRADUATES 
TOTAX COUl^ COLORED EIZI IEInITARY SCHOOL ENROLLUENT 

1928 



IJUmber 
Boys Girls 



542 
46 
41 
23 
52 
18 

5 
28 
19 
24 
46 
57 
18 
9 
13 
19 
32 
7 
29 
37 
6 
6 
7 



984 



Per Cent Boys Y////k Per Cent Girls 



86 1 9.R w/yyyyyyy/yyyyy^^^^ 

72 ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^77777////////A 



15 



mfl9S009S0990S69SiS9996i998i! 



3.8 ' 



13 I 9.5 W/////////////////////////////// ////////A 
25 \1^^^^^^^^^ ^^/////777Z\ 




12 1 7.5 V//////////// /// ////////////77A 
30 ^T^^^^ ^///// /////////////7777^ 

53 f^^^^^^^^^777////////A 

6 1 5.& ^yyyyyyyyyyyyy^ y////^ 




54 rsTB 

77 \^'yV/ //// 7/////////////77?i 
20 f^^//////////////////7\ 



21 \?..2'^ ////////////A 
19 \^^///////////A 



172 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



MORE GIRLS GRADUATE FROM COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

The increased holding power of the elementary schools can 
again be measured in the larger number of elementary school 
graduates. In 1928, 1,526 pupils, or 5.7 per cent of the total 
colored elementary school enrollment,* completed the work of 



TABLE 106 

Colored County Elementary School Graduates 



Number Per Cent 



Year Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total 

1923 350 637 987 2.3 4.3 3.3 

1924 427 706 1,133 2.9 4.9 3.9 

1925 487 705 1,192 3.4 5.0 4.2 

1926 483 820 1,303 3.5 6.1 4.8 

1927 542 909 1,451 4.0 6.8 5.4 

1928 542 984 1,526 4.0 7.5 5.7 



the elementary schools. This is an increase of 75, or .3 per cent, 
over 1927, and is due entirely to the larger number of girls 
graduated. In 1923 only 987, or 3.3 per cent, of the colored 
enrollment were graduated from the elementary schools. (See 
Table 106.) 

The counties having the highest per cent of graduates in the 
colored elementary enrollment are ranked at the top of Chart 28. 
The difference in the length of the black and cross-hatched bars 
gives the difference in per cent of boy and girl graduates. Cecil 
is the only county in which the per cent boy graduates were of 
total enrollment exceeds the per cent for girls, and in the aver- 
age county the per cent of girls reaching graduation is 3.5 higher 
than the per cent of boys. 

Montgomery, Wicomico, Frederick, and Somerset rank highest 
in the State. The great increase in the per cent of both boys and 
girls brought Montgomery from fourteenth in rank in 1927 to 
first in 1928. In six other counties — Caroline, Howard, Prince 
George's, Kent, Charles, and Anne Arundel — the percentage for 
both boys and girls was increased. There were fewer boy and 
girl graduates in the later year in Frederick, Harford, Baltimore, 
and Calvert, and the big reduction in the girls graduated from 
the Carroll County colored schools lowered it from first to seven- 
teenth place. (See Chart 28, page 171.) 



* Exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, or death. 



Graduates and Non-Promotions, Colored Schools 



173 



FEWER NON-PROMOTIONS IN COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Three thousand six hundred and forty-seven boys and 2,657 
girls, or almost 24 per cent of the colored elementary school en- 
rollment, were considered failures in their work during 1927-28 
and unfit to carry studies of a higher grade in the following 
year. There were, nevertheless, 368 fewer boys and 434 fewer 
girls not promoted than in 1927. The reduction from 26.4 per 
cent of failures in the colored elementary schools in 1927 to 23.7 
per cent in 1928 is the greatest reduction in any year since 1924. 
It is not advantageous to have large numbers promoted merely 
for the sake of a record, but better teaching and more regular 
attendance should make it possible for a higher percentage of 
colored children to be advanced year by year and thus prevent 
over-ageness, discouragement, and withdrawal. (See Table 107.) 



TABLE 107 

Number and Per Cent of Non-Promotions in County Colored Elementary 

Schools 







Number 






Per Cent 




Year 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


Boys 


Girls 


Total 


1923 


5,722 


4,616 


10,338 


38.3 


31.1 


34.7 


1924 


5,173 


4,104 


9,277 


35.5 


28.5 


32 


1925 


4,800 


3,700 


8,500 


33.2 


26.3 


29.8 


1926 


4,359 


3,334 


7,693 


31.5 


24.6 


28.1 


1927 


4,015 


3,091 


7,116 


29.5 


23.3 


26.4 


1928 


3,647 


2,657 


6,304 


27.1 


20.2 


23.7 



In all but seven counties the per cent of failures for both boys 
and girls was materially reduced. In Prince George's, Kent, 
Allegany, Somerset, Harford, Dorchester, and Caroline the re- 
ductions were very great. In Cecil and Calvert the per cent of 
boy failures was lowered under that for 1927, but there was a 
slight increase in the non-promotions of girls. In Talbot, Balti- 
more, Montgomery, Frederick, and St. ]\Iary's there were more 
failures among both boys and girls than in 1927. In 1928 there 
were four counties in which more than a third of the boys failed 
and two in which more than 24 per cent of the girls were not 
promoted. In 1927 the same could be said of six and eight coun- 
ties, respectively. In every county except Carroll the per cent 
of boy failures exceeded the per cent of girls. (See Chart 29.) 

Non-Promotions by Grade 

Non-promotions by grade again indicate that more boys than 
girls are retarded, especially in grades above the first. About 



174 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 29 



HOTfflni AUD PER CZNT OF COUNTY COLCKED EEKMENTART HJPILS NOT PROIOTED 

1928 



County 



Sumber 
Boys Girls 



Total and 

Co. ATeragB ^^"^ 



Carroll 
Washington 



Uontgomery 
Worcester 

Frederick: 
Calvert 

St. Mary»3 



19 

29 



Pr. George*3 2S1 

Kent 94 

Howard 63 

TB.lbot 142 

Cecil 45 

Allegany 36 

Somerset 204 

Wicc»aico 185 

Barford 88 

Dorchester 217 

Caroline 139 

Anne Arundel 365 

Queen Anne's 126 

Charles 214 

Baltimore 248 



249 
273 

157 
216 
257 



I Per Cent Boys Per Cent Girls 



2657 



I2Q.2 V//////////////ZZA 



186 




llST Y///////A 

141 

lfi.fi 




116 



142 




279 



120.9 /X/////////////////A 



70 



^///////////////A 

173 g 

219 



203 
186 

101 



"1 ////////////////////X 



209 



^///////////////////////////A 



35 per cent of the first-grade children are not promoted and thus 
start as failures in their school career. The per cent of failures 
drops in the second grade, but then increases (with the exception 
of the fifth grade) , until in the seventh year over a third of the 
boys and a fifth of the girls are held as failures in their school 
work. (See Chdrt 30.) 



Non-Promotions, Colored High Schools 
CHART 30 



175 



1928 Harr-raOMDTIONS BY GSIAEES 
CODNTT COLORED ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Grade 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



Number 
Boys Girls 



1192 
456 
474 
530 
374 
337 
277 
7 



1079 



Per Cent Boys i^x/vxi per Cent Girls 



285 I 14.. 2 V/////////////77i 
261 V/X/X//////////X 



sai l V/ ////////////7Z///ZA 

228 F^.A ^ 
255 
7 



33.7 



COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS MAKE FORWARD STRIDES 

The colored high school enrollment increased to 1,332 in 1928, 
an increase of 15 per cent over 1927. The average number 
belonging increased to 1,137 and the average attendance to 1,046. 
The growth in these figures since 1921 is shown in Table 108. 

TABLE 108 

Enrollment, Attendance, and Average Number Belonging in Approved 
Colored County High Schools of Maryland, 1916-1928 



Year Ending 
July 31 

1921 
1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 



Enrollment 

251 

368 

447 

620 

862 

974 
1,157 
1,332 



Average Number 
Belonging 



400 
541 
741 
850 
1,000 
1,137 



Average 
Attendance 

189 
292 
357 
480 
662 
769 
907 
1,046 



* Average number belonging not available before 1923. 



Another way of showing the increase in the number taking 
advantage of the opportunity of attending high school is by 



176 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



giving the ratio of the number belonging in high school to the 
number belonging in colored schools, both high and elementary 
combined. Out of every 100 colored children in county schools 
in 1928, 4.4 were in high school and 95.6 in elementary school. 
Last year the corresponding number in high school was 3.9. (See 
Table 109.) 



TABLE 109 

Ratio of Average Number Belonging in Colored High Schools to Number 
Belonging in Colored Elementary and High Schools Combined 



County 


1924 


1927 


1928 


County 


1924 


1927 


1928 


County Average , 


2.0 


3.9 


4.4 


Caroline 


2.3 


5.6 


5.5 










Dorchester 


4.7 


4.6 


5.5 


Allegany 


11.9 


15.6 


15.1 


Worcester 




5.2 


5.0 


Washington 




7.2 


10.6 


Carroll 


4.0 


5.8 


4.7 


Frederick 


6.7 


7.8 


9.8 


Charles 


1.8 


3.2 


3.6 


Wicomico 


6.0 


7.2 


8.4 


Queen Anne's 


2.0 


3.1 


2.8 


Talbot 


3.0 


6.2 


8.4 


Prince George's 


1.5 


2.9 


2.1 


Somerset 


1.6 


6.3 


6.9 








1.6 


Kent 


3.0 


4.8 


6.1 












2.5 


4.6 


5.9 


Baltimore City 


9.2 


10.0 


9.9 


Cecil 




8.6 


5.8 
















Total State 


4.7 


6.1 


6.7 



The counties ranged from a ratio of 15.1 in high school in 
Allegany to in five counties which had no high schools. Balti- 
more County, one of the last five with no high schools, paid the 
tuition in 1928 of 71 senior high and 14 junior high school pupils 
who attended the Frederick Douglass Senior-Junior High School 
in Baltimore City. In this way Baltimore City's ratio of high 
school pupils to total enrollment in high and elementary schools 
combined is somewhat increased. Baltimore City had a ratio of 
9.9. This was exceeded in Allegany and Washington Counties, 
and nearly equalled in Frederick. Wicomico and Talbot had 8.4 
of every 100 pupils in high school to 91.6 in elementary schools. 
Seven of the counties made no gain in the ratio of high school 
pupils to total enrollment — Cecil, Carroll, Prince George's, Queen 
Anne's, Worcester, Caroline, and Allegany showing decreases. 
All of the other counties had considerable gains and Montgomery 
appeared for the first time. Seventeen of the counties have 
colored high schools, 14 having one each, Somerset and Talbot 
each having two, and Worcester having three, making 21 schools 
altogether. (See Table 109.) 

COLORED HIGH SCHOOL ATTENDANCE IMPROVES 

The per cent of average number belonging in average attend- 
ance in county colored high schools was 92 for 1928, an increase 
of 1.3 over 1927. All of the counties except six — Dorchester, 
Allegany, Caroline, Queen Anne's, Charles, and Anne Arundel — 
helped make an increase possible for the State as a whole. Only 
five counties had an attendance of less than 90 per cent — Anne 



Colored High Schools, Attendance and Graduates 



177 



Arundel, Prince George's, Charles, Carroll, and Queen Anne's. 
Washington, Wicomico, Worcester, and Somerset had an attend- 
ance above 94 per cent. (See Table 110.) 

TABLE 110 

Per Cent of Attendance in Colored High Schools 1923-1928 



County 1923 1925 1927 1928 

County Average .. . 89.3 89.3 90.7 92.0 

Washington 96.6 97.2 

Wicomico 90.5 93.2 92.3 97.0 

Worcester 91.9 94.1 95.1 

Somerset 95.0 94.1 94.2 

Frederick 90.5 92.3 92.3 93.1 

Talbot 87.3 93.0 90.9 92.9 

Dorchester 87.4 86.3 93.2 92.4 

Montgomery 91.8 

Allegany 93.5 96.5 92.7 91.7 



County 1923 1925 1927 1928 

Cecil 90.9 85.4 91.2 

Caroline 85.6 87.9 91.4 90.0 

Kent 86.3 89.3 86.5 90.0 

Queen Anne's 80 . 89 . 8 88 . 3 

Carroll 76.5 66.7 87.8 

Charles 88.4 78.8 88.6 87.4 

Prince George's 83 . 81.6 86 .2 

Anne Arundel 88.9 89.0 89.7 84.9 

Baltimore City 88 . 8 90 . 8 *89 . 1 *90 .0 

State Average 88 . 9 90 . 4 *89 . 7 *90 . 8 



*Includes Junior High, Grade 9. 

Fourteen of the counties had four-year courses in fifteen of 
the colored high schools, Somerset having two. Queen Anne's 
and Worcester's three schools had only two-year courses, Mont- 
gomery's school had not been in existence long enough to grow 
up to the four-year course, and Talbot's second school was a 
junior high school. The number of graduates of the four-year 
course, 42 boys and 75 girls, was 20 more than in 1927, 8 more 
boys and 12 more girls. 

GRADUATES OF COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS SERVE STATE 

Wicomico, Anne Arundel, Somerset, Talbot, Caroline, Cecil, 
Kent, and Washington had more graduates in 1928 than in 1927, 
while Dorchester, Frederick, Prince George's, Allegany, and 
Charles had fewer. 

That the high schools are serving the State well in giving the 
necessary fundamental education required before students can 
enter the Bowie Normal School to take the normal school course 
preparing them for teaching in the elementary schools, is proved 
by the fact that 10 boy graduates, 23.8 per cent of all, and 36 
girl graduates, 48.0 per cent of all, entered the Bowie Normal 
School in the fall of 1928. With the discontinuance of the high 
school work at Bowie Normal School, the counties must provide 
the high school education if they wish graduates of their own 
schools to return to teach in the home county. (See Table 111.) 

In the fall of 1928 the junior class at Bowie Normal School 
enrolled students from sources other than the public county high 
schools. The high school class at Bowie Normal furnished the 
largest number of entrants and Princess Anne Academy sent 4 
girls. Other sources for students are shown at the bottom of 
Table 111. 



178 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 111 

1928 Colored County Four-Year High School Graduates and Those Who 
Entered Bowie Normal School in September, 1928 



1928 Four- Year Entrants 

Graduates Bowie Normal School 



County 


Boys 


Girls 


Boys 


Girls 


Wicomico 


8 


13 


2 


4 


Anne Arundel 


3 


10 


1 


7 


Dorchester 


11 


2 


4 


1 


Somerset 


6 


6 




4 


Talbot 


4 


7 




2 


Frederick 


5 


5 






Prince George's 


1 


6 




3 


Caroline 




6 




4 


Cecil 


2 


4 


'2 


1 


Kent 




6 




6 


Allegany 


1 


4 






Charles 


1 


3 


i 


"3 


Washington 




2 




1 


Carroll 




1 






Total Counties 


42 


75 


10 


36 


Per Cent 






23.8 


48.0 



Bowie Normal High School .. 7 12 

Princess Anne Academy , . . . . . 4 

Baltimore City . . 1 1 

Washington, D. C . . 1 1 

Thyne Institute . . . . . . 2 

St. Francis Academy . . . . . , 1 

Experienced Teachers . . . . 1 



County high school principals in all except the Cambridge 
School reported on the occupations during 1927-28 of 1927 grad- 
uates of the four-year high school course. Of 28 boys who grad- 
uated, 9 went to colleges or universities and 2 to normal schools, 
which means that 39 per cent continued their education beyond 
high school graduation. Work at home, on the farm, or water, 
or domestic service, claimed 8, railroad work 1, and clerking in 
a store 1. Of the 52 girls for whom reports were received, 20 
went to normal school and 6 to colleges or universities, one-half 
of the total number. Of the remainder 21 were reported as in 
domestic service, staying or working at home, or married, 1 
entered a hospital to train as a nurse, and 1 took a position as a 
teacher. 

SUBJECTS TAUGHT IN COUNTY COLORED HIGH SCHOOLS 

All of the colored high school pupils except those in Worcester 
and Talbot Counties who were reported as taking the general 
course were enrolled for the academic course. (See Table 
XXXIV, pages 336 to 341.) 



Occupations of Graduates, Subjects, Colored High Schools 179 



When the subjects offered in high school for 1927-28 are sum- 
marized, it will be seen that the entire colored high school enroll- 
ment took English and 98 per cent mathematics, which means 
that mathematics was given for the entire four years of the 
course in the four-year schools, and was taken by practically 
every boy and girl enrolled in high school. The enrollment in 
the social studies is slightly lower, 78 per cent of the boys and 
87 per cent of the girls being enrolled for history, civics, and 
problems of democracy. In 11 of the counties, every high school 
student was enrolled for the social studies every year he or she 
was in high school. 

The enrollment for science included 76 per cent of the high 
school boys and 79 per cent of the girls enrolled. Three schools — 
Annapolis, Pomonkey, and Hagerstown — offered four years of 
science work ; Princess Anne, Crisfield, Cambridge, and Cumber- 
land three years of work, and the remainder two years and one 
year of work. Latin was offered in 12 of the high schools and 
was chosen by 32 per cent of all boys enrolled in county high 
schools and by 26 per cent of all girls. Cumberland high school 
offered French instead of Latin. Pomonkey, Rockville, Center- 
ville, Easton, and St. Michaels and the three Worcester County 
schools offered no foreign language. 

Manual training was the special subject available in 11 schools 
for two thirds of the boys enrolled in all colored high schools. 
It was not provided in Cumberland, Denton, Pomonkey, Rock- 
ville, Marlboro, Crisfield, Hagerstown, and the three Worcester 
County schools. Most of the boys at Marlboro took unit courses 
in vocational agriculture instead. Prince George's County re- 
ceived special aid from State and Federal funds for this work. 

Home economics was taught more generally than manual train- 
ing, for the girls of all high schools except Rockville, Crisfield, 
Hagerstown, and the three Worcester schools were enrolled for 
it. This means that 81.5 per cent of the colored high school 
girls received courses in home economics. 

Only four schools, Centreville, Princess Anne, Easton, and St. 
Michaels — reported work in physical education. Music was 
offered in seven high schools — Cumberland, Westminster, Elkton, 
Princess Anne, Crisfield, Easton, and St. Michaels. About 28 
per cent of the colored high school enrollment was reported as 
taking music. The girls at Princess Anne were given work in 
art. 

COLORED SCHOOLS IN BALTLMORE CITY 

In Baltimore City the average number belonging in colored 
schools totaled 19,413 of whom 1,923 were in the last four years 
of high school work. The schools were open for 190 days with 
a percentage of attendance of 90. 



180 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



In addition to elementary, junior high, and senior high schools, 
Baltimore City has a vocational school for boys and one for girls 
and both summer and evening schools. The vocational schools 
enrolled 243 boys and girls. (See pages 160-1 for courses given.) 
In the summer elementary, junior and senior high schools, 2,255 
colored pupils were enrolled for review work to make up failures, 
while 584 were enrolled for work in advance of that for which 
they had been receiving instruction during the preceding school 
year. (See Table 132, page 212.) Evening courses were available 
to 2,637 colored persons in 1928 in elementary, secondary, com- 
mercial, industrial, and home economics subjects. (See Table 
133, page 213.) 

MORE NORMAL SCHOOL GRADUATES TEACHING IN COLORED 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

In October, 1928, there were 605 teachers holding first grade 
certificates, whereas in October, 1927, there were only 525. The 
per cent of colored elementary teachers who are graduates of 
a normal school or the equivalent has increased from 72.4 in 1927 
to 82.4 in 1928. The per cent holding third grade certificates has 
decreased from 6.9 in 1927 to 3.8 in 1928. 

The gain in teachers holding higher grade certificates is 
especially praiseworthy in Carroll, Worcester, Anne Arundel, 
Caroline, Somerset, Talbot, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Fred- 
erick, and Charles. Allegany and Kent have every one of their 
colored elementary teachers holding first grade certificates and 
in addition Cecil, Carroll, Queen Anne's, and Prince George's 
have over 90 per cent entitled to hold this grade of certificate. 
Caroline, Frederick, Dorchester, and Charles rank lowest in per 
cent of trained colored teachers. It is to be hoped that they 
continue to make the improvement shown in this matter in the 
past year. Howard is the only county which made no gains 
over 1927 in certification of teachers. (See Table XVI, page 318.) 

The certification score takes into consideration the grades of 
certificate held by all teachers, the first grade regular being rated 
4, the first grade provisional and second grade regular 2, the 
second grade provisional and third grade regular being rated 
1, and the third grade provisional 0. The average county cer- 
tification score has increased from 60.6 in 1923, to 64 in 1924, 
to 71.4 in 1925, to 75.9 in 1926, to 83 in 1927, and to 89.6 in 
1928. The lowest certification score for the first time is above 
80 and is found in Frederick County, and Allegany and Kent are 
at the top with 100 per cent. Nine counties have a score of 90 
or more — Allegany, Kent, Cecil, Carroll, Queen Anne's, Prince 
George's, Baltimore, Washington, and St. Mary's. Only three — 
Frederick, Caroline, and Dorchester — have scores below 85. (See 
Chart 31.) 



Colored Teaching Staff Holds Higher Certificates 181 



CHART 31 



CSITIFICATION SCORE OF COURTT COLORED EIZMKNTART SCHOOL TEACHER 



County 

Total and 
Co. AYerago 

AllogBmy 

Kent 

Cecil 

Carroll 

^een Anne's 

Pr. George's 

Baltimaro 

Washington 

St. USLI7*3 

Anne Arundel 

Wicoanico 

Worcester 

Scnoerset 

Harford 

tdontgomery 

Calvert 

Talbot 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Caroline 

Htederick 



1923 



October 

1925 1927 1928 




Of 62 county colored high school teachers employed in October, 
1928, 88.7 per cent hold regular certificates. This is an improve- 
ment over October, 1927, when this was the case for only 77 per 
cent of the high school teaching staff. In 11 of the 17 counties 
having high school teachers in October, 1928, every member of 
the high school staff holds a regular certificate. (See Table XVI, 
page 318.) 

The counties can improve their certification status by filling 
vacancies only with teachers holding first-grade certificates. Also 
teachers who hold regular second and third-grade certificates can 
secure them by attending summer school until they have com- 
pleted the necessary work to secure the first-grade certificate. 



182 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



For the renewal of certificates certain teachers are also required 
to attend summer school. Of the colored staff in service in Octo- 
ber, 1928, 226 elementary and 25 high school teachers, 31.6 per 
cent of the staff, had been to summer school in 1928. The coun- 
ties varied from having 47 per cent of the Frederick County 
staff attend, 42 per cent in Charles and 40 per cent in Prince 
George's to 8 per cent in Carroll. Over one-fourth of the col- 
ored teachers in service in October, 1928, attended summer 
school in 1928, except in Carroll, Allegany, Queen Anne's, How- 
ard, Cecil, Worcester, and Dorchester. (See Table 112.) 

The largest number — 92 elementary and 17 high school teach- 
ers — attended Hampton Institute. Bowie Normal, which took 
only teachers holding second and third-grade certificates, had 41, 
Morgan College had 38, Howard University 15, and the re- 
mainder less than 10 each. (See Table 112.) 

TABLE 112 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Teachers Attending 

Summer School in 1928 



Distributed by County 



County 



Number 



Per Cent 



Distributed by School Attended 



School 



Number Attending 
in 1928 



Elemen- 
tary- 



High 



Total and Average 

Frederick 

Charles 

Prince George's . . . 

Calvert 

Harford 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel 

Montgomery 

Caroline 

Washington 

Somerset 

St. Mary's 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Dorchester 

Worcester 

Cecil 

Howard 

Queen Anne's 

Allegany 

Carroll 



251 

16 
19 
31 
9 
9 
18 
26 
15 
9 
4 
16 
10 
9 
12 
10 
12 
10 
4 
4 
5 
2 
1 



31.6 

47.1 
42.2 
39.7 
37.5 
36.0 
35.3 
34.7 
33.3 
31.0 
30.8 
30.2 
29.4 
28.1 
27.3 
26.3 
24.0 
23.8 
23.5 
21.1 
20.8 
20.0 
7.7 



Total 

Hampton Institute , 

Bowie Normal , 

Morgan College 

Howard University 

Virginia Normal 

Columbia University 

University of Pennsylvania . 
Other Schools and Colleges . 



226 

92 
41 
33 
14 
9 
6 
5 
26 



25 
17 



EXTENSION COURSES 

Extension courses were offered for 32 colored teachers in 1926- 
27 and 64 in 1927-28 in three counties the first year and five 
counties the second. The names of the courses, the counties in 
which they were given, enrollment, the number of teachers, and 
the State-aid allowed are indicated in Table 113. 



Summer School Attendance, Extension Courses, Experience 183 



TABLE 113 
Extension Courses for Colored Teachers 



COUNTY 


Total Enrollment 


Total Number for 
Whom Reimburse- 
ment Was Allowed 


Total 
Reimbursement 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1926-27 


1927-28 


1926-27 


1927-28 


Anne Arundel 




10 
13 
11 
2 

14 
3 
11 




10 
13 
11 

2 
14 

3 
11 




$ 80 00 

100.00 

105 00 
* 

90 00 
** 

105.00 


Charles 








Frederick 


11 


11 


$ 38.50 


Montgomery 


Prince George's. . 
St. Mary's 


12 


12 


60.00 


Worcester 


9 


9 


33.75 


Totals 


32 


64 


32 


64 


$132.25 


$480 . 00 





*With Prince George's. 
♦♦With Charles. 



NAMES OF COURSES 

Teaching of Arithmetic, Arithmetic for Public School Music. 

Teachers. 

European History, Ancient, Medieval and Psychology and Methods. 

Modern. 

Civics, Problems of American Democracy, Fundamentals in English. 

Citizenship. 



EXPERIENCE AND TURNOVER OF COLORED TEACHING STAFF 

The median years of experience in colored schools in October, 
1928, was 3.3 years, .4 years less than last year. In order to 
replace teachers holding the lower grade provisional certificates 
by those who were normal school graduates, it was necessary to 
employ a large number of trained but inexperienced teachers. 
The number of inexperienced teachers therefore increased. 
There was a decrease of 22 in the number of colored teachers 
having an experience of 24 years or more. This was due to the 
greater number of retirements possible from the increase in the 
appropriation for this purpose provided in the State budget for 
the year beginning October 1, 1927. (See Table 137, page 223.) 

The colored inexperienced teachers employed included 183, or 
23 per cent, of 795 teachers in service in October, 1928. The 
counties varied from no inexperienced teachers in Washington ; 
2, 3, and 5, respectively, in Calvert, Frederick, and Baltimore, 
to 15, or 47 per cent, of the staff in Kent, 6, or 46 per cent, in 
Carroll, and 23, or 43 per cent, in Somerset. It should be remem- 
bered that all of the counties at the bottom of the list showing 
a large number of inexperienced teachers are the ones which 



184 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



showed a great increase in certification score in Chart 31. The 
inexperienced teachers were doubtless practically all normal 
school graduates. As the entire staff becomes trained, the coun- 
ties will seek to reduce the turnover. (See Chart 32.) 

CHART 32 



H0J4BER AND PER CENT OF COLORED TEACEEIIS 
Hr MSRYLfiTTO COOHTIES 
JS FIRST "mR OF TEACHING EXPERIERCF 
OCTOBER 1927 AND OCTOBER 1928 



County 



Humber 





1927 


1928 


Total and 








177 


1S3 


9ashlng^on 


X 





Calvert 


4 


2 


Frederick 


1 




Baltimore 


2 


5 


UontgCDiery 


5 


5 


Pr. George's 


11 


9 


Cecil 




2 


Harford 


5 


3 


Charles 


11 


7 


An. Arundel 


12 


12 


Howard 


1 


4 


Wicomico 


12 


ID 


Talbot 


8 


9 


Dorchester 


19 


16 


St. Mar7*"3 


IB 


12 


Qp.. Anne»s 


6 


9 


Caroline 


12 


11 


Worcester 


ID 


16 


Allegany 


1 


4 


Somerset 


25 


23 


Carroll 


4 


6 


Kent 


6 


15 



Per Cent 
1927 1928 



22,7 
7.1 

16,7 
3.0 

11.4 
14.9 
17.6 
20.8 
25.0 
16.4 
5.0 
27.3 
22.2 
39.6 
52.9 
27.3 
44.4 
23.8 
10.0 
46.3 
28.6 
IB .8 



^3.0 




n.5 



11.6 



12.0 



15.6 



IG.O 



21.1 



22: 



23.7 



32.0 



35.3 



37.5 



37.9 



38.1 



40,0 



43.4 



4G.2 



4G.9 



In addition to the turnover indicated by the number of inex- 
perienced teachers employed, there were other changes which 
increased the turnover among colored teachers during the year. 
In addition to nearly 23 per cent inexperienced teachers employed 



Experience, Turno\'er, Men Teachers in Colored Schools 



185 



in the fall of 1927, there were 69 additional colored appointees 
after teachers began service in the fall of 1927, in order that 
positions might be kept filled. This meant a turnover during the 
year of 8.7 per cent of the staff. Wicomico and Queen Anne's had 
no changes, but in the other counties the changes varied from 1 to 
10 and included from 3 to 50 per cent of the staff. Carroll lost 
6, or one-half, of its staff ; St. Mary's lost 10, or 29 per cent ; 
Allegany 2, or 20 per cent; Washington lost 2, or nearly 17 per 
cent, of the colored staff, and Anne Arundel 10, or 14 per cent. 
(See Table 114.) 



TABLE 114 



Number and Per Cent of Maryland County Colored Teachers Who Be;?an 
Teaching in Fall of 1927 and Who Left Service Before 
Close of School Year in 1928 



County Number 
Total and Average t69 



Queen Anne's 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Baltimore 

Harford 

Dorchester 

Montgomery 

Howard 

Prince George's.. 
Cecil 



Per Cent 
t8.7 



3.0 
4.0 



* Includes 1 high school teacher, 
t Includes 4 high school teachers. 



County 



Number Per Cent 



Somerset *o 

Charles 4 

Frederick 3 

Kent _ _ 3 

Worcester _ 4 

Caroline *3 

Calvert 3 

Anne Arundel _ *10 

Washington *2 

Allegany _ 2 

St. Mary's - 10 

Carroll 6 



*9.2 
9.5 
10.0 
10.0 
10.0 
*10.3 
11.5 
♦13.9 
«16.7 
20.0 
29.4 
50.0 



COLORED MEN TEACHERS DECREASING 

Each year there are fewer men employed to teach in the col- 
ored schools. In the year just closed there were 93 men, includ- 
ing 11.8 per cent of the staff. In the preceding year there w^ere 
14 more men and the per cent was 2.0 higher. When compared 
with 1923, the gradual reduction in the number of men employed 
is still more in evidence. (See Table 115.) 



TABLE 115 

Number and Per Cent of Men Teachers in County Colored Schools 



Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


Year 


Number 


Per Cent 


1923 


135 


18.3 


1926 


108 


14 


1924 


129 


16 9 


1927 


107 


13 8 


1925 


126 


16.5 


1928 


93 


11.8 



186 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



AVERAGE SIZE OF CLASS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS DECREASING 
AND IN HIGH SCHOOLS INCREASING 
CHART 33 



AYSEIAGS HUISBBl BEUXJGUfG PBR TZ&CHER ST COLORED l^t.rwhNTAKY SCHOOLS 



County 
Co* ATorago 

Allegany 

CalTort 

Uontgomszy 

Anne Arundel 

Worcester 

Q^een Anne*s 

Charles 

Baltiiaore 

Pr. George's 

Wlcogmico 

Somerset 

St. Ivory's 

Talbot 

Hoiard 

Dorchester 

Carolina 

Cecil 

Kent 

Frederick 

Harford 

Washington 

Carroll 
Balto. City 

State 



1927 1928 
34.0 




35.9 34.8 



In the year ending in June, 1928, there were 33.7 colored ele- 
mentary pupils belonging on the average for every teacher in 
service, this being .3 under the number 34 the preceding year. 
There were 15 counties which were reported last year as needing 
from 1 to 8 additional teachers in the colored schools. All of 
these counties, except Howard, Prince George's, Talbot, and 
Charles, show a lower enrollment per teacher this year than last 
year. Enrollments per teacher ranged from 40.8 in Allegany and 
40.7 in Calvert to 23.8 in Carroll County. A check of the coun- 
ties shows that the enrollment and attendance would have justi- 
fied the employment of 34 additional colored elementary teachers 



Size of Class and Salaries, Colored Schools 



187 



in the following counties: Montgomery, 8; Anne Arundel, 4; 
Baltimore and Worcester, 3 each; Calvert, Charles, Prince 
George's, St. Mary's, and Talbot, 2 each; Caroline, Dorchester, 
Frederick, Queen Anne's, Somerset, and Wicomico, 1 each. A 
lack of rooms probably was the factor preventing their employ- 
ment. (See Chart 33.) 

The average number of colored high school pupils belonging 
per teacher, 21.5 in 1928, was 1.6 pupils higher than in 1927. The 
number per teacher ranged from 5.8 in Carroll, 11.7 in Cecil, 12.5 
in Allegany, and 13.5 in Prince George's to 26 in Montgomery, 
26.8 in Frederick, and 31.3 pupils in Wicomico. (See Table 
XXXIII, page 335.) 

SALARIES HIGHER IN COLORED SCHOOLS 

The average annual salary per county colored elementary 
teacher increased from $586 in 1927 to $602 in 1928, an increase 
of $16, due to the greater number of teachers employed holding 
first-grade certificates. The average salaries since 1917 are given 
in Table 116. 

TABLE 116 

Average Annual Salary Per County Colored Elementary Teacher, 1917-1928 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1917 $228 

1918 279 

1919 283 

1920 359 

1921 442 

1922 455 



Year Ending Average 

June 30 Salary 

1923 $513 

1924 532 

1925 546 

1926 563 

1927 586 

1928 602 



For the school year ending in June, 1928, the average salaries 
in the counties ranged from $1,184 and $1,063 in Baltimore and 
Allegany Counties, respectively, to $474 and $472 in St. Mary's 
and Somerset, respectively. All of the counties show increases 
except the four at the top of the list — Baltimore, Allegany, Wash- 
ington, and Cecil, and also Carroll, Frederick, Queen Anne's, and 
Caroline. Somerset, Talbot, and Charles show the greatest in- 
creases. There were only 5 counties paying an average salary 
of less than $500 — Somerset, St. Mary's, Caroline, Worcester, 
and Dorchester. (See CJuirt 34.) 

In the fall of 1928 the median salary of teachers in colored 
elementary schools was $560, $40 more than in 1927. The modal 
salary was $520. (See Table 117.) 

For the year ending in June, 1928, the average county salary 
of colored high school teachers was $897, a decrease of $11 under 
1927. (See column 4 in Table XXXIII, page 335.) Half of 



188 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CHART 34 



AVEEIAGE SAL4RT PER TMCHER DT COLORED ELELIENT^Y SCHOOLS 



1184' 



I0£3 
G99 




County 


1925 


1926 


1927 










Baltimore 


1159 


1171 


1196 


Allegsmy 


1219 


972 


1265 


Washington 


730 


713 


806 


Cecil 


672 


658 


712 


Pr. George's 


585 


586 


655 


TTa hi. L L«_ 1 

ncirxorci 




oxu 




Aime Arunaei. 


DXV 






Kent 


491 


530 


569 


Hoviard 


533 


555 


538 


Carroll 


568 


576 


585 


Wicomico 


512 


coo 
522 


COA 

52v 


lifont eZQEifirv 

xuvx^ w ^y^^i iiw A J 


515 


520 


545 


Frederick 


503 


536 


^ 


C€LlTert 


458 


503 


528 


Talbot 


470 


483; 


489 


Charles 


465 


490 


475 


Q]aeen Anne's 


475 


487 


513 


Dorchester 


409 


440 


451 


Worcester 


428 


447 


462 


Caroline 


449 


460 


490 


St. 153X7*3 


408 


434 


468 


Sonerset 


442 


450 


427 


Baltinore City 


1524 


1317 


1470 


State 


905 


857 


947 





the counties showed increases and the other half decreases, due 
to the change in experience and certification of teachers em- 
ployed. Average salaries ranged from $705 in Somerset to 
$1,556 in Allegany. In the fall of 1928 the median salary in col- 
ored high schools was $840, an increase of $40 over the preced- 
ing year. The range of high school salaries was from $640 to 
$1,980. (See Table 117.) 



Salaries and Cost Per Pupil, Colored Schools 



189 



TABLE 117 

Distribution of Salaries of Colored Teachers in Service in Maryland, 

October, 1928 



Salary 

$280. . 
320. . 
360. . 
400. . 
440. . 
480. . 
520. . 
560. . 
600. . 
640. . 
680. . 
720. . 
760. . 
800. . 
840. . 
880. . 
920. . 
960. . 



Elementary Schools 



No. 

1 
1 

11 
18 
21 
39 
258 
79 
70 
30 
62 
42 
12 
10 
, 24 
3 
6 
3 



Salary 

$1,000 
1,040 
1,080 
1,120 
1,160 
1,200 
1,240 
1,280 
1,320 
1,360 
1,400 



No. 

2 
4 



10 



1,700. . . 
Total . . 
Median 



736 
$560 



Salary 

$640. . 

680. . 

720. 

760.. 

800.. 

840. . 

880.. 

920. . 

960. . 
1,000. 
1,040. 
1,080. 
1,120. 
1,160. 
1,200. 
1,240. 
1,280. 
1,320. 



8 



High Schools 

No. Salary 

$1,360 
1,400 
1,440 
1,480 
1,520 



5 
9 
9 
4 
4 
5 
2 
8 
1 



1,980. . . 
Total. . 
Median 



No. 



64 
$840 



COST PER COLORED ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL PUPIL 

In 1928 the average cost per colored elementary pupil, exclud- 
ing- general control and fixed charges, was nearly $23, 56 cents 
higher than in 1927. All of the counties showed increases, except 
nine. Six of these nine were counties which had decreases in 
average salary per teacher, viz., Baltimore, Allegany, Washing- 
ton, Cecil, Frederick, and Queen Anne's. Charles, Kent, and St. 
Mary's also showed decreases. The greatest increases in cost 
per pupil appeared in Somerset, Anne Arundel, Caroline, Talbot, 
and Carroll. (See Chart 35.) Costs ranged from $41.93 in Bal- 
timore to $16.88 in Calvert. Eight counties — Calvert, Somerset, 
Worcester, Queen Anne's, Charles, St. Mary's, and Dorchester, 
which receive Equalization Fund, and Montgomery — had costs 
of less than $20 per pupil (See Chart 35.) 

See also columns 7 and 15 in Table 143, page 232, and for 
actual expenditures in colored elementary schools see Table 
XXXII on page 334. 

In colored high schools costs, exclusive of general control and 
fixed charges, ranged per pupil from $34 in Somerset, $35 in 
Wicomico, and $37 in Dorchester, to $96 in Cecil, $150 in Alle- 
gany, and $157 in Carroll, the average cost being $52.13. The 
average cost was $5.24 below the amount in 1927. See eighth 
and sixteenth columns in Table 143, page 232, and for expendi- 
tures, Table XXXIII, page 335. 



\ 



190 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 35 



COST PER FOPH BEUSm im ITT COLORED ZEEMERTfiRT SCHOOLS 
FCR CDRRENT EXPENSES ESCnJDIHG GENERAL COHTEIOL 



County 
Co. Average 
Baltimore 
Carroll 
Washington 
Allegany 
Cecil 
Earford 
Krederick 
Pr. George's 
Eent 

Talbot 
Caroline 

Howard 

Anne Arundel 

Wicomico 

Montgomery 

Dorchester 

St. Mary»3 

Charles 

Queen Anne*s 

Worcester 

Somerset 

Calvert 

Baltimore City 

State 




Gi 


39 





Although Baltimore County appears to have no colored high 
schools, county funds to the extent of $11,610 were expended for 
69 pupils in the Frederick Douglass Senior High School and 14 
pupils in the Junior High School of Baltimore City. The charge 
was $150 for each senior high school pupil and $100 for each 
junior high school pupil. 

There were 178 colored elementary pupils in Allegany, Balti- 
more, Calvert, Carroll, Cecil, Frederick, Harford, and Washing- 



Cost Per Colored Pupil, Capital Outlay, Rosexwald Aid 101 



ton Counties, and 20 high school pupils in Allegany, Caroline, 
and Frederick Counties transported to school at the expense of 
the counties. The expenditure for 178 elementary pupils was 
$5,065.40, making the cost per pupil transported $28.50, and for 
20 high school pupils the expenditure of $451.80 meant a cost 
to the county of $22.59 per pupil transported. The State paid 
the expense of transporting 23 pupils to the demonstration school 
in connection with Bowie Normal School. 

CAPITAL OUTLAY COSTS IN COLORED SCHOOLS AND 
AID FROM THE ROSENWALD FUND 

Expenditures for capital outlay in county colored schools 
totaled $129,156 in 1928, about $34,000 more than in the pre- 
ceding year. Every county, except Carroll, Harford, St. Mary's, 
Talbot, and Worcester, spent some money on colored school build- 
ings, although Howard, Queen Anne's, Wicomico, and Allegany 
spent less than $100. Montgomery and Prince George's did the 
most, spending $44,900 and $41,500, respectively. Anne Arundel 
spent $14,300, Baltimore County $10,000, Kent $5,320, Calvert 
$4,809, and Somerset $2,009. (See sixth column in Table 148, 
page 239, and last columns in Tables XXXII and XXXHI, pages 
334 and 335.) 

Aid was received from the Rosenwald Fund in Montgomery, 
Charles, Calvert, Somerset, and Anne Arundel Counties. A total 
of 264 rooms built since 1920 means that one-third of the rooms 
used by colored pupils are modern. This achievement has only 
been possible through the stimulus received from the Fund. The 
total of $6,250 is less than has been received in previous years. 
Feeling that the building of schools for colored children has been 
stimulated sufficiently to go on of its own momentum, the Fund 
is beginning to divert aid toward the provision of libraries and 
toward transportation of colored school children to larger con- 
solidated schools. Maryland counties are taking advantage of 
the funds for libraries and 10 have thus far been aided. The 
fund provides one-third of the cost, the school one-third, and 
the county one-third. (See Table 118.) 

VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY INCREASES 

The average value of school property used by colored pupils 
was $42 per pupil belonging for the school year 1927-28. This 
is an increase of $5 over 1927. The range was from S16 in Dor- 
chester and Queen Anne's to $171 in Allegany. Large increases 
appeared in Montgomery and Baltimore, which made the greatest 
expenditures for capital outlay noted before. ^Montgomery has 
raised its rank from 13th to 4th. The very great decrease in 
Cecil is not due to change in school building conditions, but to 
a revaluation of the buildings by the superintendent. Frederick, 



192 



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RosENWALD Aid, Value of School Property 
CHART 36 



193 



VAIUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY PER COLORED PUPIL BELQNCING 



County 
Co. Average 
Allegany 
Washington 
Baltlnore 
Montgomery 
Frederick 
Harford 
Wicomico 
Pr. George's 
Talbot 
Carroll 
Anne Arundel 

Cecil 

Charles 

Caroline 

Howard 

Calvert 

Kent 

Worcester 
St. lilary»s 
Somerset 
Queen Anne*3 
Dorchester 

Baltimore City 
State 



1926 
$ 36 
1B6 
35 
81 



1927 1928 
$ 37 




Anne Arundel, and Kent have increases varying from $5 to $9. 
There are nine counties which still have a valuation per pupil of 
less than $30; these are Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Somerset, 
St. Mary's, Worcester, Kent, Calvert, Howard, and Caroline. 
Many of these counties used rented buildings, many of which are 
unsatisfactory for school purposes. (See Chart 36.) 



194 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



SIZE OF COLORED SCHOOLS 
Of the 521 colored elementary schools, 378 had one teacher, 
105 two teachers, and 22 three teachers. There were four fewer 
having one teacher, and two more two-teacher and three-teacher 
schools than during the preceding year. A four-teacher school 
of 1927 became a five-teacher school, and one of six teachers in 
1927 became a seven-teacher school in 1928. Anne Arundel, 
Wicomico, and Baltimore have the three largest colored elemen- 
tary schools. (See Table 119.) 

TABLE 119 

Number of Colored Elementary and High Schools Having Following 
Number of Teachers, School Year 1927-1928 



COUNTY 



COLORED elementary SCHOOLS 
HAVING FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 



03 

o 



I 



IN 



00 



+-> 

o 



COLORED HIGH 
SCHOOLS HAVING 
FOLLOWING NUMBER 
OF TEACHERS 



5£) 



O 



Total 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot. . 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



378 

1 

25 
19 
17 
16 
10 

9 
29 
35 
16 
14 
13 
20 
28 
j23 
14 
22 
19 
16 

6 
10 
16 



105 



14 
7 
3 
1 
1 
3 
5 
4 
4 
3 
2 
3 
5 

18 
3 
6 
9 
3 



22 



521 

2 
41 
30 
21 
20 
11 
12 
35 
40 
22 
18 
16 
24 
35 
44 
17 
28 
31 
22 

7 
20 
25 



21 

1 
1 



a Includes Bowie Demonstration School. 

Of the colored elementary teaching staff, 378, or 52.1 per cent, 
in the school year 1927-28 were working in schools having only 
one teacher. This was a decrease of four one-teacher schools 
under last year. (See Table 120.) 

The counties ranged from having 1 teacher in a one-teacher 
school in Allegany, 16.7 per cent of its staff, to 10, or 83.3 per 
cent of the colored elementary staff, in Carroll. Decreases in 
the number and per cent of one-teacher schools occurred in 
Prince George's, Baltimore, Montgomery, St. Mary's, Queen 



Size of Colored Schools, One-Teacher Schools 



195 



TABLE 120 

Decrease in Colored One-Teacher Schools, 1920-1928 





Colored Elementary Teachers 


bcnool lear Lnding June SO 




In One-Teacher Schools 




Total 










Number 


Per Cent 


1920 


683 


422 


61.8 


1921 


694 


408 


58.8 


1922 


708 


406 


57.3 


1923 


712 


403 


56.6 


1924 


728 


395 


54.4 


1925 


721 


397 


55.1 


1926 


728 


394 


54.1 


1927 


725 


382 


52.7 


1928 


725 


378 


52.1 



Anne's, and Calvert. Increases were found in Talbot, Caroline, 
Dorchester, and Carroll. (See Table 121.) 



TABLE 121 

Number and Per Cent of Teachers in Colored One-Teacher Elementary 
Schools in Maryland Counties, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Teachers in One- Teachers in One- 

Teacher Schools Teacher Schoolg 

County Number Per Cent County Number Per Cent 



Total and Average . . . 


378 


52.1 


Allegany 


1 


16.7 


Wicomico 


10 


25.0 


Prince George's 


23 


33.3 




25 


38.5 


Baltimore 


19 


38.8 


Somerset 


19 


38.8 


Worcester 


16 


41.0 


Washington 


6 


50.0 


Talbot 


16 


51 .6 


Frederick 


16 


55.2 



Harford 


14 


68.3 


Cecil 


9 


60.0 


Montgomery 


28 


63 4 




16 


64.0 




22 


64 7 


Howard 


13 


65 


Kent 


20 


66.7 


Queen Anne's 


14 


66.7 




29 


69 


Calvert 


17 


70.8 


Dorchester 


35 


77.8 


Carroll 


10 


83 3 



The colored high schools ranged in size from 1 teacher to 7. 
The Stanton High School at Annapolis is the largest colored 
high school in the counties. (See last part of Table 119.) 

The relation between size of enrollment and teaching staff 
provided in the 21 colored high schools appears in Table 122. 
Six of the second group schools have one teacher and one has 
two teachers. For an enrollment from 51 to 75, six of the schools 
vary from 2 to 4 teachers. For four teachers the enrollment 
varies between 41 and 125. (See Table 122 and column 3 in 
Table XXXIII, page 335.) 



196 1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 122 

Relation of Teaching Staff in Colored High Schools and Size of 
Enrollment for Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Average Number Belonging 


Number of Teachers 


1 otai 
Number 

High 
Schools 




2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


1-15 




* 










1 
3 
5 
2 
6 
2 
1 


16-25 


*** 
*** 










26-40 


2 

1 
2 










41-50 




1 
1 






51-75 




3 
2 






76-100 








101-125 






1 






126-150 












151-175 












1 


1 


Total 












6 


6 


5 


3 




1 


21 







*Second group school. 
tMid point of interval. 

ATHLETICS IN COLORED SCHOOLS 



With the stimulus of the Playground Athletic League, there 
were entries for athletic badge tests by 4,270 colored boys and 
5,158 girls, 68.7 and 74.4 per cent of colored boys and girls, 
respectively enrolled* in public schools from the fourth grade up. 
Badges were won by 15.4 per cent of the boys and 29.5 per cent 
of the girls. The colored boy entrants were about 200 more than 
the preceding year and the girl entrants about 400 more, but the 
number who won badges was 100 less for boys and 34 less for 
girls. (See Table 123.) The distribution of entrants and win- 
ners by type of badge earned, bronze, silver, gold, or super-gold, 
is given in Table X, page 312. 

The counties are arranged in Table 123 in the order of per 
cent of boys and per cent of girls* enrolled in public school from 
grade four through the last year of high school, inclusive, who 
entered the tests for badges. For boys the counties varied from 
100 per cent in Carroll, Harford, Montgomery, Calvert, and 
Frederick to none in Allegany and Washington. For girls the 
counties are the same, except that St. Mary's takes the place of 
Calvert in having 100 per cent enter the test. Badges were won 
by 42 per cent of the boys enrolled in Carroll, and 39 per cent 
in Harford. In Somerset no badges were won by boys, and in 
Queen Anne's and Cecil only 5 and 6 per cent of the boys won 
them. For girls, the per cent winning badges ranged from 61 
per cent in St. Mary's to 7 per cent in Queen Anne's. (See Tables 
123.) 



* Excluding withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death. 



Athletics in Colored Schools 



197 



TABLE 123 

Per Cent of Colored Boys and Girls Passing Preliminary 
and Final Badge Tests 1928 





BOYS 




GIRLS 


COUNTY 


Number 


Per Cent 


County 


Number 


Per Cent 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 




Entered 


Won 


Entered 


Won 



Total and average . 



Carroll , 

Harford 

Montgomery . . . 

Calvert 

Frederick 

Howard 

Charles 

St. Mary's 

Prince George's , 

Wicomico , 

Caroline 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel . . 

Kent 

Talbot 

Cecil 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's . . , 

Somerset 

Dorchester .... 

Allegany 

Washington ... 



4,270 

80 
191 
412 
211 
321 
144 
308 
167 
445 
290 
189 
251 
333 
157 
171 

60 
164 

65 
171 
140 



954 

27 
59 
102 
41 
52 
28 
53 
42 
68 
82 
64 
87 
75 
43 
28 

7 
42 

8 

46 



69 

tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
98 
97 
84 
76 
73 
71 
67 
63 
62 
55 
52 
44 
39 
35 
33 



15 

42 
39 
30 
20 
19 
19 
17 
21 
12 
21 
24 
23 
14 
17 
9 
6 
11 
5 

ii 



Total and average 

St. Mary's 

Montgomery 

Harford 

Carroll 

Frederick 

Kent 

Caroline 

Calvert 

Howard 

Charles 

Wicomico 

Prince George's . . 

Baltimore 

Anne Arundel .... 

Somerset 

Dorchester 

Cecil 

Talbot 

Worcester 

Queen Anne's .... 

Allegany 

Washington 



5,158 

232 
484 
218 

76 
325 
259 
231 
195 
153 
338 
382 
506 
301 
411 
207 
264 

80 
175 
209 
112 



2.042 

100 
209 
65 
28 
36 
94 
96 
96 
54 
166 
164 
203 
122 
145 
74 
194 
22 
45 
87 
42 



73 

tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
tlOO 
97 
94 
93 
93 
92 
86 
75 
73 
63 
60 
60 
56 
54 
45 
18 



t Number entered reiwrted as more than jiublic school enrollment from grade 4 through 
fourth year high school, exclusive of withdrawals for removal, transfer, and death. 

The track and field events had 4,257 colored boy entrants from 
435 schools. There were 630 fewer entrants than for the pre- 
ceding year, but 15 more schools were represented. The colored 
girls in five counties — Frederick, Kent, Prince George's, Somer- 
set, and Talbot — played volley ball as well as dodge ball. The 
number of teams for both games was 554 and the number of 
entrants 6,607, an increase of 33 teams and 412 entrants over the 
preceding year. (See Table XI, page 313.) 

Girls had opportunities to go out for flag relays in all of the 
counties and for run and catch relays in the five counties men- 
tioned above that had volley ball teams. In all, there were 275 
teams with 2,628 entrants in the relays for colored girls. (See 
Table XI, page 313.) 

In the various counties 91 per cent of the colored schools sent 
entrants to the colored athletic meets. Calvert, Caroline, Car- 
roll, Cecil, Frederick, Kent, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, St. 
Mary's, and Wicomico had entrants at the county meet from 
every colored school in the county. Allegany and Washington 
Counties had no entrants from their colored schools. Baltimore, 
Somerset, Dorchester, and Worcester Counties had less than 90 
per cent of the their colored schools represented at the colored 
county meets. (See Table 131, page 211.) 



198 1928 Report of State Department of Education 



PARENT TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS INCREASE IN COLORED 

SCHOOLS 

There were 18 more parent-teacher associations in 1928 than 
in 1927, their support in 343 schools including 66 per cent of the 
total number of colored schools. Baltimore County had an asso- 
ciation in every one of its 30 schools. Prince George's and Anne 
Arundel had them in 93 and 90 per cent, respectively. At the 
opposite extreme, Cecil had only one, Carroll 3, St. Mary's 8, 
and Calvert 6, the percentage of schools having associations in 
these counties ranging from 8 to 29. 

Some of the counties made great improvement in this direc- 
tion. Howard had no P. T. A.'s in colored schools in 1927, 
whereas 8 were reported for 1928. Montgomery increased its 
associations by 5, Somerset and Dorchester by 4 each, Wicomico, 
Kent, and Worcester by 3 each, and Calvert and Baltimore by 2 

CHART 37 



PARENT-TEACHIE ASSOC lATIOlIS IN COUNTY COLORED SCHOOIS 



1928 



County 


KUmber 


Per 


Total and 


1927 


1928 


1927 


Co. Average 


325 


343 


62.4 


Baltimore 


28 


30 


93.3 


Pr. George's 


41 


41 


91.1 


Anne Arundel 


35 


36 


85.3 


Harford 


16 


16 


88.9 


Qaeen Anne»s 


17 


15 


100.0 


Caroline 


19 


17 


95.0 


Wicomico 


13 


16 


65.0 


MDntgosiery 


22 


27 


64,7 


Kent 


15 


IS 


65.2 


Charles 


27 


23 


77.1 


Worcester 


13 


16 


52,0 


Talbot 


15 


14 


71.4 


So^ierset 


15 


19 


48.4 


Allegany 


2 


1 


100.0 


Hov?ard 





8 


0.0 


Washington 


3 


3 


42.8 


Frederick 


9 


9 


39.1 


Dorchester 


12 


16 


29.3 


Calvert 


4 


6 


19.1 


St. Ijiary»3 


10 


8 


34.5 


Carroll 


6 


3 


60.0 


Cecil 


3 


1 


25.0 




Parent-Teacher Associations, Bowie Normal School Graduates 199 

each. While these counties were making progress in this direc- 
tion, other counties retrograded and had fewer than the preced- 
ing year. Charles had 4 fewer, Carroll 3, Cecil, St. Mary's, Caro- 
line, and Queen Anne's each had 2 fewer and Allegany and Tal- 
bot each had 1 fewer than in 1927. (See Cfmrt 37.) 

The parents of 7,145, or 25 per cent, of the colored elementary 
pupils visited the colored schools at some time during the school 
year 1927-28. To the colored high schools the parents of 420 
pupils, 31.4 per cent of all, made visits during the same period. 



BOWIE NORMAL SCHOOL GRADUATES 

There were 68 graduates from the Bowie Normal School, which 
completed its seventeenth year in August, 1928. Of these, 50 
were graduates of the two-year normal school course, an increase 
of 28 over 1927, and 18 completed the four-year high school 
course, a decrease of 12 under last year. There will be no more 
graduates from the high school department, as with the begin- 
ning of September, 1928, the high school department has been 
discontinued. 

The 50 graduates of the normal school department are all 
teaching in the counties of Maryland. The home counties of the 
graduates and the counties in which they are teaching are shown 
below : 



TABLE 124 





Home 


Teaching 




Home 


Teachinsr 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 


County 




No. 


No. 




No. 


No. 


Total - 


. 50 


50 


Howard 


1 


1 






Kent 


4 


4 


Anne Arundel 


5 


5 


Prince George's. .. 


... clO 


8 


Baltimore 


b 3 





Queen Anne's 


.... 2 


2 


Calvert 


a 1 





Somerset 


3 


3 


Carroll 





b 5 


St. Mary's _. 


.... 1 


1 


Cecil 


1 


c 2 


Talbot 


1 


c 2 


Dorchester 


... 5 


5 


Wicomico 


.... d 8 


6 


Frederick 


b 2 





Worcester _. 


.... 2 


d 4 


Harford 


... 1 


1 









a In Bowie Demonstration School. 

b Teaching in Carroll from Baltimore and Frederick, 
c One from Prince George's teaching in Cecil, 
d Two from Wicomico teaching in Worcester. 

The enrollment by vears from 1924 to 1928 is given in Table 
125. (See also Table 111 on page 178.) 



200 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 125 
Enrollment at Bowie Normal School 



Increase 

YEAR 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1928 over 

1927 

High School 



First 


32 


15 













Second 


37 


42 


21 










Third 


31 


30 


34 


22 





*22 


Fourth 


27 


41 


31 


31 


21 


*10 


Total High 


127 


128 


86 


53 


21 


*32 


Graduates 


27 


34 


30 


30 


18 


*12 


Normal School 














Junior 


11 


16 


24 


58 


55 


*3 


Senior 




10 


12 


22 


54 


32 


Total Normal 


11 


26 


36 


80 


109 


29 


Graduates 




10 


12 


22 


50 


18 


Summer School 


67 


103 


80 


81 


53 


*28 



*Decrease. 

The 1928 Summer Session 

The summer school enrollment of 53 was a decrease of 28 
under the 1927 enrollment. Since the members of the teaching 
staff in county colored schools are rapidly securing first-grade 
certificates, and only those holding second and third-grade cer- 
tificates were admitted at Bowie summer session, a decrease in 
enrollment was to be expected. 

Eight courses in high school subject-matter and thirteen in 
professionalized subject-matter were offered the summer session 
students and there was a demonstration school around which 
the activities of the summer session centered. 

Enrollment in the Fall of 1928 

To interest students from county high schools in the normal 
school, the Bowie Normal School Student Band of twenty pieces 
provided music for all county colored athletic field days except 
seven. After the field day activities, whenever possible, the 
Bowie Normal Baseball Team played games with high school 
teams. The fall enrollment in 1928 included 20 more juniors 
than were enrolled the preceding year, making the total 75. 

The entering students are tested each year in intelligence and 
subject-matter achievement. Of those who entered for the school 
year 1927-28, one-eighth fell below the standard for the seventh 
grade, while the corresponding proportion for the preceding year 
was one-third. 



Enrollment, Faculty and Costs, Bowie Normal School 201 



The Faculty 

The faculty in the fall of 1928 included the principal, 8 instruc- 
tors, 1 teacher in the demonstration school, 1 librarian, 2 
matrons, and 1 registrar-secretary. There were 9 county schools 
which were used as practice training centers for the normal 
school students. 

Total Costs and Cost Per Student at Bowie Normal School 
The current expenditures for instruction and dormitory for 
the year 1927-28, exclusive of any charges for capital outlay, 
were analyzed to determine the total current cost of educating a 
student in the regular session and the summer session. All ex- 
cept 8 of the 133 students during the regular session, and all 
except 7 of the 53 students during the summer session, were 
boarding students. The total cost for instructing day students 
in the regular session was $184 and for the summer session $64. 
The total cost for boarding students was $362 for the regular 
session and $114 for the summer session. Excluding the amounts 
paid in fees for board by students, the cost to the State per 
boarding student during the regular session was $254 and for 
the summer session $88. The State appropriation was increased 
from $26,100 to $38,170, beginning with the school year 1927-28. 
(See Table 126.) 

TABLE 126 

Financial Statement of the Bowie Normal School 

REGULAR SESSION SUMMER SESSION 

Instruction Dormitory Instruction Dormitory 

Administration : 

Business _ „ $ 1,695.06 $ 443.16 

Educational Z.SS.S.Sg 86.5.05 

Instruction _ 15,687.63 1,790.83 

Operation and Maintenance 4,725.84 $22,316.83 300.00 $2,316.51 

Total Cost „ $24,462.42 $22,316.83 $3,399.04 $2,316.51 

Receipts from Fees _ 13,598.05 150.00 1,100.00 

Cost to State _ $24,462.42 $8,718.78 $3,249.04 $1,216.51 

COST PER STUDENT 

Enrollment _ 133 125 .^3 46 

Total Cost per Student „ $ 183.93 $ 178.53 $ 64.13 $ 50.36 

Total Cost per Boarding Student $362.46 $114.49 

Fees per Student $ 108.78 $ 2.83 $ 23.01 

Cost to State per Student $ 183.93 69.75 61.30 26.45 

Cost to State per Boardinj? Student $253.68 $87.75 

Improvements and Construction 
During 1927-28, the last payments were made for the comple- 
tion of the sewerage system at the Bowie Normal School. Laun- 
dry machinery was purchased and a refrigerator installed. The 
grounds were beautified by laying out new walks and roads and 
planting the lawn and shrubbery. The inventory at Bowie Nor- 
mal School as of September 30, 1928, indicated the total value 
of the property as $172,723, distributed as follows: Land, 
$8,190; buildings, $133,220; equipment, $31,148, and livestock, 
$165.00. 



i-THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN MARYLAND 

Physical education in the schools of Maryland endeavors to 
carry out the doctrine set forth by Finney, that ''education's 
objective is to prepare young people to take their parts efficiently 
in all the institutions of our highly cultured society." The phys- 
ical education program attempts to secure this efficiency by or- 
ganizing the play and athletics of youth in connection with their 
school life so that not only are the folkways preserved, but the 
mores — *'the habitated and customary patterns common to all 
members of the group that have a moral significance" — are main- 
tained and bettered. In this program boys and girls are fur- 
nished opportunities for individual growth in activities based on 
their interests and needs. Through badge tests, individual con- 
tests, and standardized events built upon the natural acts of run- 
ning, jumping, and throwing, boys and girls are acquiring indi- 
vidual skills, and through voluntary drills in skilful competitions 
they are learning the muscular coordinations that are the basis 
of and immediately lead to games and sports. These common 
events are in the beginning learned by all, just as are the three 
basal social subjects of reading, writing, and counting. Even 
these personal skills are bound up through the teacher to the 
social unit in the school. 

That pupil and teacher in Maryland are alike proud of the 
proportion of participants in the tests is shown by the great 
number who come each year to win their awards. In this State, 
individual prowess and national records for speed or distance 
in athletic events are not the objectives of physical education. 
Independence is not first; it follows and grows out of interde- 
pendence. If ''self-realization is achieved through social partici- 
pation," then team games and competition for the sake of the 
school become the main part of the program. Here situations 
are planned where children acquire that great mass of mores 
upon which society rests. Regard for the rights of others, the 
recognition of mine and thine, statements of facts, even emo- 
tional control, are taught more effectively in play and sport than 
in any other situation. 

Finney says "the ultimate objective of teaching is not knowl- 
edge, but behavior." He stresses throughout his book the im- 
mense fund of common knowledge that our future citizens can 
acquire only through our schools, but urges as well that "society 
wants similarity of behavior in nine routine situations to every 
one problematical situation in which it wants dissimilar be- 
havior." So, dodge ball and baseball are used to establish 
basic habits which become the foundation for routine living. 
Uniform rules of games, justly administered, are teaching dis- 
cipline of a new kind to boys and girls. 

t Prepared by William Burdick, M. D.. Director of Physical Education. 
* Finney, Ross L., A Sociological Philosophy of Education, Macmillan. 



202 



The Physical Education Program in Maryland 



203 



Prepubescents who believe in rules and laws acquire respect 
for them in their own natural way ; they unconsciously accept the 
attitudes humanity has found helpful and has crystallized into 
law. Dull and brilliant pupils alike must start with this common 
regard for the common law. In the old days of education, the 
Son of Sirach, in Ecclesiasticus, laid down, in these words, a 
cult of fear: ''Chastise thy son and hold him to labor, lest his 
behavior be an offence unto thee," whereas in modern education 
the girl and the boy learn from their own needs and experience 
to choose the good. Indeed, the high school boy and girl who 
have had this kind of training in Maryland hold a different atti- 
tude tow^ard games as they grow older; for they are playing 
exciting team games, throbbing with emotion, under fewer rules 
than any group known. The spirit of the game, not the letter of 
the law, governs the sport. Out of a gross total of 813 games 
played in the State tournaments last year, no soccer nor basket- 
ball nor field ball game was protested by any high school player. 

Athletics in Maryland are administered by the Playground 
Athletic League as a part of the educational system of the Com- 
monwealth. The rules of games are those agreed upon by na- 
tional bodies adapted to the educational needs of the boys and 
girls. Every new plan is reviewed by the State Superintendent 
and his professional staff ; then it is presented to the conference 
of county superintendents for discussion and approval ; and later, 
the details of administration are reviewed by the State and 
county supervisors. This procedure varies from that of other 
States in that the State Department of Education, rather than 
universities and colleges, organized the first State competitions. 
There is progression in athletic events and games in accord with 
the needs of the child, rather than a simulation of the type of 
event used by adults. Again, rules are administered by the 
Games Committee of the Playground Athletic League rather than 
by a board selected from the high school principals. There is a 
difference in that athletic leaders, from their expert knowledge, 
rather than earnest educators, less experienced in this field, de- 
cide questions. There are practically no coaches in Maryland, 
for the leaders of athletics are the teachers of the children. 
Rules which many States must promulgate are unnecessary here. 
The competitors have no desire to make the rules of games, for 
the fun of the sport, the good-will of the players, and the social 
atmosphere of these athletics are their chief interest. 

Parents and friends of teams m this Stat^^ 
tisan, State-controlled same and ^ encou agmg n , .^^ 
competition. A fi"e type of this ^"^J^^^gJ^^^^'^f^'^whereas before 
Caroline County at the end of the soccei season. 



204 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 

CHART 38 



PERCEHT OP BOYS PASSING PRELIMINARY AMD FINAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS 1928 



Pcpcenf 



COTTNTY 


ENROLLMENT 


ENTERED 


WON 


TOTAL AND 
AVERAGE 


: 57,986 


t 14,012 


: 4,504 


DORCHESTER 


: 1,085 


t 663 


: 140 


QUEEN ANNE'S 


1 661 


1 385 


t 95 


TALBOT 


% 801 


: 461 


t 191 


A T If EUvM 

CALVcST 


t 272 


1 ISO 


i 82 


CAnOLIHE 


t 9S1 


i 508 


t 116 


wicomco 


t 1,476 


1 705 


( 213 




1 400 


1 loo 


1 48 


KENT 


t 632 


t 282 


t 86 


PRINCE GEORGE'S 


t 2,381 


t 1,083 


t 275 


CARROLL 


i 1,944 


1 655 


t 288 


MONTGOllERY 


t 1,912 


821 


( 285 


HOWARD 


t 705 


306 


t 83 


SOMERSET 


1 1,020 


1 427 


1 130 


CHARLES 


: 558 


1 234 


t 66 


FREDERICK 


t 2,854 


1 1,130 


1 370 


ANNK ARUNDEL 


1 1,954 


1 749 


: 223 


ALLEGANY 


t 4,151 


( 1,433 


t 546 


CECIL 


> 1,234 


t 418 


1 115 


HARFORD 


1 1,488 


i 513 


t 252 


HORCESTER 


1 994 


1 279 


t 130 


BALTIUOES 


1 6,281 


1 1,226 


t 403 


wasehigtob 


1 S,845 


t 902 


t 300 


GARRETT 


1 1,387 


1 299 


t 67 




13 t 



stunt, the championship medals were awarded, and all gave a 
county cheer and sang a county song just before they had re- 
freshments. 

Badge Tests 

At their own schools, 35,002 white and 9,428 colored boys and 
girls qualified for the final badge tests ; while 12,497 white and 
2,996 colored pupils won their badges. It is remarkable that 54 
per cent of the white girls and 37 per cent of the white boys 
from the fourth grade up actually participated in these self- 
testing activities. It should be noted that 45.5 per cent of the 
pupils were practicing the natural events that have been stand- 
ardized as tests for badges. Charts 38 and 39 show the percent- 
age of white boys and girls passing preliminary and final tests 
by counties. (See Table VIII, page 310, for number of white 
boys and girls participating in tests for the various badges.) 



1928 Badge Tests for Boys and Girls 
CHART 39 



205 



mCEBT OF GIRLS PASSIHC PRELIMmART AKD FISAL 
ATHLETIC BADGE TESTS 1928 



conuTT 


EKROLLMFarr 


EMTERED 




TOTAL AHD 

AVEKAQK 




t 20,990 


: 7,995 


CALVERT 


t 294 


A 247 


• 111 


TALBOT 


1 eii 


t 674 


1 506 


CAROLIKB 


, 963 


, 762 


: 406 


CEARLES 


t 664 


( 432 


1 299 


WICOMICO 


1 1,&T9 


« 1,211 


1 392 


QUEEH AJIHS'S 


t . 723 


t 626 


1 151 


DORCHESTER 


1 


t 660 


t 203 


KEHT 


1 


, 603 


t 243 


AKNE ARUNDEL 


, 2,055 


I 1.253 


i 443 


FREDERICK 


, 2,937 


J 1,800 


t 604 


ST. MART'S 


, 397 


1 238 


> 99 


CARROLL 


1 1.990 


: 1,200 


> 498 


MONTGOMERT 


X 1,949 


: 1,166 


s 400 


PRIUCE GiORCE'S • 


; 2,353 


« 1,408 


» 412 


HORARD 


t 672 


S99 


•' 149 


CECIL 


t 1«24S 


1 689 


« 217 


WORCESTER 


t 1,043 


s 600 


• 258 


SOMERSET 


1 1,077 


» 609 


» 216 


ALLECAKT 


1 4,462 


» 2,083 


: 693 


BALTIMORZ 


1 6,132 


: 2,572 


1 940 


HARFORD 


, 1.600 


1 680 


: 330 


WASHINGTOH 


1 4.0S1 


i 1,163 


1 508 


OARRETT 


1 1.396 


t 316 


X 116 



PePCGnf 
Won Enteped 






53 


•'17 ] 




. ■ n ' ] 



21 


' 7i 1 


17 


7i 1 






1 . ;6I ,1 














18 






IT 



fEm 




20 






16 


■ V- 1 




■ ') 




11 





20 



Girls' Activities 

Now that proper traditions in reference to games have been 
established among girls, basket-ball tournaments were fostered 
within the counties. In 5 counties, 25 teams, with 298 players, 
competed. In Charles County, a high school carnival was con- 
ducted at Indian Head. Wicomico and Frederick counties held 
carnivals at the armories for 2,606 entrants. In addition, 4,536 
girls, who represented Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Howard, and 
Harford counties, took part in the competition in the Winter 
Carnival at Baltimore. In their three track events, 7,604 girls 
entered, as compared with 11,385 boys in their 25 events. The 
Field Ball Tournament attracted 95 high schools, with 1,627 
players. 



206 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Athletiics for Colored Boys and Girls 

The State-wide athletics for boys and girls attending county 
colored schools are described in the report on colored schools, 
pages 196 to 197, and in Tables X and XI, on pages 312 to 313. 
A Volley Ball Tournament was offered to the girls and 13 schools 
from five counties had 146 competitors. Flag, and Run and 
Catch relays had 275 teams composed of 2,628 girls. These were 
in addition to the 4,257 boys from 435 schools. 

Team Games Tournaments 

During the spring field days, 12,715 white boys and girls 
played on 1,321 teams in 182 different tournaments, while 7,234 
boys and girls participated in group athletics in Anne Arundel, 
Baltimore, and Howard counties. Volley Ball for junior high 
schools reached 14 new groups. Hit Ball was played in 82 
schools, as compared with only 61 schools the previous year, in 
which Captain Ball was the game played. Eight hundred and 
fifty-five teams of 11,252 players were playing dodge ball. 

Soccer 

Soccer is now played by 139 high schools, with 142 teams. 
Officers of the National Soccer Association state that Maryland 
has the best school-boy soccer in America. The tournament was 
won by Sparrows Point, of Baltimore County. The runner-up 
was Easton, of Talbot County. . (See Table IX, page 311.) 

Basketball 

A State-wide Basket Ball Tournament was repeated with 47 
high schools having 523 boys playing in 16 counties. This game 
is necessarily limited on account of the few indoor courts in the 
counties. The winner of the tournament was Catonsville, repre- 
senting Baltimore County. The runner-up was Salisbury, of 
Wicomico County. (See Table IX, page 311.) 

Baseball 

The State-wide Baseball Tournament, conducted in coopera- 
tion with the Baltimore Sun, had 93 teams in 19 counties with 
1,317 players. Prince George's County, represented by Marl- 
boro, won the championship. The runner-up was Mardela, of 
Wicomico County. (See Table IX, page 311.) 



Athletics, Health Activities, Finances of P. A. L. 



207 



State-wide Meet 

The Fourteenth Annual Championships were held at the Balti- 
more Stadium, June 8, 1928, and the representatives of Balti- 
more County were the winners. This county was awarded the 
Sun trophy as the leading county in points won. The boys' band 
of Frederick High School furnished music during the day. The 
Maryland Parent-Teacher Association, through its school groups 
at Public Schools Nos. 44, 51, 63, 64, 71, 74, 88, 90, 212, 213, 221, 
223, 230, 232, Catonsville High School, and Forest Park High 
School, entertained in their homes the boys who came from a 
distance, each school acting as a host to one county group. The 
girls of the volley ball teams from 20 counties were entertained 
at the State Normal School at Towson by Miss Lida Lee Tall, 
Principal. The championship in dodge ball was won by Prince 
George's County athletes from Mt. Rainier, and the champion- 
ship in volley ball was won by Caroline County representatives 
from Preston High School. 



Health Actiyities 

During 1927-28, a total of 7,881 examinations of 2,781 boys 
and 4,840 girls in high schools and 260 special inspections were 
made. Parents were sent 3,757 letters advising them of their 
children's handicaps, most of which could be removed. Health 
buttons were given to 2,420 boys and girls who were free from 
gross medical and dental defects, the number amounting to 30.7 
per cent of the total number examined. 



Finances and Services of P. A. L. 

Conducting the school athletics in Maryland during the calen- 
dar year 1928 required a total expenditure of $23,809.43. (See 
Table 127.) 

TABLE 127 

Playground Athletic League 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

Expenditures for State During Calendar Year 1928 

Salaries _ - _ _ - $ 9,219.39 

Wages „ _ _ _ 2,388.01 

Printing _ 468.24 

Postage - - 192.41 

Telephone - _. 184.29 

Supplies _ 758.81 

Repairs _ 6.50 

Awards 5,352.45 

Traveling 4,185.08 

Miscellaneous — _ 1,020.59 

Equipment _ 33.66 



$23,809.43 



208 



1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 



The State budget included for the Playground Athletic League 
$15,000 in the Public School budget and $10,000 under State- 
aided Institutions. The balance of the $25,000 appropriated not 
shown as expended above was for the services of the physician 
of the Playground Athletic League, who spends most of his time 
making examinations of high school boys throughout the State. 
The item of salaries includes the remuneration to Mr. Pitman 
and Miss Parker for supervision and services given to 2,260 
school units,* of which 1,352 units were employed in the direction 
of the activities of the spring meets, at which 95,509 individual 
entries were made. 

The Playground Athletic League makes no charge for admin- 
istration; this is a service rendered to the schools through the 
Director of Physical Education and of the Playground Athletic 
League. On the average, 16 counties were furnished direct aid 
each month of the school year by the Playground Athletic League. 

The amount of $4,185.08 spent on travel includes the trans- 
portation of people and supplies for the great number of activi- 
ties conducted throughout the year, as well as the traveling ex- 
penses of the man and woman physician who are biennially 
making medical examinations of the high school boys and girls. 

The Baltimore Morning Sun paid the cost for the inter-county 
State-wide baseball tournament. 

The stub item wages includes the cost of stenographic help 
and of recording the 15,493 badges and the 6,745 medals won by 
the different pupils. For instance, it cost $346.27 to send out 
the 48,619 tags that were issued to those who qualified for the 
various events. The records not only register the achievements 
of the children, but also prevent duplications and thereby lessen 
expenses. (See Table 127.) 

A gross number of 19,150 badges and 1,000 date bars were 
purchased for the work in the counties of Maryland. In addi- 
tion, 4,870 medallions, 1,270 official badges, and 8,246 pendants 
were furnished for the various competitions. These thousands of 
awards, which cost $5,352.42, are beautiful and inexpensive when 
compared with the usual cost of one athletic meet where four 
or five hundred dollars are paid for the medals alone. 

Additional receipts came from county funds for special extra 
medical, referee, and coach service rendered by the League. 
Regular class instruction in physical education is given by lead- 
ers from the Playground Athletic League in the high schools 
and larger grade schools of Baltimore, Anne Arundel, and How- 
ard Counties. (See Table 128.) 

The P. A. L. staff, acting as non-partisan officials, supple- 
mented the excellent work of the teachers of the schools in the 

* A school unit is defined as any school to which assistance is given. The same school 
may be included a number of times. 



Expenditures by P. A. L. From State and County Funds 209 



TABLE 128 



Expenditures by Counties for Service Rendered by P. A. L. 



County or Normal School 


ivieaicai 
oer V ices 


Referee & 
Coach Service 


Xvt:);^ Uldl 


All 


$17 .64 


$867.94 
88.66 
67.27 
46.93 
3.15 




A A J 1 


\ ,\bi .1^ 
9,261 , 20 


"T* 1 j_ • 


726 . 00 
30.10 


Calvert 


1 * 


194.97 


1 1 




Cecil 


17 .50 
44 .96 


25.60 
150.44 
107.10 
348.51 




Charles 




Dorchester 




Frederick 






Garrett 


20 . 80 
7.30 




Harford 


196.16 
52.89 
70.58 
5ol . 56 
230.79 




Howard 


616.93 


"XT' A. 

Kent 




Montgomery 






Prince George's 


67.26 




Queen Anne's 




St. Mary's ■ 


6.50 


8.79 




Somerset 




Talbot 




150.60 
281.10 
*168.25 


189.86 


Washington 


108.60 


Wicomico 




Worcester 






Totals 








$1,046.66 


$3,416.32 
84.52 


$11,415 22 
1,240.75 


Towson Normal 


Frostburg Normal 


85.81 


Total amount for service rendered. . . . 






$1,132.47 


$3,500.84 


$12,655 97 


$17,289.28 



Includes funds for winter carnival: Charles $50, Frederick $84.57, Wicomico $168.25. 



State by refereeing and umpiring games and rendering service 
as coaches. (See Table 129.) 

By purchasing athletic supplies and equipment through the 
Playground Athletic League the schools obtain them at a greatly 
reduced rate. If this material had been purchased at the regular 
retail prices, by the children, it would have cost $3,500 more than 
the $5,228 expended. (See Table 130.) 

There were 881 white and 475 colored schools, 65 per cent of 
the white and 91 per cent of the colored schools that took part in 
the spring meets. Every white school in Calvert and Queen 
Anne's participated and 98 and 96 per cent of the Montgomery 
and Talbot schools entered white pupils at the meets. At the 
opposite extreme, only 18 per cent of the Garrett County schools 



210 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 129 

Staff Furnished Counties by Playground Athletic League, 1928 



COUNTY 


Workers Sent 
to Field Meets 
and Winter 
Carnivals for 


No. of 
Days 
Service 

per 
Week 
for 
Physical 
Educa- 
tion for 


Games Refereed 
and Umpired 


Days of Coach 
Service 


t-i 

Qi 

u 
u 

o 


a; 

CO 


0) 
tn 

pa 


Is 
Ph 

T3 

"3 


■« 

P? 
>> 

"o 


u 
y 
O 
v/J 


13 

rri 
W 

s 


Special 
Ath- 
letics 


c 

u 

ca 
U 

a> 
e 


White 


Color'd 


B 


G 


B 


G 


B 


G 


B 


B 


G 


B 


G 


G 


B 


G 


B 


G 


G 


Total 


/184 

all 
10 
12 

4 

7 
10 

5 
b9 

7 

cl2 
4 
7 
7 
6 
11 

dlS 
6 
6 
5 
6 
6 
^9 
5 


/1 93 

fll4 
11 
15 

3 

5 
11 

5 
b9 

6 

cl9 
3 
6 
8 
4 
13 

dl6 
5 
5 
5 
6 
6 

<rl3 
5 


82 


79 


25.5 


30 


207 

40 
4 

18 
4 
3 


86 
44 


51 

' 7 
16 


43 

2 
6 


81 


9 


56 


15 


31 


31.5 


23 






5 
5 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
3 


5 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
5 
4 


1.5 
21.5 


2 

25 


1 
12 

3 


2 




1 




1.5 






































21 


21 




Carroll 




















Cecil 












2 
7 
6 
2 










1 


2 










3 
8 
12 
1 
19 
4 
3 
11 
14 
1 
3 
1 
19 
34 
5 










5 


2 


















1 


ii 








5 


9 


10 




























4 

3 
3 
6 
6 
3 
4 
5 
5 


4 

3 
3 
5 
6 
3 
3 
5 
4 










3 
1 
1 


9 
3 
3 




4 

12 
32 
3 


2 

2 
2 


2 

"i 


2 
1 
1 






2.5 


2 


4 


3 


Kent 


Montgomery 






18 
9 
1 


16 








8 


14 


7 


6 


2 










St. Mary's 
























Somerset 


























Talbot 




1 


2 

3 




2 
1 
2 


19 
7 




















6 










5 
5 


5 
5 














12 





















































a Includes 5 men and 3 women for rural meets. 
b Includes 4 men and 5 women for winter carnival. 
c Includes 2 men and 7 women for winter carnival. 
d Includes 2 men and 6 women for rural meets. 
e Includes 2 men and 7 women for winter carnival. 

/ Includes 7 men and 9 women for rural meets and 8 men and 19 women for winter carnival. 



sent entrants, 38 per cent of the Washington County schools, 
and 46 per cent of the Prince George's and Worcester white 
schools. Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Cecil, Frederick, Kent, Prince 
George's, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's, and Wicomico had entries 
from every school in the county at the colored meets. Allegany, 
Washington, Baltimore, Somerset, Dorchester, and Worcester 
Counties were the only ones in which less than 90 per cent of 
the colored schools sent entrants to the county athletic meets. 
(See Table 131.) 



Staff and Materials Furnished by P. A. L. and Schools Ser\-ed 



211 



TABLE 130 

Materials Supplied by Playground Athletic League to County Schools, 1928 



COUNTIES 



NUMBER purchased FOR COUNTIES 



a 

u 

o 
u 
o 



PQ 
— 
> 



05 

m 

o 
G 



e4 



P3 
a 



13 



:3 
1—1 

=3^ 



c4 



n 

-4-> 

PQ 



c c 
c p. 



X 



Totals 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

Somerset 

St. Mary's. . . . 

Talbot 

W ashington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



249 


120 


520 


16 


12 


20 


17 


8 


29 


59 


15 


69 


3 


1 


1 


9 


7 


50 


2 


4 


53 


13 


8 


22 


5 


2 


13 


11 


2 


16 


12 


6 


40 


2 


6 


2 


4 




15 


15 


2 


19 


5 


4 


8 


13 


3 


36 


7 


5 


26 


12 


7 


26 


6 


5 


9 


3 


3 


4 


5 


3 


13 


19 


6 


8 


8 


6 


21 


3 


5 


20 



276 

1 
1 

79 
1 

20 



20 
14 



12 



31 
12 



1 
30 

6 
12 

6 
12 



18 



343 

9 
36 
124 
1 
9 
13 
14 
4 
8 
12 
2 
1 
13 
4 
34 
26 
5 
5 
5 
2 
4 
8 
4 



214 

9 
13 
43 
5 
13 
29 
12 
5 
3 
2 
2 
2 
4 
6 
3 
5 
29 
4 
4 



7 
14 



34 

1 
2 
4 
1 
1 



139 

4 
17 
50 
1 
3 
4 
12 
2 



1 
11 
1 
9 
14 
1 
2 
4 



45 

3 
3 
16 



$5,238 

298 
284 
1,131 
92 
371 
232 
216 
113 
171 
247 
78 
95 
180 
158 
402 
289 
231 
68 
75 
118 
137 
119 
133 



TABLE 131 

Number and Per Cent of Maryland Schools Entered in County Meets 



WHITE SCHOOLS 

Number of Per Cent of 
Schools Schools 
County Entered Entered 



Total 


881 


64 


7 


Calvert 


23 


100 







35 


100 







58 


98 


3 


Talbot 


21 


95 


5 




45 


88 


2 




50 


87 


7 


Kent 


27 


84 


4 


Carroll 


80 


82 


5 


Howard 


27 


79 


4 


Caroline 


25 


78 


1 


Anne Arundel 


35 


77 


8 


Cecil 


46 


76 


6 




81 


75 


7 


Somerset 


25 


73 


5 


Charles 


22 


68 


8 


Harford 


45 


67 


2 


St. Mary's 


24 


60 





Allegany 


46 


55 


4 


Baltimore 


50 


54 


3 


Worcester 


18 


46 


2 


Prince George's 


32 


45 


7 


Washington 


41 


37 


6 


Garrett 


25 


17 


7 



COLORED SCHOOLS 
Number of Per Cent of 





Schools 


Schools 


County 


Entered 


Entered 


Total 


475 


91 


3 


Calvert 


21 


100 







20 


100 





Carroll 


11 


100 





Cecil 


12 


100 







22 


100 





Kent 


24 


100 





Prince George's 


44 


100 





Queen Anne's 


17 


100 





St. Mary's 


28 


100 





Wicomico 


20 


100 





Charles 


34 


97 


1 


Montgomery 


34 


97 


1 


Talbot 


21 


95 


5 


Anne Arundel 


38 


95 





Harford 


17 


94 


4 


Howard 


15 


93 


8 


Worcester 


21 


84 





Dorchester 


33 


82 


5 


Somerset 


22 


71 





Baltimore 


21 


70 





Alleganv 











Washington 












Garrett 



212 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



BALTIMORE CITY SUMMER SCHOOLS 

Fourteen Baltimore City schools were open during the sum- 
mer of 1928 for review and advance work, 8 for white pupils 
and 6 for colored. This was an increase of one for white and one 
for colored over the preceding year. There were 4,650 enrolled 
in white schools and 2,840 in colored schools. The total enroll- 
ment in the colored schools increased by nearly 1,100 pupils, due 
to a large increase in the number of colored pupils taking review 
work. The number of colored pupils taking advance work de- 
creased. The percentage of attendance was very high. Over 
90 per cent of the white pupils earned promotion for the sum- 
mer work taken, and this was true also for the colored pupils 
doing advance work. Of the colored elementary pupils do- 
ing review work, 91 per cent were promoted, but this was true 
of only three-fourths of those colored pupils taking review work 
in the demonstration school and the junior and senior high 
school. 

The expenditure for summer schools was $31,326, making the 
average cost for each pupil who remained to the end of the sum- 
mer term just under $5. (See Table 132.) 

TABLE 132 
Baltimore City Summer Schools in 1928 



TYPE OF SCHOOL 



o 
o 

V 



o 



c 



o 



Net Roll at End of Term 



o 



0) 

u 

c 

> 

< 
be 



Per Cent of Net 
Roll Promoted 
Taking 



0) 



1 


383 


341 




341 


4 


1,278 


1,055 


813 


242 


1 


1,147 


996 


884 


112 


2 


1,842 


1,689 


1,462 


227 


8 


4,650 


4,081 


3,159 


922 


1 


539 


456 


163 


293 


3 


1,621 


1,231 


1,231 




*1 


320 


233 


108 


125 


*1 


359 


289 


218 


71 


6 


2,839 


2,209 


1,720 


489 


14 


7,489 


6,290 


4,879 


1,411 


12 


6,430 


5,486 


3,918 


1,568 





100 


14 


96 


99 


29 


92 


100 


17 


89 


93 


29 






89 


77 


92 


13 


91 




25 


74 


90 


7 


74 


93 


6 






51 






140 













White 

Demonstration 
Elementary . . . 
Junior High . . . 
Senior High. . . 

Total 

Colored 

Demonstration 
Elementary. . . 
Junior High . . 
Senior High . . 



Grand Total. 



/1928 
\1927 



*The same school. 



Summer and Evening Schools 



213 



EVENING SCHOOLS 

Evening school work was limited to Baltimore City, except for 
the vocational courses in Hagerstowii and Cumberland and the 
mining classes held in Allegany and Garrett County described 
on pages 161 to 162. 

The total enrollment in Baltimore City evening schools, 9,900 
white and 2,640 colored persons, was 650 more for the white and 
450 more for the colored schools than during the preceding year. 
There were decreases in the enrollment for Americanization and 
for elementary work in both white and colored schools, but the 
secondaiy, commercial and vocational courses all showed in- 
creases. The number and per cent of withdrawals for evening 
school work are always very high, so that the average net roll 
was 57 per cent of the total enrollment in white schools and 78 
per cent in colored schools. (See Table 133.) 

In the lower part of Table 133 a comparison of average net 
roll, attendance, per cent of attendance, average number of teach- 
ers, and number of sessions for the school years ending in March 
1927 and 1928 are given. All items show increases, except the 
number of nights in the session for colored schools. In 1928 the 
colored schools were open 70 nights. (See Table 133.) 

Expenditures for instruction in Americanization totaled $26,- 
559 and for instruction in evening schools $96,857. The cost per 
white person on the average net roll was $18.15 and per colored 
person $10.06, with an average cost for white and colored com- 
bined of $16. 

TABLE 133 

Baltimore City Evening Schools, Year Ending July 31, 1928 



ENROLLMENT 



TYPE OF WORK White Colored 

Americanization 1,702 

Elementary 806 1,268 

Secondary 2,450 325 

Commercial 2,154 273 

Industrial 1,795 363 

Home Economics 994 408 



Total 9,901 2,637 





1927 


1928 


Average Net Roll 


5,598 


5,657 


Average Attendance 


4,145 


4,601 


Per Cent of Attendance. . . 


74 


81 


Average Number Teachers 


231 


241 


Number of Sessions 


48-93 


50-95 



White Colored 

1927 1928 

1,884 2,054 

1,320 1,480 

70 72 

62 67 

71-93 70 



*THE CERTIFICATION OF TEACHERS 
New Regulations 

In 1928 the following regulations were adopted upon recom- 
mendation of the county superintendents' Committee on Certifi- 
cation. 

More Preparation Required for Teachers of Special Subjects 

Beginning with the school year 1929-30, four years of college 
work or the equivalent shall be required for a high school teach- 
er's certificate in special subjects. The work shall include ap- 
proximately a year's credit in the special subject and two hun- 
dred recitation hours in education, including at least ten hours 
of supervised practice teaching. Teachers working in 1928-29 
in these fields on provisional certificates may qualify as late as 
the school year 1929-30 on the basis of the two-year requirement. 

Postponement of Summer School Attendance for Travel 

Any teacher holding a first-grade, elementary school prin- 
cipal's, high school teacher's, high school principal's, or life cer- 
tificate may postpone summer school attendance once in four 
years by spending at least four weeks in a foreign country or in 
a trip to the western coast of the United States. The certificate 
will be renewed for two years, and the following renewal, based 
on summer school credits, will be for the usual four-year period. 

Permission for the partial substitution of travel for summer 
school attendance must be obtained in advance from the State 
Superintendent. The request, with a brief description of the trip 
contemplated, shall be filed with the county superintendent, who 
will forward it to the State Superintendent with his recommenda- 
tions. 

The State Law does not require compensation for travel. 

Travel can not be substituted twice in succession for summer 
school attendance. 

Value of Summer School Credits in Special Cases 

No new applicant for a Maryland certificate shall be allowed 
more credit for summer school work than she would be allowed 
in the school or by the Department of Education of the State in 
which the credits were earned. 



* Prepared by Merle S. Bateman, Credential Secretary. 

214 



New Regulations for Certification of Teachers 



215 



Special Rep:uIations for Teachers Whose Certificates 
Were Renewed in 1925 or 1926* 

Any teacher whose certificate was renewed in 1925 for a three- 
year period (1925-28) may, upon recommendation of the county 
superintendent, have it renewed for one year (1928-29) without 
summer school credits, or may have it renewed for four years 
(1928-32) with summer school credits. All subsequent renewals 
of these certificates will require summer school credits. 

Any teacher whose certificate was renewed in 1926 for a 
three-year period (1926-29) may, upon recommendation of the 
superintendent, have it renewed for one year (1929-30) tvithout 
summer school credits, or may have it renewed for four years 
(1929-33) with summer school credits. All subsequent renewals 
will require summer school credits. 

Every teacher holding one of the higher grades of certificates 
must attend summer school within three years of the date her 
certificate was issued. This applies to teachers whose certificates 
were issued in 1925, 1926, or 1927, as well as to those whose 
certificates will be issued later. 

Policy Regarding Cancelled Certificates 

The cancellation of a certificate nullifies it as a license to teach 
during the period for which the certificate is issued. At the end 
of this period a teacher whose certificate has been cancelled may 
apply to the State Superintendent of Schools for a new certificate, 
and the case wall be carefully reconsidered. 

Additional Regulations for Training of High School Teachers 

for Maryland Schools 

The following regulations for the training of high school 
teachers for the Maryland schools were compiled by the State 
Department of Education after conference with representatives 
of the Maryland colleges and were adopted by the State Board 
of Education on June 1, 1928. 

Attitude Toward Teacher Training 

It will be the policy of the State Department of Education not 
to accredit for the training of teachers those colleges in which 
teacher tmining is relegated to a minor position. In colleges 
which are accredited for the training of teachers, the Depart- 
ment of Education and the teacher training must be supported 
as adequately as are other departments of the institution. 

* Does not apply to second and third-grrade certificates or to certificates issued under 
si>ecial conditions. 



216 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

Success of Graduates 

The efficiency of the instruction, the professional atmosphere 
of the institution, the general tone of the college, and the success 
of the graduates in service will be factors in determining eligi- 
bility for accrediting. 

Fields of Accreditment 

To be accredited for the preparation of teachers of any par- 
ticular high school subject, the college must offer instruction in 
methods of teaching the subject and practice teaching in that 
field. This includes academic subjects, music, home economics, 
agriculture, and so forth. 

Equipment 

Each college which is accredited by the State Department of 
Education for the training of teachers must have a live, well- 
organized, and professionally administered library, adequately 
stocked with books and magazines necessary for the professional 
training of teachers. 

The Department of Education 

If an institution does not devote all of its energies to the 
training of teachers, it must maintain a college or department of 
education which meets the following standards : 

1. The head of the department of education shall devote his full 
time as a member of the faculty to the work of his department, and 
shall not engage in the work of any other department. He shall 
possess a Ph. D. degree from an institution of recognized standing or 
possess equivalent training in the field of education. 

2. There must be at least one full-time assistant in the department 
of education. If a large number of students is registered for the 
education courses, the teaching staff will necessarily be larger. The 
minimum scholastic training for these instructors shall be graduation 
from a college of recognized standing and at least one year of advanced 
work in the field of education in a graduate school of good standing. 

3. Successful high school teachers who meet the requirements which 
will be described may be employed as critic teachers to help with the 
student teaching. These teachers will be required to file data as to 
their preparation with the State Department of Education and be 
approved as critic teachers. For the present, a half year of graduate 
work in Education and in the special subject to be taught may be 
considered sufficient preparation for the work of a critic teacher. At 
least three years' successful experience also will be required. A critic 
teacher may act in this capacity only in the field in which she is cer- 
tificated by the State to teach or in which she has specialized in college. 
She may, of course, have charge of observation groups only if another 
teacher is conducting the lesson. 



Regulations for Training High School Teachers 



217 



The supervision of practice teaching and observation espe- 
cially requires training, experience, and ability, and no one who 
has not the necessary qualifications should be permitted to under- 
take the v^ork. The college will doubtless find it necessary to 
provide adequate compensation, in order to make it worth the 
critic teacher's while to do the work thoroughly. 

Criteria for Admitting Students to Education Courses 

It is urgently recommended that the departments of education 
set up for admission to the education courses intellectual require- 
ments as well as standards covering personal qualities which 
can not be measured in a State-wide way. Among the latter 
qualities may be mentioned health, personal appearance, adapta- 
bility, sympathy, tact, initiative, ability to handle students. 

As the education courses which are to be counted toward the 
professional requirement for certificates are not offered earlier 
than the junior year, there is ample opportunity for the depart- 
ments of education to make sure that the scholarship record of 
any candidate is satisfactory. This matter will be checked when 
the annual inspection is made. 

Observation and Practice Teaching Regulations 

The following regulations represent the minimum standards 
which are thought essential to effective observation and practice 
teaching. 

The Number of Observation Periods 

Tiventy observation periods will be required. Not feiver than 
ten shall be devoted to group observation with a member of the 
college department of education present. The student will, of 
course, have had some instruction as to the features of the lesson 
which he shall observe with special attention. The teacher will 
conduct group discussions of what has been observed. The re- 
sults of classroom observation will be of doubtful value unless an 
arrangement is perfected which permits students to observe a 
series of recitations in a group accompanied by the teacher. 

Practice Teaching 

All the practice teaching, covering at least ten* recitation 
periods, must be done under the supervision of one or more mem- 
bers of the college department of education or under the coopera- 
tive supervision of a high school critic teacher and the college 



* This number should no doubt be increased gradually : no proRressive State requires so 
few, tK) far as we can learn. 



218 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

director of practice teaching or other members of the department 
of education (not a high school critic teacher). Hereafter the 
regular college teacher in the department of education will be 
designated as a college teacher and the high school critic teacher 
as a critic teacher. If the plan of having critic teachers is chosen, 
she may be given charge of eight of the ten periods required. 
Each practice period must be preceded by careful lesson plan- 
ning, the plan being approved by the critic teacher before the les- 
son is taught. Constructive criticism must follow the teaching 
of each lesson. No credits shall be allowed for practice teaching 
unless there has been adequate preparation both as to mode of 
procedure and knowledge of content. Each student teacher shall 
be held for the equivalent of one hour per week of individual con- 
ference with the critic teacher and one hour per week for group 
conference with other student teachers, the critic teacher, and a 
college teacher of education. (The critic teacher will, of course, 
not participate in this conference if all the practice teaching is 
supervised by college teachers.) The college teacher must observe 
each student during at least two full periods and must keep in 
close touch with the work of the critic teachers and student 
teachers. 

At least one complete lesson unit of the usual length and con- 
tent shall be taught by each student teacher during this practice 
period. 

The practice teaching shall be done in the senior year and 
in the student's major or minor subject. The student should 
have had or should be having instruction in the teaching of the 
subject. No credit shall ordinarily be given for teaching expe- 
rience and no student shall he entirely excused from the practice 
teaching or methods courses on account of experience. 

Any student who fails to do satisfactory work in practice 
teaching shall not be recommended for certification and he should 
be advised to try other work. 

The practice teaching and the observation of teaching by the 
students in Education will not reach the desired standard of 
efficiency unless the regular schedule of the college is arranged 
in such a way that one or more of the instructors in education 
are able to supervise directly all of the practice teaching and 
observation teaching periods or supervise them partly in person 
and partly through cooperation with adequately trained and com- 
petent critic teachers. A college instructor in education or a 
critic teacher must be present at at least ten practice teaching 
periods of each student, if effective professional conferences be- 
tween the instructor or critic teacher and the various students 
can be expected to follow. 

Critic teachers shall be under the direct supervision of the 
head of the college of education, director of teacher training, or 
some other individual designated for supervisory work. This 
supervisor shall direct the whole program of practice teaching. 



Practice Teaching Requirements for High School Teachers 219 



He shall visit all of the student teachers as often as possible and 
shall try to rate their probable teaching success. The critic 
teachers shall also be required to rate the probable success of 
the student teachers. The conclusions of both supervisors and 
critic teachers regarding student teachers shall be made a matter 
of record to be filed with the other credentials of students at the 
institution. 

Critic teachers should have some definite things to look for 
in observing student teachers. It is not sufficient to be able to 
say one student will make a good teacher and another student a 
poor teacher. 

The work of critic teachers may be summarized, in part, as 
follows : 

Holding pre-teaching conferences with student teachers for the pur- 
pose of helping them plan their work. 

Giving suggestions relative to procedure in recitation, devices to be 
used, and technique in general. 

Observing student teachers at work for the purpose of noting success 
and weaknesses. 

Holding follow-up conferences in which there is frank discussion of 
the teaching observed. 

Prescribing remedial measures for all weaknesses discovered in stu- 
dent teaching. 

Preparing for director of teacher training or head of department 
of education detailed and accurate reports of the work of all student 
teachers. 

Number of Certificates Issued 

Table 134 indicates the number of certificates of the various 
kinds which have been issued during the period from December 
1 to November 30 in the years 1921-22, 1926-27, and 1927-28. 
The only considerable change in numbers in the first group of 
certificates is in those for supervising and helping teachers. The 
comparative size of the 1921-22 figures is due to the increase in 
the supervisory staff on account of the provisions of the 1922 
law. The number of supervising and helping teachers is now 
practically stationary and the turnover, as will be seen from the 
figures for 1926-27 and 1927-28, is, fortunately, small. 

The growth in the county high schools since 1921-22 is re- 
flected in the increase in the number of high school teachers' cer- 
tificates issued. Most of the increase between the years 1926-27 
and 1927-28 is due to the fact that we have this year made a 
point of certificating all of the teachers in the approved private 
secondary schools, while formerly this was done only upon special 
request. 



220 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 134 





Number of Certificates Issued 




December 1 to November 30 


Grade of Certificate 










1921-22 


1926-27 


1927-28 


Administration and Supervision 








Administration and Supervision 


4 


1 


2 


Elementary Supervision 


9 


5 


4 


Helping Teacher 


10 


3 


2 


Special Supervision 











Attendance Officer 





4 


1 


xiign Dcnool 








Principal 


7 


34 


40 


Academic 


157 


271 


412 


Special 


30 


51 


58 


Vocational 


24 


15 


4 


Junior 


6 


1 





Elementary School 








Principal 


43 


40 


15 


First 


370 


742 


699 


Second 


325 


43 


19 


Third 


214 


8 






The drop in the number of elementary school principals' cer- 
tificates results from the fact that an unusual number of teach- 
ers worked up to the requirement in 1926-27. The difference in 
the number of the first-grade teachers certificated is accounted 
for by a slight decrease in the number of normal school grad- 
uates. Second-grade certificates are gradually ceasing to be 
issued, as the only teachers eligible for them are teachers holding 
third-grade certificates who earn the necessary additional credits. 
No new third-grade certificates are being issued. 

Check of Elementary Certification 

In the spring of 1929 it was possible to check for the fifth year 
the certification of the elementary school teachers. The check 
showed a considerable improvement. The figures giving the 
number apparently uncertificated at the time the study was made 
each year will follow. The uncertificated teachers include (1) 
those who have failed to apply for certificates; (2) those who 
have failed to submit their certificates for renewal ; and (3) those 
who can be employed on provisional certificates only and for 
whose employment the necessary authority has not been re- 
quested. The figures on page 221 include also the teachers appar- 
ently not certificated who have married without reporting the 
change in names and whose records here are still under the 
maiden names. 



Certificates Issued, Elementary Certification Check 221 

TABLE 135 



Numberf of Elementary 
Year Teachers Apparently 

Uncertificated 

1924- 25 , 700 

1925- 26 _ _ 475 

1926- 27 _ - 330 

1927- 28 _ 229 

1928- 29 - - _ 186 



Each year it has been possible to do more follow-up work in 
connection with the check, and in this way the situation has 
steadily improved. If the teachers whose records were under 
different names are disregarded, the number for 1928 is reduced 
to 143 and that for 1929 to 117. The 117, however, should, of 
course, have filed applications or submitted their certificates for 
renewal at the beginning of the school year, or authority for 
provisional certificates should have been requested. Of these, 
83 are white and 34 colored. 

Provisional Certificates 

The number of provisional or emergency certificates issued 
during each of the last six years, including 1928-29 up to January 
1, is given in Table 136. The increase in the number of such 
certificates issued in 1926-27 and 1927-28 to elementary school 
teachers is chiefly the result of more complete checking by the 
State Department ofiice and the consequent certification of teach- 
ers who had formerly been allowed to work without valid certifi- 
cates. The figures for these two years, therefore, do not indicate 
retrogression in the preparation of the elementary school teach- 
ers, but are larger simply because they give a true picture of the 
situation. This year the number of provisional certificates issued 
to elementary school teachers up to January 1 is only 45, as com- 
pared with 101 on January 1, 1928. 

TABLE 136 

fProvisional or Emergency Certificates 
Issued for 



Elementary High School 

Year School Teaching Teaching 

1923- 24 276 225 

1924- 25 316 184 

1925- 26 175 132 

1926- 27 214 104 

1927- 28 268 108 

1928- 29 45* 92* 



tincludps both white and colored teachers. 
*Up to January 1, 1929. 



222 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The high school situation shows a slight improvement. The 
number of provisional certificates is steadily declining, although 
the total number of teachers in the high schools is increasing. 
The comparison between the figures in this field is more signifi- 
cant than in the elementary field, because it has for some years 
been possible to check completely the certification of the high 
school teachers and to authorize provisional certificates for those 
who through an oversight have not been certificated early in the 
year. 



The distribution by years of experience of the county teaching 
staff in service in October, 1928, indicates an increase in the 
median years of experience in white elementary and white high 
schools. There are slight decreases for one-teacher and graded 
and for colored schools. All of the white schools show a reduc- 
tion in the number and per cent of inexperienced teachers. There 
is a reduction in all types of schools, except those having one 
teacher, in number and percentage of teachers in service 24 years 
or more, undoubtedly due to the first year of actual operation of 
the new Teachers' Retirement System. (See Table 137.) 

Further data on certification, summer school attendance, and 
extension courses, and experience of teachers are given in the 
sections of the report dealing with white elementary, white high, 
and colored schools. 



EXPERIENCE OF COUNTY TEACHERS 



Pages in the Report Dealing With 



White 

Subject Elementary 

Schools 



White 
High 
Schools 



Colored 
Schools 



Certification - _ 55-62 

Summer School Attendance 63-4 

Extension Courses _ 64-5 

Experience _ 65-9 



131-3 



127-30 
130-1 



180-1 
182 
183 
183-4 



Provisional Certificates, Experience of County Teachers 



223 



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£-1 



THE COST OF PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION 



TABLE 138 



Expenditure for Current Expense From State and Local Funds and for 
Capital Outlay in the Counties and Baltimore City, 1919-1928 





CURRENT EXPENSE DISBURSEMENTS 




Year 








Capital 








Outlay 


Ending 


Total 


From State 


From Local 


Disburse- 






Funds 


Funds 


ments 




Total Counties 


1919 


$3,184,351.22 


$1,230,181.60 


$1,954,169.62 


$ 311,137.08 


1920 


3,703,153.29 


1,186,192.67 


2,516,960.62 


485,601.23 


1921 


5,043,923.02 


1,554,693.60 


3,489,229.42 


929,024.08 


1922 


5,291,124.43 


1,545,695.85 


3,745,428.58 


1,121,553.98 


1923 


5,964,456.44 


2,026,315.58 


3,938,140.86 


1,475,268.52 


1924 


6,475,802.93 


2,068,186.05 


4,407,616.88 


949,719.78 


1925 


6,743,015.08 


2,161,571.04 


4,581,444.04 


2,527,823.35 


1926 


7,143,149.65 


2,248,399.75 


4,894,749.90 


2,602,745.09 


1927 


7,517,728.77 


2,329,031.35 


5,188,697.42 


1,023,362.25 


1928 


7,787,298.09 


2,478,011.23 


5,309,286.86 


1,532,717.90 




Baltimore City* 


1919 


$2,832,543.59 


$ 671,006.78 


$2,161,536.81 


$ 38,562.29 


1920 


3,706,641.51 


713,287.02 


2,993,354.49 


60,741.25 


1921 


5,394,655.76 


1,032,541.55 


4,362,114.21 


1,267,636.20 


1922 


6,631,682.32 


1,026,972.79 


5,604,709.53 


1,417,569.15 


1923 


6,949,793.45 


1,066,100.96 


5,883,692.49 


3,301,086.21 


1924 


6,963,332.47 


1,061,111.63 


5,902,220.84 


5,336,889.06 


1925 


7,419,638.99 


1,042,479.92 


6,377,159.07 


3,224,733.82 


1926 


7,660,787.84 


1,056,893.87 


6,603,893.97 


3,484,766.86 


1927 


8,482,458.93 


1,086,496.95 


7,395,961.98 


4,200,037.45 


1928 


9,156,164.29 


1,084,892.23 


8,071,272.06 


1,897,871.37 






Entire 


State 




1919 


$6,016,894.81 


$1,901,188.38 


$4,115,706.43 


$ 349,699.37 


1920 


7,409,794.80 


1,899,479.69 


5,510,315.11 


546,342.48 


1921 


10,438,578.78 


2,587,235.15 


7,851,343.63 


2,196,660.28 


1922 


11,922,806.75 


2,572,668.64 


9,350,138.11 


2,539,123.13 


1923 


12,914,249.89 


3,092,416.54 


9,821,833.35 


4,776,354.73 


1924 


13,439,135.40 


3,129,297.68 


10,309,837.72 


6,286,608.84 


1925 


14,162,654.07 


3,204,050.96 


10,958,603.11 


5,752,557.17 


1926 


14,803,937.49 


3,305,293.62 


11,498,643.87 


6,087,511.95 


1927 


16,000,187.70 


3,415,528.30 


12,584,659.40 


5,223,399.70 


1928 


16,943,462.38 


3,562,903.46 


13,380,558.92 


3,430,589.27 



^Includes expenditures from City funds for training of teachers. 



224 



Cost of Public School Education 



225 



Current expense disbursements in the 23 counties in 1928 
totaled $7,787,000, an increase of $270,000 over 1927. The State 
took care of $149,000 of this increase and the counties carried 
the remainder, $121,000.* Capital outlay disbursements in the 
counties aggregated $1,533,000. (See first part of Table 138.) 

In Baltimore City, the increase from 1927 to 1928 of $674,000 
brought the total expenditure for current maintenance of schools 
to $9,156,000. All of this increase was cared for from City 
funds, as there was no increase in the State appropriation. The 
figures for Baltimore City, in the middle part of Table 138, in- 
clude expenditures for the training of colored teachers which 
do not appear in the later tables of the annual report. Capital 
outlay disbursements in Baltimore City in 1928, totaling $1,898,- 
000, were lower than in any year since 1922. In the State as a 
whole, school current expenses amounted to $16,943,000 in 1928 
and school building costs to $3,431,000. (See lower part of 
Table 138.) 

In 1928 the counties received from State and Smith-Hughes 
vocational funds 31.8 per cent of their current expense disburse- 
ments. This is .8 of 1 per cent more than the previous year. 
Baltimore City received 11.9 per cent of its school maintenance 
disbursements, exclusive of those for the colored training school 
for teachers, from State funds, 1 per cent less than in 1927. In 
the State as a whole 21.1 per cent of the maintenance funds came 
from the State. (See Table 139.) 

Five of the counties at the top of the list received more than 
54 per cent of their current expense funds from State sources. 
Somerset received 62 per cent, Calvert 60 per cent, Charles 58 
per cent, Garrett 57 per cent, and St. Mary's 54 per cent. At 
the bottom of the list three of the counties — Washington, Balti- 
more, and Allegany — received less than one-fourth of their cur- 
rent expense funds from the State. (See Table 139.) 

The first ten counties receiving Equalization Fund appear at 
the top of Table 139, since the counties are arranged in the order 
of the per cent of funds received from the State. Queen Anne's, 
Kent, and Carroll are found below counties which do not share 
in the fund. In Queen Anne's this is probably due to the large 
proportion of the budget used for transporting pupils, especially 
high school pupils. The excess teachers carried by Carroll and 
Kent Counties, for whom no State aid could be allowed in calcu- 
lating the Equalization Fund, explain the position of these two 
counties below others which did not receive the Equalization 
Fund. (See Table 139.) 



The amount shown for appropriations from the State includes the amount appropriated 
attributable to the school year even thouyh part of the funds may have been receivetl after 
July 31. 



226 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 139 



Per Cent of Current Expense Disbursements Received From State 
and Vocational Funds For Year Ending July 31, 1928 







Amount Received for Cur- 
rent Expenses from 


Per Cent of Current Expense Dis- 
bursements Received From 


County 


Total 
Disbursements 
for Current 
Expense 


State and 
Vocational 
Aid 


County and 
Other 
Sources 


State and Voca- 
tional Funds 


State and Voca- 
tional Funds Ex- 
cluding Equali- 
zation Fund 


State Equaliza- 
tion Fund 


County and 
Other Sources 



Total Counties. . 


$ 7,787,298.09 


$ 2,478,011.23 


$ 5,309,286.86 


31 


8 


26 


5 


5 


3 


68 


2 


Somerset 


210,536.21 


131,115.85 


79,420.36 


62 


3 


34 


8 


27 


5 


37 


7 


Calvert 


84,666.54 


50,637.53 


34,029.01 


59 


8 


36 


9 


22 


9 


40 


2 


Charles 


138,559.47 


80,135.10 


58,424.37 


57 


8 


37 


9 


19 


9 


42 


2 


Garrett 


296,727.82 


169,892.31 


126,835.51 


57 


3 


24 


8 


32 


5 


42 


7 


St. Mary's 


100,052.96 


54,166.96 


45,886.00 


54 


1 


46 


5 


7 


6 


45 


9 


Caroline 


189,719.27 


90,249.63 


99,469.64 


47 


6 


35 





12 


6 


52 


4 


Worcester 


223,255.18 


106,055.51 


117,199.67 


47 


5 


33 


9 


13 


8 


52 


5 


Dorchester 


243,530.82 


113,276.14 


130,254.68 


46 


5 


34 


1 


12 


4 


53 


5 


Wicomico 


287,571.08 


114,866.06 


172,705.02 


39 


9 


25 


3 


14 


6 


60 


1 


Prince George's . 


520,068.39 


186,294.64 


333,773.75 


35 


8 


27 


9 


7 


9 


64 


2 


Harford 


268,390.82 


89,225.48 


179,165.34 


33 


2 


33 


2 






66 


8 


Queen Anne's . . . 


164,876.14 


53,353.66 


111,522.48 


32 


4 


26 


5 


5 


9 


67 


6 


Cecil 


244,931.73 


77,712.07 


167,219.66 


31 


7 


31 


7 






68 


3 


Frederick 


497,172.17 


151,587.26 


345,584.91 


30 


5 


30 


5 




69 


5 


Howard 


156,381.12 


46,307.44 


110,073.68 


29 


6 


29 


6 




70 


4 


Kent 


165,947.02 


48,879.44 


117,067.58 


29 


5 


24 


3 


5 


2 


70 


5 


Montgomery .... 


461,559.19 


128,408.30 


333,150.89 


27 


8 


27 


8 






62 


2 


Carroll 


411,028.44 


113,333.50 


297,694.94 


27 


6 


22 


9 


4 


7 


72 


4 


Talbot 


185,099.56 


48,650.91 


136,448.65 


26 


3 


26 


3 






73 


7 


Anne Arundel . . . 


451,323.79 


115,696.94 


335,626.85 


25 


6 


25 


6 






74 


4 


Washington 


571,775.98 


132,086.80 


439,689.18 


23 


1 


23 


1 






76 


9 


Baltimore 


1,071,081.31 


218,182.46 


852,898.85 


20 


4 


20 


4 




79 


6 


Allegany 


843,043.08 


157,897.24 


685,145.84 


18 


7 


18 


7 




81 


3 


Baltimore City . . 


9,125,432.69 


1,084,892.23 


8,040,540.46 


11 


9 


11 


9 






88 


1 


State 


16,912,730.78 


3,562,903.46 


13,349,827.32 


21 


1 


18 


7 


2 


4 


78 


9 



HOW THE TAX DOLLAR FOR SCHOOL MAINTENANCE IS SPENT 

Of every dollar spent for school current expenses in 1928, 70.9 
cents v^ere used for teachers' salaries, 3.4 cents for general 
control, and 2.3 cents for supervision. The amount for teach- 
ers' salaries was .1 of a cent less, and for supervision .1 of a 
cent more than in 1927. For books and materials 4.9 cents were 
spent. Cleaning and heating buildings cost 7.2 cents; repairs, 
3.2 cents; transportation, libraries, and health, 6.5 cents; fixed 
charges and tuition to adjoining counties, 1.6 cents. Auxiliary 
agencies increased .8 of a cent, while all of the items for books 
and materials, operation and maintenance, fixed charges and 
tuition decreased slightly. (See Table 140 and Chart 40.) 



State Aid, Distribution of Tax Dollar 227 
CHART 40 

BOW THE SCHOOL TAX DOLLAR WAS SPENT 
m THE MARYLAUD COUHTIES , 1928 



SALARIES 



OF 



■3<t 



TEACHERS 70.9 + 



* r'ixcd charjres and tuition to acljoinin^^ counties, 

Washington, Harford, and Frederick Counties were the only 
ones which spent more than 75 per cent of their school current 
expense funds for salaries of teachers. Washington's high per- 
centage for teachers' salaries results from the small proportion 
devoted to general control, supervision, maintenance, and auxil- 
iary agencies. Harford spends a very much smaller proportion 
of its funds for auxiliary agencies than any other county in the 
State. 

Allegany, Prince George's, and Washington Counties, all of 
which spent less than 2 per cent of their current expense funds 
for supervision, do not employ the full quota of supervisors to 
which the number of teachers in service entitles them. 



228 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

The proportion of funds used for books, materials, and sup- 
plies was far lower in Calvert than in any other county in the 
State. Anne Arundel, Calvert, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Somer- 
set, Talbot, and Dorchester spent over 10 per cent of their funds 
for auxiliary agencies. Howard, Queen Anne's, and Baltimore 
Counties show the largest proportion of expenditures for fixed 
charges and tuition to adjoining counties. (See Table 140.) 



TABLE 140 

Per Cent Distribution of School Expenditures for Year Ending 

July 31, 1928. 



COUNTY 


Per Cent of Total Current Expense Funds Used For 


Per Cent of 
Expenditure 
for Current 
Expense and 
Capital Out- 
lay u seci 1 or 
Capital 
Outlay 


General Control 


Supervision 


Salaries of 
Teachers 


Books, Materials 
and Other Costs 
of Instruction 


Operation 


Maintenance 


Auxiliary Agencies 


Fixed Charges and 
Tuition to Ad- 
joining Counties 




3.4 


2.3 


70.9 


4.9 


7.2 


3.2 


6.5 


1.6 


16.4 


Allegany 


2.5 


1.3 


70.9 


8.7 


8.0 


2.0 


4.7 


1.9 


13.8 


Anne Arundel 


3.2 


2.2 


64.7 


3.7 


7.7 


3.7 


12.9 


1.9 


11.5 


Baltimore 


2.5 


2.3 


71.2 


4.3 


8.4 


1.9 


6.6 


2.8 


16.4 


Calvert 


8.3 


4.3 


66.4 


2.1 


5.1 


1.1 


12.2 


0.5 


6.1 


Caroline 


4.4 


2.1 


67.4 


3.4 


8.4 


2.1 


10.5 


1.7 


5.3 




3.3 


2.6 


70.7 


6.8 


5.7 


3.4 


5.7 


1.8 


3.3 


Cecil 


3.6 


2.6 


72.3 


4.5 


8.0 


4.6 


3.7 


0.7 


7.5 


Charles 


4.1 


2.5 


69.9 


4.3 


5.3 


2.6 


9.2 


2.1 


28.4 


Dorchester 


4.1 


2.5 


70.2 


4.7 


4.2 


2.9 


10.0 


1.4 


5.1 


Frederick 


2.4 


2.2 


75.4 


3.7 


7.0 


2.1 


5.3 


1.9 


22.7 


Garrett 


4.8 


4.0 


73.5 


4.3 


5.3 


2.8 


3.6 


1.7 


2.9 




3.3 


2.4 


77.5 


4.3 


7.1 


3.3 


1.6 


0.5 


11.3 


Howard 


5.0 


2.1 


69.0 


4.1 


6.7 


1.6 


6.8 


4.7 


7.3 


Kent 


4.7 


3.3 


66.6 


4.7 


7.7 


4.8 


7.7 


0.5 


3.8 




3.8 


2.1 


65.3 


6.2 


8.3 


7.1 


6.1 


1.1 


48.9 




3.1 


1.7 


71.4 


4.5 


7.3 


7.9 


4.0 


0.1 


27.8 




5.4 


2.8 


66.7 


3.2 


6.0 


0.6 


11.8 


3.5 


3.1 


St. Mary's 


7.8 


4.1 


69.5 


4.0 


4.8 


2.2 


6.1 


1.5 


15.6 




4.4 


1.6 


70.2 


4.6 


5.6 


1.7 


10.3 


1.6 


10.9 


Talbot 


4.8 


2.3 


67.2 


4.4 


7.8 


1.9 


10.1 


1.5 


27.5 




2.4 


1.7 


78.6 


3.8 


7.2 


1.8 


3.4 


1.1 


5.8 




3.8 


2.6 


70.3 


4.6 


6.4 


5.8 


5.6 


0.9 


1.3 




3.6 


2.6 


69.7 


4.2 


6.5 


2.9 


9.3 


1.2 


1.3 




2.7 


1.2 


66.3 


3.6 


9.0 


5.1 


4.6 


7.5 


17.2 




3.0 


1.7 


68.4 


4.2 


8.2 


4.3 


5.4 


4.8 


16.9 



Out of a total made up of expenditures for current expenses 
and capital outlay, Montgomery showed use of nearly one-half 
of its funds for capital outlay, while Charles, Prince George's, 
and Talbot used just over one-fourth of their funds for land and 
construction. Wicomico, Worcester, Garrett, Queen Anne's, and 
Kent spent less than 5 per cent of their funds for capital outlay. 
(See fast column in Table 140.) 



Distribution of School Tax Dollar, Cost Per Pupil 



229 



COST PER DAY SCHOOL PUPIL BELONGING FOR CURRENT 

EXPENSE 

The average cost in 1928 of educating a day school pupil in 
the counties without reference to type of school was $52.62,t an 
increase of 65 cents over last year. The counties ranged in cost 
from $66. 96 in Garrett, which has no colored pupils and many 
one-teacher schools, down to $40.68 in Charles County. Seven 
of the counties — Queen Anne's, Baltimore, Calvert, Frederick, 
Allegany, Harford, and Washington — had lower expenditures per 



TABLE 141 

Cost Per Day School Pupil Belonging for Current Expenses for Years 
Ending June, 1924, 1926, 1927 and 1928 



County 


1924 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Increase 

1928 
over 1927 


County Average 


$46. 


89 


$50. 


18 


$51. 


97 


$52. 


62 


$ .65 


Garrett 


46 


59 


60 


13 


63 


32 


66 


96 


3.64 


Carroll 


53 


79 


61 


63 


61 


65 


64. 


14 


2.49 


Allegany 


56 


65 


61 


51 


63 


07 


62 


40 


*.67 


Kent 


50 


84 


56 


26 


57 


15 


58 


00 


.85 


Montgomery 


52 


13 


55 


17 


56 


79 


57 


11 


.32 


Queen Anne's 


53 


80 


56 


37 


58 


70 


57 


09 


*1.61 


Cecil 


51 


69 


52 


47 


51 


35 


56 


43 


5.08 


Baltimore 


56 


60 


56 


22 


57 


95 


56 


40 


*1 .55 


Howard 


44 


42 


46 


41 


49 


16 


53 


27 


4.11 


Prince George's 


41 


80 


45 


40 


50 


79 


50 


98 


.19 


Caroline 


42 


00 


50 


31 


49 


61 


50 


91 


1 30 


Talbot 


51 


44 


53 


41 


49 


92 


50 


90 


.98 


Anne Arundel 


43 


87 


45 


82 


45 


30 


49 


37 


4 07 


"Worcester 


44 


16 


46 


21 


47 


85 


49 


02 


1 .17 


Frederick 


45 


58 


47 


05 


49 


55 


48 


67 


*.88 


Wicomico 


44 


02 


47 


.09 


48 


.26 


48 


.27 


.01 


Harford 


46 


00 


46 


79 


47 


.97 


47 


76 


*.21 


Dorchester 


42 


22 


45 


47 


47 


.38 


47 


59 


.21 


Washington 


40 


92 


42 


01 


45 


.40 


45 


22 


M8 


Somerset 


34 


63 


39 


.01 


41 


.48 


42 


.72 


1.24 


Calvert 


34 


.91 


42 


.79 


43 


.86 


42 


57 


*1 .29 


St. Mary's 


29 


07 


34 


60 


37 


79 


41 


.74 


3 95 


Charles 


35 


89 


37 


.25 


39 


.51 


40 


.68 


1 .17 



* Decrease. 



t In making thi.s calculation. exj>enditures for tuition to adjoininvr counties, for payments 
by parents for school transjiortation. and for evening; schools have been excluded, and num- 
ber belonging at Towson, Salisbury, and Bowie normal elementary schools have not been 
considered. 



230 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

pupil in 1928 than in 1927. The largest increases were found 
in Cecil, Howard, Anne Arundel, St. Mary's and Garrett, all of 
which employed a larger proportion of trained and experienced 
teachers than in the preceding year. (See Table 141.) 

COST OF GENERAL CONTROL 

The cost per pupil for general control, which includes expendi- 
tures for maintaining the office of the County Board of Educa- 
tion and county superintendent, for clerical assistance, and for 
salaries and traveling expenses of the superintendent and attend- 
ance officer, was $1.82 in 1928, 2 cents more than in 1927. Nine 
counties, however, spent less for general control in 1928 than 
in 1927. (See Table 142.) 



TABLE 142 

Cost Per Pupil Belonging for General Control 



County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Increase 
1928 
over 
1927 


County 


1926 


1927 


1928 


Increase 
1928 
over 
1927 


County Average . . 


$1.75 


$1 


80 


$1 


82 


$.02 


Wicomico 


$1 


73 


$1 


86 


$1 


83 


*.03 


















1 


69 


1 


87 


1 


77 


*.10 


Calvert 


2 


80 


3 


28 


3 


54 


.26 


















St. Mary's 


2 


67 


3 


07 


3 


25 


.18 




1 


60 


1 


73 


1 


70 


*.03 


Garrett 


2 


60 


2 


55 


3 


24 


.69 


Anne Arundel . . . 


1 


43 


1 


65 


1 


58 


*.07 


Queen Anne's 


2 


42 


2 


76 


3 


18 


.42 


Allegany 


1 


51 


1 


68 


1 


57 


*.ll 




1 


92 


2 


05 


2 


75 


.70 


Prince George's . . 


1 


33 


1 


52 


1 


57 


.05 




















1 


62 


1 


52 


1 


56 


.04 


Kent 


2 


92 


3 


09 


2 


72 


*.37 


















Talbot 


2 


55 


2 


33 


2 


44 


.11 




1 


64 


1 


56 


1 


46 


*.10 




2 


38 


2 


15 


2 


28 


.13 




1 


07 


1 


19 


1 


20 


01 


Montgomery 


2 


30 


2 


07 


2 


18 


.11 




1 


09 


1 


09 


1 


09 


.00 


Carroll 


2 


18 


2 


28 


2 


12 


*.16 


































Baltimore City . . 


2 


43 


2 


25 


2 


36 


.11 


Cecil 


2 


04 


1 


82 


2 


01 


.19 


















Dorchester 


1 


88 


1 


89 


1 


94 


.06 


State 


2 


03 


1 


98 


2 


05 


.07 




1 


93 


1 


90 


1 


89 


*.01 



















* Decrease. 



The largest increases were found in Howard, Garrett, Queen 
Anne's, and Calvert Counties. In Howard they are explained 
by provision for the salary and traveling expenses of the attend- 
ance officer appointed to comply with the school law in the fall 
of 1927. Calvert also employed an attendance officer for the full 
school year of 1927-28, which meant an increase over the pre- 
ceding year, since the attendance officer served only for part 
of the school year 1926-27. Garrett County shows large increases 
for traveling expenses of superintendent and attendance officer, 
office expenses, and other costs of general control. Queen Anne's 
had increases in salary of superintendent, attendance officer, and 
other costs of general control. (See Table 142.) 



Cost Per Pupil for General Control 



231 



Most of the counties having the highest costs for general con- 
trol either have very small enrollments or a large proportion of 
their pupils enrolled in one-teacher schools, necessitating a low 
pupil-teacher ratio. All of the functions of the office of the 
County Board of Education, those of superintendent, clerk, and 
attendance officer, must be performed whether the county be 
large or small. There is a minimum amount which every county 
must spend for this purpose. In the larger counties more clerical 
service is required, but not all of the factors that enter into 
general control increase with the increase in enrollment in a 
county. This explains why the larger counties appear nearer the 
bottom of the list. (See Table 142.) 

COST PER PUPIL IN VARIOUS TYPES OF SCHOOLS 

The cost per pupil in various types of schools, excluding costs 
for general control, are given in Table 143. These costs have 
been considered in detail for white elementary schools on pages 
87-93 and 98-99; for white high schools on pages 148-153, and 
for colored elementary and high schools on pages 189-191. The 
ranking of each county in per pupil cost of each type of school 
is given at the right in Table 143. 



CHART 41 
1928 COST PEE PUPIL BELONGING 



EXCLDDING GKNERAL CONTROL 



In 



m 

White High Schools 



Elementary 
Schools 



$95.82 




a. Supervision. 

b. Textbooks and other costs of instruction, 
e. Auxiliary agencies. 



232 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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Cost Per Pupil in All Types of Schools, Transportation 233 

The average cost of educating a high school pupil in the Mary- 
land counties was just double that for an elementary school 
pupil. The cause can be traced to the smaller classes in high 
school, the higher salaries paid high school teachers because of 
the additional training required, the greater cost of janitorial 
service and repairs per pupil, and the added cost for more, larger, 
and more expensive text and library books, and for laboratory 
and shop supplies and equipment. (See Chart 41.) 

MORE PUPILS TRANSPORTED TO CONSOLIDATED SCHOOLS 

In 1928 public funds to the amount of $436,583 were spent 
in all of the Maryland counties for the transportation of 15,907 
pupils. The increase in expenditure over 1927, $63,000, just 
about equals the total amount spent on transportation eight years 
ago in 1920. In 1928 there were over 2,500 more pupils trans- 
ported than in 1927. ( See Table 144.) 

TABLE 144 



County Expenditures for Transportation to School 1910 — 1928 



Year 


Expenditures for 
Transportation 


Number of 
Counties 


Number of Pupils 
Transported 


1910 


$5,210 


4 




1915 


17,270 


10 




1920 


64,734 


18 




1921 


84,870 


18 




1922 


90,011 


18 




1923 


132,591 


20 


4,334 


1924 


188,516 


21 


6,499 


1925 


242,041 


22 


8,618 


1926 


312,495 


22 


10,567 


1927 


373,168 


23 


13,385 


1928 


*436,583 


23 


15,907 



* Excludes STOO advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 



The counties' payment for transportation provided for carry- 
ing 11,975 elementary school pupils and 3,932 high school pupils 
to the larger consolidated schools, the cost to the counties for the 
former being $342,822 and for the latter $93,761. The amount 
shown above as paid for high school transportation, except in 
a few counties, includes only a part of the cost. The parents 
of high school pupils, in all counties except Allegany, Dorchester, 
Somerset, Worcester, and Wicomico Counties in the school year 
ending in June, 1928, contributed toward the cost of transpor- 
tation amounts varying from $1 to $4 per month, and in Carroll, 



234 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Calvert, and St. Mary's Counties, the parents had to arrange 
to pay the entire cost for transportation if it was required to get 
their children to high school. The estimated expense to parents 
in 1928 for part payment of transportation to high school, ex- 
clusive of parents in Talbot, Frederick, Washington, Cecil, Car- 
roll, Harford, St. Mary's, and Calvert Counties, and amounts 
paid bus drivers in Baltimore County, was $33,427. (See column 
4 in Table 90 on page 152 and Table 145.) 



TABLE 145 

15,907 Maryland Pupils Transported in 1928 at Expense of Counties 



T T XT T' V 


Pupils 


Transported 


County Expenditures 
for Transportation 


County 
Expenditure 
Plus Student 
Fees if Re- 
ported for 
High School 
Transporta- 
tion 


Total 


To 
Ele- 
men- 
tary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total 


To Ele- 
mentary 
School 


To 
High 
School 


Total Counties. 


15,907 


11,975 


3,932 


^$436,583 


$342,822 


$93,761 


t$123,189 


Baltimore 


2,536 


1,890 


646 


/^53,637 


39,781 


13,856 


J24 , 144 


Anne Arundel . . 


1,942 


1,783 


159 


50,793 


49,280 


1,513 


5,169 


Allegany 


884 


769 


115 


32,604 


28,279 


4,325 


4,325 


Frederick 




716 


133 


24,536 


20,641 


3,895 


Jo , OVD 


Dorchester 


926 


648 


278 


24,023 


15,955 


8,068 


8,068 


Somerset 


654 


364 


290 


20,475 


10,961 


9,514 


9,514 


Worcester 


721 


424 


297 


20,243 


11,675 


8,568 


8,568 


Montgomery . . . 


1,053 


694 


*359 


20,158 


15,926 


4,232 


10,426 


Carroll 


675 


675 




18,581 


18,581 




t 


Caroline 


776 


591 


185 


18,441 


16,118 


2,323 


4,879 


Queen Anne's. . . 


587 


387 


200 


18,247 


13,270 


4,977 


t4,977 


Talbot 


673 


465 


208 


17,875 


11,679 


6.196 


t6,196 


Prince George's . 


721 


561 


160 


17,783 


15,120 


2,663 


3,300 


Washington. . . . 


562 


445 


117 


16,852 


14,037 


2,815 


t2,815 


Wicomico 


380 


122 


258 


12,702 


4,300 


8,402 


8,402 


Charles 


532 


412 


120 


12,397 


10,972 


1,425 


3,138 


Kent 


310 


152 


158 


11,109 


5,489 


5,620 


7,182 


Howard 


292 


255 


37 


10,413 


9,914 


499 


1,037 


Garrett 


265 


101 


164 


9,449 


6,539 


2,910 


5,194 


Calvert 


188 


188 




^9,203 


^9,203 




t 


Cecil 


182 


150 


32 


8,393 


6,833 


1,560 


tl,560 


St. Mary's ... 


119 


119 




5,599 


5,599 




t 


Harford 


80 


64 


16 


3,070 


2,670 


400 


t400 



* Includes 42 pupils in junior high school grrades 7-8-9. 
a Excludes $700 advanced to driver for purchase of bus. 
h Includes $6,284.80 for busses. 

t Pupils or their parents paid toward the cost of transportation, but the amounts were paid 
to drivers and not recorded as receipts in the county school budget. 

% Includes only amounts paid to principals and excludes amounts paid directly to drivers. 



Transportation of Pupils at County Expense 



235 



It is quite possible that the expense of transportation is keep- 
ing boys and girls from high school who would profit by continu- 
ing in school. It seems a nullification of equal opportunities for 
boys and girls, if the distance from school and the cost of trans- 
portation are the only barriers to continuance in school. Balti- 
more and Anne Arundel Counties transported the largest number 
of elementary school pupils. Baltimore County, which trans- 
ported 1,890 elementary pupils, against 1,783 in Anne Arundel, 
spent $9,499 less for transportation. The explanation of the 
difference is probably due to the fact that Baltimore County 
owns a number of busses. Harford, Garrett, St. Mary's, Wicom- 
ico, Cecil, and Kent were the only counties which transported 
fewer than 160 elementary school pupils. (See Table 145.) 

Baltimore County transported many more high school pupils 
than any other county. Montgomery ranked second in this re- 
spect. As noted before, Carroll, Calvert, and St. Mary's trans- 
ported no high school pupils under county auspices, and Har- 
ford, Cecil, and Howard transported only 16, 32, and 37 pupils, 
respectively. 

A questionnaire regarding transportation sent out in the fall 
of 1928 indicated that of 481 vehicles used for transportation 
of pupils to school, 34 were owned by the counties and 447 were 
owned by contractors. Montgomery owned 18 busses, Baltimore 
12, St. Mary's 2, and Anne Arundel and Garrett one each. The 
cost of the 34 busses o^\Tied was $65,466. All of the vehicles 
used for transportation were motor driven except 7, which were 
horse drawn. Montgomery had 3 horse-drawn vehicles, and Bal- 
timore, Caroline, Garrett, and Kent, 1 each. Calvert continued 
to use a motor boat for transportation in one section of the 
county. 

The total mileage one way covered by the 481 vehicles used 
was 3,908, indicating an average per vehicle of 8 miles one way. 
In the following counties the average mileage one way was over 
10 miles : Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Dorchester, Montgomery, 
and Somerset. 

The average annual cost per pupil transported to elementary 
school was $28.63, just two cents lower than last year. For high 
school pupils transported the average cost to the county was 
$23.85, 18 cents more than in 1927. Costs for elementary pupils 
ranged from $65 in Garrett, $49 in Calvert, $47 in St. Mary's, 
$45 in Cecil, and $42 in Harford, down to $23 in Montgomery 
and $21 in Baltimore County. High school costs to the county, 
exclusive of amounts paid by parents of pupils, varied from $49 
in Cecil, $38 in Allegany, and $36 in Kent, down to $13 in Caro- 
line, $12 in Charles and Montgomeiy, and $10 in Anne Arundel. 
(See Table 146.) 



236 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 146 

Annual Cost Per Maryland County Pupil Transported 



County 



Total County. . 

Garrett 

Calvert 

St. Mary's 

Cecil 

Harford 

Howard 

Allegany 

Kent 

Wicomico 

Queen Anne's. . 

Washington. . . . 

Somerset 

Frederick 

Anne Arundel. . 
Worcester 

Carroll 

Caroline 

Prince George's 

Charles 

Talbot 

Dorchester. . . . 
Montgomery. . . 
Baltimore 



* If reported. 



Cost to County 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to Elementary 
School 



$64 


74 


28 


63 


48 


95 


47 


05 


45 


45 


41 


72 


38 


88 


36 


77 


36 


11 


35 


25 


34 


29 


31 


54 


30 


11 


28 


83 


27 


64 


27 


54 


27 


53 


27 


27 


26 


95 


26 


63 


25 


12 


24 


62 


22 


92 


21 


05 



County 



Total County . 

Cecil 

Allegany 

Kent 

Somerset 

Wicomico 

Talbot 

Frederick 

Dorchester .... 

Worcester 

Harford 

Queen Anne's. . 
Washington . . . 

Baltimore 

Garrett 

Prince George's 

Howard 

Caroline 

Charles 

Montgomery. . 
Anne Arundel . 

Calvert 

Carroll 

St. Mary's. . . . 



Cost to County 
Per Pupil 
Transported 
to High 
School 



$48 


75 


23 


85 


37 


61 


35 


57 


32 


81 


32 


57 


29 


79 


29 


29 


29 


02 


28 


85 


25 


00 


24 


89 


24 


06 


21 


45 


17 


74 


16 


64 


13 


49 


12 


56 


11 


88 


11 


79 


9 


52 



Cost, Including 
Pupils' Fees,* 

Per Pupil 
Transported to 
High School 



$48 


75 


37 


61 


45 


46 


32 


81 


32 


57 


29 


79 


29 


29 


29 


02 


28 


85 


25 


00 


24 


89 


24 


06 


37 


37 


31 


67 


20 


63 


28 


03 


26 


37 


26 


15 


29 


04 


32 


51 



Amounts paid by parents of high school pupils in addition to 
county expenditures were reported in only a few of the counties — 
Kent, Baltimore, Garrett, Prince George's, Howard, Caroline, 
Charles, Montgomery, and Anne Arundel. Baltimore County 
stated that the amount reported from parents included only sums 
paid to principals of schools and excluded sums paid directly 
to drivers of vehicles. There are charges also in Queen Anne's, 
Harford, Frederick, Talbot, and Cecil which pupils pay directly 
to drivers. The actual cost of high school transportation per 
pupil, if amounts paid by patrons were included, are probably 
in excess of the amount for each elementary pupil, because not 
as many of the older boys and girls as of the younger ones can 
be accommodated in a given bus. (See Table 146.) 



Cost Per Pupil Transported, Schools Having Transportation 237 



Cost per pupil transported to elementary school increased by 
$2 or more over last year in Garrett, St. Mary's, Cecil, Harford, 
Wicomico, Washington, Somerset, and Anne Arundel. Cost per 
high school pupil transported increased in four of these coun- 
ties — Cecil, Harford, Washington, and Somerset, but decreased 
in Garrett, Wicomico, and Anne Arundel. On the other hand, 
decreases of $2 or more under 1927 per elementary school pupil 
transported were found in Kent, Calvert, Queen Anne's, Mont- 
gomery, Worcester, and Caroline. Per pupil costs for high 
school transportation decreased also in Kent, Queen Anne's, and 
Caroline, but increased in Montgomery and Worcester. (See 
Table 146.) 



TABLE 147 



Number of Schools to Which Transportation Was Provided at County 
Expense, Year Ending July 31, 1928. 





Elementary 


Schools 
Having 


Schools 
Having 
High School 
Pupils 
Only 


Colored 
Schools 


Total 
Number 
in 

Different 
Schools 


COUNTY 


One- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Two- 
Teacher 
Schools 


Graded 
Schools 


Both High 
and Ele- 
mentary 
Grades* 


Total 


17 


35 


83 


106 


11 


16 


268 




10 


4 




1 


15 


Anne Arundel 






14 


1 


3 




18 


Baltimore 




8 


7 


8 




4 


27 


Calvert 


2 




3 




1 


6 


Caroline 


1 


1 


3 


6 




1 


12 


Carroll 




3 


2 


9 




1 


15 


Cecil 


2 


2 


1 


3 




1 


9 


Charles 


1 


1 




3 






5 


Dorchester 


3 


5 


7 






15 


Frederick 




4 


9 


6 


1 


4 


24 


Garrett 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 




7 


Harford 








5 




1 


6 


Howard 


1 






4 






5 


Kent 




1 


2 


3 


1 




7 


Montgomery .... 




3 


4 


9 


1 




17 


Prince George's 




1 


5 


7 




1 


14 


Queen Anne's. . . . 
St. Mary's 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 




13 








1 






1 


Somerset 


2 




3 


2 


1 




8 


Talbot 




1 


1 


6 




8 


Washington 


1 


2 


9 


5 




1 


18 


"Wicomico 


2 




3 


3 


1 




9 


Worcester 


2 


1 


1 


5 






9 



















*To Elementary To High *To Elementary To High 





Only 


Only 




Only 


Only 


Baltimore 





2 


Harford 


4 


1 


Calvert 


3 





Howard 


2 





Carroll 


9 





Montgomery. . . 





2 


Cecil 


2 


1 


Prince George's 


1 


1 


Frederick 


4 





St. Marv's 


1 





Garrett 


1 





Washington 


2 


1 



238 1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 

Miles covered, type of road, type of vehicle, insurance carried, 
length of term of contract, are all factors which determine the 
cost of transportation. Since the costs of transportation are 
used in calculating the Equalization Fund, it is necessary that 
we have the basic facts with regard to transportation costs. 

Transportation was provided to 17 one-teacher schools in 11 
of the counties, to 35 two-teacher schools, one more than last 
year, and to 83 graded elementary schools, 11 more than last 
year. There were 69 schools to which both high and elementary 
school pupils were transported. This was three more than last 
year. Of the remaining 37 schools having both high and elemen- 
tary grades, 29 had transportation for elementary pupils only, 10 
more than last year, and 8 had transportation for high school 
pupils only, the same as last year. There were 11 separate high 
schools to which pupils were transported. The 16 colored schools 
to which transportation was provided included 1 more than last 
year, Calvert being the additional county to appear. Colored 
pupils were transported to 4 schools in Baltimore County and 4 
in Frederick County. (See Table 147.) 

EXPENDITURES FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY IN 1928 

County expenditures for capital outlay during 1927-28 totalled 
$1,533,000, distributed as follows among the various types of 
schools: $954,000 for white elementary schools, $444,000 for 
white high schools, and $129,000 for colored schools. All types 
of schools showed greatly increased expenditures over the pre- 
ceding school year. With the exception of six counties — Balti- 
more, Calvert, Carroll, Washington, Wicomico, and Worcester — 
every county spent more for capital outlay than during the pre- 
ceding year. (See Table 148.) 

One-teacher schools are still being built, as may be seen from 
an expenditure of $21,000 for this purpose. Prince George's and 
Garrett Counties were the only ones spending more than $1,000 
on one-teacher schools. Prince George's capital outlay charge 
for this purpose amounted to $8,750, and Garrett's to $7,290. 
Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George's and Washington Coun- 
ties spent from $7,000 to $21,000 for two-teacher schools. The 
bulk of the funds for elementary schools was used for graded 
schools, Montgomery spending $244,000, Baltimore $193,000, and 
Prince George's $99,000. For white high schools, Montgomery, 
Allegany, Frederick, Prince George's, Talbot, Charles, and Som- 
erset spent the largest amounts, and for colored schools, Mont- 
gomery, Prince George's, Anne Arundel, and Baltimore. (See 
Table 148.) 



Transportation Facts, Capital Outlay ExpenditurEvS 



239 



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240 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Expenditures for capital outlay were less than $1,900,000 in 
Baltimore City. Nearly three-fourths of the amount expended 
was used for senior high schools, the City College and Western 
High School having been completed. Some of the new elemen- 
tary school buildings in Baltimore City have been planned for 
the platoon type of organization as a result of the growing inter- 
est in it. Three more schools were organized on the plan during 
the year ending in June, 1928, which, added to the four pre- 
viously reorganized, makes seven. The capital outlay expendi- 
tures have brought improved housing to a large proportion of 
the Baltimore City pupils and have relieved the part-time situa- 
tion, especially in the colored schools. 

SCHOOL BOND ISSUES 

In order to have a survey of bond issues authorized by the 
Legislatures in session from 1918 to 1927, inclusive, the chapter 
number and amounts authorized are shown for each county each 
year. Every county is represented by amounts authorized one 
or more years. In twelve of the counties — Allegany, Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, Caroline, Frederick, Howard, Kent, Montgom- 
ery, Prince George's, Queen Anne's, Talbot, and Washington — 
bond issues were obtained without a referendum. In three coun- 
ties — Baltimore, Cecil, and Harford — in which a referendum was 
required, it was favorable. In four counties — Carroll, Garrett, 
Somerset, and Wicomico — the referendum has repeatedly been 
unfavorable. In Charles, Dorchester, and Worcester one bond 
issue has gone through without referendum, while the other was 
unsuccessful because of an unfavorable referendum. (See Table 
149.) 

Many of the counties and Baltimore City have carried out ex- 
cellent school building programs, but no county has built school- 
houses fully commensurate with its needs. Indeed, the progress 
of school consolidation on a county-wide plan has been handi- 
capped in every county in the State by a lack of funds for new 
buildings or additions. Perhaps the greatest handicap to school 
progress at present in Maryland is the large number of anti- 
quated, unsanitary, and overcrowded school buildings in several 
counties, and the lack of funds in all counties for carrying out a 
comprehensive plan of school consolidation similar to the North 
Carolina plan. 

The school bonds outstanding in September, 1928, totaled $10,- 
200,000, an increase of $562,000 over the preceding year. All 
of the counties, except Allegany, Dorchester, Montgomery, and 
Charles, showed a decrease in the amount of bonds outstanding 
since last year, but the taxable basis in Montgomery increased 
sufficiently so that the assessable basis back of each dollar of 
school indebtedness decreased rather than increased. The amount 



Capital Outlay Expenditures, School Bond Issues 



241 



TABLE 149 

Bond Issues Authorized by the Legislatures 1918-1927, Showing Chapter 
Number, Amount and Outcome of Referendum. 



County 


1918 


1920 


1922 


1924 


1927 


0) 

4^ 

a. 
a 
j= 
U 


*-> 
c 

O 

e 

< 


b 

a 

u 


c 

3 

o 

e 

< 


a> 
a 

C3 

o 


c 

o 
£ 
< 


u 

Qj 
■u 

a 

cs 

O 


c 

3 

O 

S 
< 


u 

CI 

a 
a 

JC 


*j 
c 

3 

o 
E 
<3 


Allegany 


108 

00 
1 40 


$75,000 
1 ^ oon 

If) 000 


190 


$700,000 


234 


$1 000 000 






298 


$500,000 


Anne Arundel. . | 






386 


150,000 






137 
31 


$225,000 
♦1 5U0 000 






243 


*1, 000, 000 






Calvert I 






67 
671 
320 
375 
663 


20,000 
5,000 
60,000 
60,000 
(300,000) 














360 


35,000 






Caroline < 






















106 


100,000 








360 


(100,000) 


191 
361 


(350,000) 
*150,000 


591 


(600,000) 














592 
291 
397 
102 
237 


(100,000) 
(150,000) 
250,000 
(200,000) 
60,000 






301 
221 
144 


30,000 
200,000 
50,000 




301 


5,000 


199 
512 
466 
108 
485 


(150,000) 
250,000 
(75,000) 

*250,000 
60,000 








180 
599 


95 . 000 
(100,000) 
























18 


180,000 


579 
514 
481 
501 
171 


140,000 
15,000 
150,000 
450,000 
275,000 


Kent 






86 


17,000 


Montgomery . . . | 
Prince George's- . 


















696 
589 
445 


64,000 
200,000 
20,000 


255 
273 
41 


60,000 
85,000 
33,000 


475 
97 


550,000 
335,000 


322 


35,000 
















Somerset 














56 


(150,000) 






Talbot 


197 


9,000 


157 
187 
253 
80 
585 

373 


40,000 
200,000 
40,000 
(200,000) 
45,000 

♦7,000,000 






360 


225,000 


Washington . . . . | 














383 
238 


t300,000 
(300,000) 


3 


600,000 










283 
482 

470 


(500,000) 
(300,000) 

♦10,000,000 








398 


(300,000) 








379 


♦15,000,000 













() Indicates unfavorable referendum. 
* Indicates favorable referendum, 
t Held up by technicality. 



of assessable basis back of each dollar of indebtedness for schools 
increased on the average in the counties from $81 in September, 
1927, to $87 in September, 1928. The amount of assessable basis 
back of school indebtedness varied from $40 in Allegany to $1,141 
in Wicomico, $1,391 in Queen Anne's, and an infinite amount in 
Carroll, Garrett, St. Mary's, and Worcester, which have no school 
bonds outstanding. Baltimore City ranks next to Allegany 
County in having $51 of taxable wealth back of the schools bonds 
outstanding. Prince George's comes next with $57, ^Montgomery 
next with $62, Baltimore next with $65, and Frederick next with 
$66. (See Table 150.) 

Another way of showing school indebtedness is the per cent 
that bonds outstanding are of the assessable basis. In general, 
it is not considered good policy to have the total indebteclness of 
a l(x;ality exceed more than 10 per cent of the assessable basis. 
The school indebtedness in the Maiyland counties equals 1.15 



242 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



per cent of the county basis assessable at the full rate. In Alle- 
gany County the school indebtedness equals 2.5 per cent of the 
basis, and in Baltimore City it is 2 per cent. Prince George's 
school indebtedness is 1.8 per cent of the assessable basis, Mont- 
gomery's is 1.6 per cent, and Baltimore's and Frederick's is 1.5 
per cent. (See Table 150.) 

TABLE 150 

School Bonds Outstanding in Maryland, September, 1928 



Per Cent That 

School Indebtedness 



County 


Bonds 
Outstanding 
September, 

1 no o 


1928 County 

Assessable 
Basis Taxable 
at ruli Kate 


Assessable Basis 
Back of Each 

Dollar 01 bcnool 
Indebtedness 


for School 
Bonds Is of 
Total County 
Basis 




<Cio 200 


$883 810 486 


$87 


1. 


15 


Allegany 


2,035,000 


80,714,721 


40 


2 


.5 


Anne Arundel . . 


375,667 


47,544,016 


127 




.8 


Baltimore 


2,419,667 


157,653,903 


65 


1 


.5 


Calvert 


48,000 


5,305,071 


111 




.9 


Caroline 


117,000 


15,282,900 


131 




.8 


Carroll 




39,875,065 










140,000 


30,407,990 


91 T 
Zl ( 




.5 


Charles 


30,000 


9,938,157 


331 




.3 


Dorchester 


220,000 


22,220,083 


101 


1 


.0 


Frederick 


991,000 


65,234,172 


66 


1 


.5 


Garrett 




21,653,028 








Harford 


187,500 


39,762,772 


212 




.5 


Howard 


176,000 


18,063,258 


103 


1 


.0 


Kent 


47,000 


16,161,776 


344 




.3 


Montgomery. . . 


1,253,000 


77,889,156 


62 


1 


.6 


Prince George's. 


1,049,500 


59,311,523 


57 


1 


.8 


Queen Anne's. . . 


12,000 


16,692,465 


1,391 




.07 


St. Mary's 




8,289,170 










36,000 


12,392,462 


344 




.3 


Talbot 


259,000 


20,478,220 


79 


1 


.3 


Washington .... 


782,000 


72,907,779 


93 


1 


.1 


Wicomico 


22,000 


25,091,582 


1,141 




.1 


Worcester 




20.941.217 








Baltimore City. 
Total State 


24,855,826 1,256,713,358 
35,056,160 2,140,523,844 


51 
61 


2 
1 


.0 
.6 



The counties close to Baltimore and Washington are growing- 
so rapidly in the suburban sections that the counties are required 
to do considerable building annually merely to take care of the 



increase in school population. 



School Bonds Outstanding, Value of School Property 243 

GREATER VALUE OF SCHOOL PROPERTY 

The property in Maryland used for public elementary and sec- 
ondary schools was valued at $51,766,000 at the end of the school 
year 1928. This is an increase of about three million dollars, 
one-third of which was found in the counties and two-thirds in 
Baltimore City. 

The value of school property per pupil enrolled was $191 for 
the State as a whole. This is slightly above the average value 
($189) reported for the United States by the Bureau of Educa- 
tion for the year 1926, two years preceding. This is the latest 
figure available. The United States figure for the year 1928 is 
undoubtedly much higher than the Maryland figure for 1928. 
Maryland's 1928 figure of $191 is an increase of nine dollars over 
1927, the smallest increase since that for 1923 over 1922. The 
per pupil value in the counties was $120, an increase of $6 over 
1927, and the same increase which occurred over the preceding 
year. The Baltimore City figure, $291, although $14 higher 
than the 1927 valuation, reflects the lowered capital outlay expen- 
ditures during 1927-28 compared with the increases for the pre- 
ceding years after 1923. (See Table 151.) 



TABLE 151 
Value of School Property, 1922—1928 



Year 


Value of School Property 


Value Per Pupil Enrolled 


Maryland 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


Mary- 
land 


Counties 


Baltimore 
City 


1922 
1923 
1924 
1925 
1926 
1927 
1928 


$20,453,646 
22,236,638 
28,264,507 
33,622,503 
38,865,024 
48,654,045 
51,765,517 


$10,014,638 
11,796,630 
12,813,396 
14,946,810 
16,704,564 
17,889,796 
18,994,670 


$10,439,008 
10,440,008 
15,451,111 
18,675,693 
22,160,460 
30,764,249 
32,770,847 


$82 
87 
110 
129 
148 
182 
191 


$68 

r- rr 

1 i 

85 
97 
108 
114 
120 


$103 
100 
147 
164 
205 
277 
291 



In the average county in 1928 the value of school property per 
white and colored pupil belonging was $148 and $42, respec- 
tively. These each show an increase of $5 over the correspond- 
ing 1927 figures. Baltimore City's value for white pupils of 
$343 and for colored of $189 represent an increase of $18 and a 
decrease of $8, respectively, over 1927. For the State as a whole, 
the value per white pupil was $228 and per colored pupil $105, 
increases of $9 and $1, respectively. (See Table 152.) 



244 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 152 

Value of School Pi^perty Per Pupil Belonging 1928 



COUNTY 



Schools for White Pupils 



Value 



Average 
Number 
Belonging 



Value 
Per 
Pupil 



Schools for Colored Pupils 



Value 



Average 
Number 
Belonging 



Total Counties. 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester. . . . 
Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery. . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 
St. Mary's. . . . 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 

Baltimore City. 

Total State. . . . 



$17,895,010 

3,357,100 
675,500 
*3, 945, 000 
96,400 
359,700 

474,530 
*414,150 
180,375 
164,400 
1,153,000 

301,305 
585,500 
298,500 
222,750 
1,275,500 

1,273,900 
187,550 
105,300 
310,000 
287,500 

1,629,750 
365,400 
231,900 

29,102,270 

46,997,280 



121,177 

13,194 
6,466 

16,902 
968 
2,812 

6,087 
3,849 
1,841 
3,595 
9,203 

4,399 
4,928 
2,216 
1,960 
6,411 

7,695 
2,067 
1,306 
3,078 
2,441 

12,270 
4,469 
3,020 

84,884 

206,061 



$148 

254 
104 
233 
100 
128 

78 
108 
98 
46 
125 

68 
119 
135 
114 
199 

166 
91 
81 
101 
118 

1 33 
82 
77 

343 

228 



$1,099,660 

52,000 
101,900 
189,400 
24,900 
22,900 

12,000 
18,000 
48,250 
23,500 
59,900 



33,300 
16,000 
21,360 
110,150 

111,700 
12,250 
21,100 
29,950 
47,200 

14,200 
66,900 
35,800 

3,668,577 

4,768,237 



25,882 

304 
2,618 
1,769 
1,021 

869 

300 
483 
1,531 
1,501 
928 



688 
624 
901 
1,671 

2,506 
745 
1,091 
1,799 
1,156 

369 
1,488 
1,520 

19,413 

45,295 



*Includes unoccupied buildings. 

The value of school property per white pupil belonging in 
Allegany and Baltimore Counties are $254 and $233, respec- 
tively. Montgomery and Prince George's are next with per pupil 
valuations of $199 and $166. There are no other counties with 
values above $135. Eight counties — Dorchester, Garrett, Wor- 
cester, Carroll, St. Mary's, Wicomico, Queen Anne's, and Charles 
— have school property valued at less than $100 per white 
pupil, and in Dorchester the amount is only $46. In eleven 
counties there were increases in per pupil value of school prop- 
erty over 1927, the greatest increases occurring in Montgomery, 
Prince George's, Frederick, Talbot, Charles, and St. Mary's. Six 



Value of School Property Per White Pupil 



245 



counties had a lower figure in 1928 than in 1927. The drop in 
Cecil was due to a revaluation of school property by the county 
superintendent. (See Chart 42.) 



CHART 42 



VailJE OF SCHOOL FROPERTT PER WHITE FUPIL BELONGING 



233 



199 



135 



V33 



1^8 



n9 



114 



108 



104 



101 



100 



98 







ijUCt t 


Co. Arerage 


$136 


♦ 143 


Allegany 


259 


262 


Bait imore 


202 


233 


Montgomery 


1B8 


175 


Pr. George's 


166 


157 


HoTiard 


132 


135 


Washington 


107 


133 


Caroline 


123 


124 


Frederick 


97 


104 


Harford 


U9 


113 


Talbot 


105 


105 


Kent 


119 


115 


Cecil 


U9 


121 


An. Arundel 


111 


107 


Somerset 


67 


100 


Calvert 


96 


100 


Charles 


50 


68 


Qu. Anne»3 


91 


91 


Wicomico 


82 


63 


St. Mary's 


55 


64 


Carroll 


105 


78 


Worcester 


78 


76 


Garrett 


63 


66 


Dorchester 


47 


47 


BqUo. City 


239 


325 


State 


179 


219 





P^or valuation of property used by colored pupils, see Table 152 
and Chart 36, page 193. 



246 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



MORE STANDARD SCHOOLS IN COUNTIES 

The revised standards for school buildings were published in 
the 1926 Annual Report. They apply not only to rural schools, 
but also to schools having three or more rooms. The advantage 
in having standards applying to larger schools is evident from 
the standardization of 11 graded schools in 1928. During the 
same period 6 one-teacher schools and 3 two-teacher schools 
received Standard School Certificates. 

Montgomery, with 51, has many more standard schools than 
any other county in the State. Prince George's has 15 standard 
schools, 10 of which are graded. Wicomico has 7 one-teacher, 2 
two-teacher, and 2 graded schools meeting the standard require- 
ments. Harford has 7, Somerset 6, and Charles and Talbot each 
5 standard schools. 

Nineteen counties had standard schools in 1928. Four of 
these^ — Caroline, Dorchester, Calvert, and Frederick — are to be 

TABLE 153 
Number of Standard Schools or Rooms, 1928 





One- 


Two- 






County 


Teacher 


Teacher 


Graded 


Total 


Montgomery 


30 


14 


al 


51 


Prince George's 


2 


3 


MO 


15 


Wicomico 


7 


2 


c2 


11 


Harford 


1 


3 


^3 


7 


Somerset 


5 




el 


6 


Caroline 




2 


/3 


5 


Talbot 


3 


2 


5 


Garrett 




3 




3 


Queen Anne's 


2 


1 




3 


Charles 




2 




2 


Anne Arundel 




2 




2 


Howard 


1 




^1 


2 


Carroll 


1 


"i 


2 


Worcester 


2 






2 


Dorchester 






hi 


1 


Calvert 






il 


1 


Allegany 


1 






1 


Washington 


1 






1 




*1 






1 


Total 


*57 


35 


29 


121 



* Includes 1 room in a 9-room school. 

a Includes 1 three-teacher, 2 four-teacher, 1 five-teacher and 3 seven-teacher schools. 

h Includes 2 three-teacher, 1 five-teacher, 2 six-teacher, 1 seven-teacher, 3 eight-teacher 

and 1 eleven-teacher schools. 
c Includes 1 four-teacher and 1 seven-teacher school. 
d Includes 2 three-teacher and 1 eight-teacher school. 
e Includes 1 three-teacher school. 

/ Includes 2 three-teacher and 1 four-teacher school. 
g Includes 1 five-teacher school. 
h Includes 1 eight-teacher school. 
\ Includes 1 four-teacher school. 



Standard Schools, School Budgets and Taxes 



247 



congratulated on their appearance in this table for the first time. 
In Frederick it is one room in a nine-room school that has a 
certificate. Only four counties — Baltimore, Cecil, Kent, and St. 
Mary's — have no schools which have applied for inspection to 
see whether they are entitled to the Standard School Certificate. 
(See Table 153.) 

SCHOOL BUDGETS AND SCHOOL TAXES FOR 1928-1929 

The county tax budgets for all purposes as reported by county 
superintendents of schools for 1928-29 totaled $13,973,000, an in- 
crease of $392,000 over the preceding year. For the same year, 
the county levies for school current expenses amounted in the 
aggregate to $5,924,000, an increase of $420,000 over the preced- 
ing year. The item for school debt service shows a considerable 
increase over the preceding year chiefly because an attempt was 
made to show the total cost of school debt service in every county, 
whether it was paid for through the School Board or directly by 
the county commissioners. Only in this way can school debt 
service costs in the various counties be considered on a compar- 
able basis. There was a decrease of $100,000 in the amounts 
included in the direct levy for school capital outlay. The decrease 
in the amounts shown for ''Other County Purposes" is due to the 
transfer of amounts for debt service formerly included in this 
column to the columns for school debt service and for roads, even 
though in certain counties the county commissioners took care of 
the actual payments for these purposes. (See Table 154.) 

In the counties as a whole the school current expense included 
42.4 per cent of the total county levy, school debt service 5.3 per 
cent, capital outlay 1.1 per cent, making the total per cent for 
schools 48.8 per cent on the average. The remaining 51.2 per 
cent was distributed almost equally between roads and bridges 
and ''other county purposes." The per cent of the total county 
budget provided for school current expense varied between 34 
per cent in Baltimore and Howard Counties, 36 per cent in Dor- 
chester, and 38 per cent in Anne Ai-undel, Calvert, and Somerset 
Counties, and, at the opposite extreme, 54 per cent in Allegany, 
52 in Prince George's, and 50 per cent in Wicomico. In counties 
which have incorporated towns and districts, which relieve the 
county budgets of certain expenditures, such a comparison is 
probably fair only if the amounts expended in the incorporated 
towns and in the districts are also included. Another year an 
attempt will be made to secure such figures. They would prob- 
ably lower considerably the percentage spent for school current 
expense in Allegany, Prince George's, and Wicomico, since the 
incorporated places pay no part of the expense for schools. (See 
Table 154.) 



248 



1928 Eeport of State Department of Education 



TABLE 154 
County Tax Budgets, 1928-1929 



COUNTY 



Total 



COUNTY appropriations FOR 



SCHOOLS 



Current 
Expenses 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 





Roads 


Other 


Schools 
Total 


and 
Bridges 


County 
Purposes 


$6,822,327 


$3,459,339 


$3,691,302 


814,607 
450,955 
fl, 095. 027 
48,993 
124,400 


144,397 
286,741 
t954,596 
29,034 
38,000 


348,524 
298,588 
t787,776 
39,471 
93,233 


306,342 
221,300 
78,564 
164,307 
482,169 


°138,500 
110,900 
20,000 
90,000 
257,304 


°149,241 
99,075 
41,730 
172,030 
193,735 


146,868 
243,371 
128,421 
112,790 
511,212 


79,375 
141,000 
122,096 

32,141 
292,995 


154,094 
101,890 
93,311 
116,967 
191,799 


470,365 
119,236 
55,768 
126,865 
151,640 


159,132 
57,775 
35,000 
42,000 
73,241 


127,614 
86,027 
44,251 
89,229 
73,250 


610,856 
205,720 
152,551 


220,128 
85,515 
49,469 


181,040 
111,678 
96,749 



Total Counties . 

Allegany 

Anne Arundel . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 

Prince George's 
Queen Anne's . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



$13,972,968 

1,307,528 
1,036,284 
t2,837,399 
117,498 
255,633 

594,083 
431,275 
140,294 
426,337 
933,208 



486,261 
343,828 
261,898 
996,006 

757,111 
263,038 
135,019 
258,094 
298,131 

1,012,024 
402,913 
298,769 



$5,923,877 

704,794 
393,087 
1956,165 
44,300 
109,000 

287,753 
192,500 
65,614 
154,407 
392,000 

1145,075 
203,796 
116,001 
107,675 
407,802 

396,508 
111,336 
53,768 
98,584 
138,200 

500,549 
200,730 
144,233 



$744,624 

109,813 
42,893 
tl38,862 
4,693 
*15,400 

15,789 
*11,300 
*1,500 
*9,900 
*85,169 

1,793 
*24,875 
*9,920 
*5,115 
103,410 

*73,632 
*7,900 



$153,826 



14,975 



2,800 
17,500 
11,450 



*5,000 



14,700 
2,500 



225 



3,281 
*13,440 

59,749 
*4,990 
1,200 



2,000 
25,000 



50,558 



7,118 



*Paid by County Commissioners directly and not through County Board of Education. 

fBudget for calendar year 1929. 

"Estimated. 

^Includes $17,624 not in original levy, but to be made available because of increase in 
assessment on corporations. 

All of the county school current expense budgets for the year 
1928-29 showed increases over the preceding year, except in 
Kent and Carroll Counties, which were $6,300 and $1,400 less, 
respectively. The cut in Kent amounted to 5.5 per cent of the 
budget. The largest increases for school current expense total- 
ing from $47,000 to $63,000, were given to Montgomery, Anne 
Arundel, Prince George's, and Washington Counties. (See 
Table 154.) 

The five-year reassessment of property in the counties took 
place during 1928, and the new taxable basis is available for the 
levy of the year 1928-29. The county basis taxable at the full 
rate increased by $102,000,000, and in Baltimore City by $56,- 
000,000. The increase occurred almost entirely in real property 
and in domestic share corporations, including fidelity, casualty, 
and guarantee company shares owned in the counties. Every 
county, except Washington, shows an increase in county basis 
taxable at the full rate of at least $400,000 from 1927 to 1928, 



County Budgets 1928-29 and 1928 Assessable Basis 



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250 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

and Prince George's, Montgomery, and Baltimore show increases 
from I6I/2 to 18 1/2 millions. Harford shows a gain over 1927 of 
over 10 millions, and Frederick of 7.6 millions. Washington, 
Calvert, St. Mary's, Caroline, and Charles were the only counties 
which had increases of less than $1,000,000 from 1927 to 1928 
in the county basis assessable at the full rate. (See Table 155.) 

The last column in Table 155 shows the school current expense 
tax rate obtained by dividing the county school budget for cur- 
rent expense (column 2 in Table 154) by the county basis assess- 
able at the full rate (column 6 in Table 155). The average rate 
in the counties is 67 cents. 

In Table 156 the counties are arranged in order from highest 
to lowest, according to the school current expense tax rate shown 
in the last column of Table 155. Four counties at the top have 
tax rates for school current expense of 80 cents or over — Alle- 
gany 87.3 cents, Calvert 83.5, Anne Arundel 82.7, and Wicomico 
80 cents, and Somerset is also very close to 80 cents. Four coun- 
ties have rates under 61 cents — Baltimore and Frederick with 
slightly over 60 cents, Montgomery and Harford with 52 and 51 
cents, respectively. 

Seven of the counties receiving the Equalization Fund are levy- 
ing more than the amount required to carry the minimum pro- 
gram because they are paying salaries above the minimum, are 
employing teachers in excess of the number required by law, or 
in Calvert, providing county funds for high school transporta- 
tion for the first time. 

Queen Anne's and Kent need a slight increase in funds to 
bring their total to the 67-cent minimum required. Charles re- 
ceives more than enough from the Federal Government for 
Indian Head, and St. Mary's receives from tongers' licenses an 
amount to make up the 67-cent rate. 

The amount required for debt service, 8.4 cents on the average, 
varies from less than a cent in Worcester and Garrett to 13 cents 
or more in Frederick, Montgomery, and Allegany. Some of the 
counties paid large amounts from the direct levy for capital 
outlay, which, added to the debt service payment, means a high 
rate for the county for this particular year. This is true in 
Somerset, Washington, Anne Arundel, Charles, Cecil, and Har- 
ford. (See column 3, Table 156.) 

In column 4 of Table 156 the total rate for schools is shown. 
Somerset and Allegany both have rates over one dollar, and Anne 
Arundel and Calvert have rates of 95 and 92 cents. Washing- 
ton's total rate is 84 cents, Wicomico's 82, and Caroline's 81 cents. 
In Harford and Montgomery the total school rate is under 66 
cents. 

The last column in Table 156 shows the published county tax 
rate. Except for the average county, for which it is $1.58, this 
is not obtained by dividing the total county budget by the basis 
assessable at the full county rate, but it is usually a lower 



1928 Assessable Basis and School Tax Rates 
TABLE 156 



251 



1928 County School Tax Rate For 



County 



Current 
Expense 



Debt 
Service 



Capital 
Outlay 



Total 



Total 
County- 
Tax Rate 
1928 



Total Counties $ .670 

Allegany 873 

fCalvert 835 

Anne Arundel .827 

fWicomico 800 

{Somerset .796 

fCarroll 722 

tCaroline 713 

fDorchester . 695 

fWorcester . 689 

Washington 687 

Talbot 675 

tGarrett 670 

fPrince George's. . . . .669 

tQueen Anne's .667 

fKent 666 

fCharles /^.661 

fSt. Mary's ^.649 

Howard 642 

Cecil 633 

Baltimore 607 

Frederick 601 

Montgomery .523 

Harford 512 



$ .084 

.136 
.088 
.090 
.020 
.026 

.039 
.101 
.044 
.005 
.082 

.065 
.008 
.124 
.047 
.032 

.015 
.024 
.055 
.037 
.088 

.130 
.133 
.063 



$ .018 

.032 
.202 
.007 



034 
069 



115 



014 
058 



008 
037 



$ .772 

1.009 
.923 
.949 
.820 

1.024 

.768 
.814 
.739 
.728 
.838 



740 
678 
793 
714 
698 

.791 
673 
711 
728 
695 

739 
656 
612 



a Excludes funds from tonger's license. 

b Excludes funds from Federal Government for Indian Head. 
* Only $225 appropriated, 
t Receives Equalization Fund. 



amount, since other funds are available to the county commis- 
sioners for meeting the budget from sources taxable at rates 
lower than the full county rate. Anne Arundel and Calvert have 
the highest rate — over two dollars. Somerset and Garrett have 
rates of $1.95 and $1.90, respectively; Dorchester's rate is $1.80; 
Howard and Wicomico have rates of $1.69. On the other hand, 
Frederick's rate is $1.29, and Washington, IMontgomery, and 
Prince George's each has a rate of $1.30. Charles and Cecil have 
a total county rate of $1.40 and $1.42, and Worcester, Talbot, 
and Allegany range between $1.45 and $1.47. (See Tabic 156.) 



ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 
County Superintendents 

For the year 1928, of the 23 counties in Maryland, 8 employed 
fewer than 150 teachers, 6 had 150 or more and fewer than 200 
teachers, and 9 had 200 or more teachers. The salary of the 
superintendent, in which the State shares to the extent of two- 
thirds of the minimum salary schedule, is based on the size of the 
teaching staff. Although the State minimum salary schedule 
ranges between $2,500 and $4,140, a number of counties pay sal- 
aries considerably above these amounts. Last year salaries 
ranged between $2,500 and $6,600. (See Table 157 and column 
5, Table XXII on page 324.) 

TABLE 157 



Minimum State Salary Schedule for Superintendents and for Supervising 
and Helping Teachers in Maryland Counties 



Experience 
in Years 


CouNTY Superintendents in 
Counties Having 


Supervising 
Teacher 


Helping 
Teacher 


Less Than 
150 Teachers 


150-199 
Teachers 


200 or More 
Teachers 


1-4 
5-7 
8+ 


/$2,500.00 
\ 2,940.00 


$2,940.00 
3,240.00 
3,540.00 


$3 , 540 . 00 
3,840.00 
4,140.00 


$2,040.00 
2,340.00 
2,640.00 


$1,440.00 
1 , 740 . 00 
2,040.00 



The retirement of Mr. George W. Joy brought to the super- 
intendency of St. Mary's County, Miss Lettie M. Dent, the first 
woman to hold the office of county superintendent in Maryland. 
Prior to her appointment. Miss Dent had been principal of the 
high school at River Springs. 

The sudden death in the prime of life of Mr. Edward F. Webb 
of Allegany County in November, 1928, means a distinct loss to 
the county and State. His place was filled by the appointment 
of Mr. Charles L. Kopp, formerly principal of the Allegany High 
School. 

Maryland's Plan for Instructional Supervision 
Instructional supervision in the 23 Maryland counties, exclu- 
sive of Baltimore City, which has its own separate and distinct 
supervisory organization, is carried on by the following staff : 

White High Schools 

Three State supervisors 

Two county supervisors (Baltimore and Montg-omery Counties) 
Director of vocational education, who is also State supervisor of 

vocational ag-riculture 
State supervisor of home economics 

State supervisor of industrial education and of manual arts 
State supervisor of music 

County supervisor of music (Carroll) 

252 



County Superintendents, Plans for Supervision 



253 



White Elementary Schools 

Assistant State superintendent in charg-e of elementary schools 
Assistant State supervisor of elementary schools 
53 county supervisors of elementary schools 

Colored Schools 

State supervisor of colored schools 

19 county supervisors of colored schools 

The State director of physical education through the Play- 
ground Athletic League helps each county develop its program 
for physical education in all types of schools. 

The State Superintendent of Schools, who is keenly interested 
in the problem of improving classroom instruction, does some 
visiting with the county superintendents, encouraging them in 
taking an active part and interest in the work of their county 
supervisors. He also attends the State-wide regional meetings 
of supervisors. 

Supervision of High Schools 

The county white high schools are supervised by three State 
supervisors, who were chosen because of their outstanding abil- 
ity as high school principals. They spend all of their time in 
the counties with the 713 high school teachers of academic sub- 
jects in 152 high schools, each school receiving at least three 
visits a year. Each high school supervisor covers one-third of 
the State. The distribution of counties, high schools, academic 
and special teachers among the three high school supervisors is 
shown in Table 158. 

TABLE 158 



Supervision of High Schools 



Section 


Number of 


Number of 
Public High 
Schools 


Number of Teachers 


Counties 


Academic 


Special 


Western 


5 


41 


233 5 


92.5 


Central 


8 


55 


233 1 


84.3 


Eastern 


10 


56 


246 4 


74.1 









The State high school supervisors observe classroom teaching 
in the academic subjects and confer with the teachers and prin- 
cipals ; they conduct meetings where demonstration lessons are 
taught and critiques are held; they organize the high school 
teachers in each county into a professional working body, hold- 
ing county-wide meetings several times a year. During the year 
each teacher has an opportunity to observe and discuss a demon- 



254 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

stration lesson in the subject which he himself teaches. Course 
of study revision in the various high school subjects is growing 
out of these group subject-matter meetings. A good illustration 
is the bulletin entitled ^'Curriculum Making in Problems of 
American Democracy As Applied to the Unit — Public Opinion," 
which was the outgrowth of the work of the group of teachers of 
this subject in Queen Anne's County. The high school work 
throughout the State is unified by a monthly conference held by 
the three supervisors with the State Superintendent of Schools. 

The work in vocational agriculture, home economics, indus- 
trial education, and music in high schools is in charge of the 
State supervisors of these subjects. 

Montgomery has, for several years, had supervision of the 
county schools by one of the high school principals. In the fall 
of 1927 Baltimore County appointed a former high school prin- 
cipal as full-time county supervisor of high schools. High school 
teachers, especially those who are inexperienced, need even more 
help than is possible from three or four visits a year from the 
high school supervisor in addition to his usual group meetings 
for teachers of certain subjects or of certain districts. Through 
well-planned faculty meetings, the high school principal can act 
as professional leader of his group of teachers, and help bring 
about improvement of instruction. In the larger high schools, 
if the high school principal has the professional ability, training, 
personality, and knowledge necessary to be of help to his teachers 
and free periods in which he can visit them, he can supplement 
the work of the State high school supervisors. 

The following is the program used in the regional principals' 
all-day conference for 1927-28 : 

General Topic — The High School Principal's Professional Study of the 
Annual Reports of the iState Board of Education 

General Reference — Sixty-first Annual Report of the State Board of 
Education of Maryland for the Year Ending July 31, 1927 

I. (a) What is my responsibility in bringing the opportu- 
nities and advantages of a high school education to 
the attention of (1) boys and girls approaching grad- 
uation from elementary school, and of (2) their 
parents ? 

1. V^hat is the number of elementary school graduates for whom 
my school is a center ? 

2. Is an increasing number of elementary school graduates 
entering my high school ? If not, why ? 

3. Is the high school work offered making an appeal to boys ? 

(b) What changes in conditions and in the high school 
work offered would increase the drawing and holding 



Supervision of County High Schools 255 

power of my high school for both boys and girls? 
(Courses offered, transportation, fewer high schools 
with wider offering of courses, better trained teach- 
ers, fewer changes in teachers, etc., etc.) 

II. After pupils are enrolled in high school, what am I doing 
to bring about optimum conditions for accomplishing 
high school work in these particulars: 

1. Promoting good attendance? Discouraging absence for causes 
other than sickness ? 

2. Discussing reasons with pupils desiring to withdraw from high 
school because of discouragement or lack of interest, and attempt- 
ing to strengthen weaknesses disclosed? Are some worth-while 
students withdrawing? 

3. Following up marks given in the various subjects and making a 
study with teachers of excess of failures for boys over girls in 
every subject; also of causes for greater proportion of failure in 
Latin and mathematics than in English, social studies, and 
science ? 

4. Are all boys and girls who enter high school and who can profit 
by the work being so well taught and having their needs so well 
met that they will want to stay on to graduate ? 

III. What am I doing to see to it that the graduates of my 
school recognize their responsibility to render service to 
the community through having necessary information to 
guide them wisely in choosing their work after high 
school? 

1. What is the condition regarding training of elementary teachers 
in my county and of probable number of vacancies each year? 
What am I doing to send to the normal school graduates who will 
probably become successful teachers in the elementary schools of 
my o\va or other counties of Maryland in need of teachers? 
(Study report on normal schools.) 

2. What am I doing to check up on the success of the instruction 
given in my school by securing information regarding the type of 
work done by my graduates who have entered normal school and 
college ? 

3. What follow-up do I make of the work of my graduates to get 
(a) information regarding what they are doing, and (b) their sug- 
gestions of changes in high school work which would have fitted 
them better for the work they are doing? 

4. Is it necessary for many of my graduates to take private com- 
mercial courses or to enter college preparatory schools to fit 
themselves for business work or entering college ? If so, have I 
ascertained why? 

IV. Improvement of Teaching 

What am I doing to aid in securing a better high school 
teaching staff each year? 

1. By disapproving employment of provisionally certificated teachers. 

2. By urging summer school attendance. 

3. By emphasizing need of wider reading of contemporary literature. 



256 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



4. By urging upon superintendent retention in service of experienced 
teachers with real interest in work, with provision for increased 
salaries, if necessary. 

5. By deprecating employment of a constantly shifting staff of in- 
experienced teachers. 

6. By emphasizing the advantage of keeping a proper proportion of 
men teachers. 

7. By helping my teachers professionally to improve their teaching. 

V. Costs 

What is the cost of education, gross and per capita? 

1. In my school ? County ? State ? United States ? 

2. Relation of teaching staff and of number belonging to costs. 

3. Is my expenditure for books adequate, inadequate, above the 
average ? 

4. Is the cost of transportation justified? 

5. How are buildings being financed in my county? Is the issue of 
school bonds the practice and can it be justified? What is the 
value of school property in my county? 

VI. School Taxes 

1. What is the school tax budget and tax rate in my county? 

2. What is the assessed valuation? 

3. What is the ratio of assessed valuation to true valuation (selling 
value) on property recently sold in the county? 

4. Is the sentiment among people I associate with that property is 
assessed too high and tax rates are too high ? 

5. What facts are used in combating such attitudes? 

6. What do I know about the Equalization Fund and its effect on the 
Maryland school system since its enactment in 1922 ? 

VII. Various Community Contacts 

1. What am I doing to promote community contacts? 

2. Have I an active parent-teacher association and what is it accom- 
plishing ? 

3. What is my school doing in physical education, music, and promo- 
tion of reading through development of the school and county 
library ? 

VIII. The Annual Report and the High School Principal 

1. What does the annual report include which is without value or 
interest to me? 

2. What should the annual report include which is now omitted ? 

3. Why is it worth my while to study the annual report each year ? 



Number of Supervisors of White Elementary Schools 257 



Supervision of White Elementary Schools 

In the field of elementary education, the Assistant State Super- 
intendent and Assistant State Supervisor spend about two-thirds 
of their time in field work visiting schools and observing class- 
room instruction, also attending teachers' meetings conducted 
by the 53 supervisors in the twenty-three counties. These county 
supervisors are a highly selected group of women, appointed on 
the approval of the State Superintendent of Schools. The State 
pays two-thirds of the minimum salary schedule for supervising 
and helping teachers, which range from $1,440 to $2,640. (See 
last two columns in Table 157.) The highest salary paid a 
supervisor is $3,600 and several receive $3,000. 

There were but six additions to the supervisory staff in the 
fall of 1928 to replace supervisors who left because of marriage 
(2), a position in another State, a position in a normal elemen- 
tary school, further study, and ill health. Of the present super- 
visory staff, 38 were teachers in Maryland counties before they 
took positions in the supervisory field, while 15 have come to us 
from normal school or supervisory work in other States. 

There is now on the average one supervisor for every 58 white 
elementary school teachers in the counties. Several of the coun- 
ties have one or two supervisors fewer than the number for 
whom State aid is available. In 10 counties having fewer than 

TABLE 159 

Number of Supervising or Helping Teachers Required and Employed in 
Maryland Counties for Varying Numbers of Teachers, 
Year Ending July 31, 1928 



Supervising or Helping Teachers 



Number of Number 
White Elementary Number of Coun- Names of Counties 

Teachers Required ties 



Less than 80 1 10 Calvert, Caroline, Charles, Howard, 

Kent, Queen Anne's, St. Mary's 
Somerset, Talbot, Worcester (2). 

80-119 2 3 Cecil, Dorchester, Wicomico. 

120-185 3 5 Anne Arundel (2t, Carroll, Garrett 

(4', Harford (2), Montgomery. 

186-235 4 2 Frederick, Prince George's (,3). 

236-285 5 

286-335 6 2 Alleganv (4 , Washington (4). 

336-385 7 1 Baltimore 



( ) The number of supervising or helpinp: teachers actually emi)Ioyed for the year 
ending in June, 1928. is shown in parentheses for counties which had fewer than the min- 
imum number required by law. 



258 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 




Plan of Supervisory Organization in the Counties 



259 



80 white elementary teachers, only one supervisor is required by 
law. In the larger counties from two to seven are employed, 
depending on the number of teachers in service. (See Table 159 
and Chart 43.) 

Anne Arundel and Harford Counties each employ only two 
supervisors, whereas they are entitled to three. Prince George's 
is entitled to four and employs but three helping teachers. Those 
counties which fall farthest short of their quotas are Allegany 
and Washington, each of which employed only 4 supervisors with 
a teaching staff of a size to justify the employment of 6. (See 
Table 159.) 

Each county superintendent is authorized to organize his own 
scheme of supervision. In nine counties employing but one super- 
visor, all of the teachers are under the direction of this super- 
visor, who plans (1) group meetings for teachers of primary 
grades, (2) group meetings for teachers of intermediate and 
grammar grades, and (3) group meetings for teachers of one- 
teacher rural schools. Four counties employing two supervisors 
(Anne Arundel, Dorchester, Harford, and Worcester) zone the 
county so that each supervisor w^orks with all the teachers in 
one section of the county, while the second supervisor is respon- 
sible for the w^ork of all of the teachers in the other section of 
the county. The remaining two counties employing two super- 
visors (Cecil and Wicomico) have one supervisor work with 
teachers in the one- and two-teacher schools, while the other has 
the teachers in larger or so-called graded schools. The three 
counties employing three supervisors vary their procedure to 
meet their conditions : in Carroll one supervisor has the graded 
schools, w^hile the remaining two divide the county rural schools 
betw^een them, each being responsible for a particular zone; in 
Montgomery and Prince George's there are more of the graded 
than of the rural schools, which makes necessary the assignment 
of a supervisor to the primary grades and another to the gram- 
mar grades in the former type of schools, while the remaining 
supervisor has all of the county rurr, schools. In Frederick and 
Washington the supervisory situations are similar to those in 
Montgomery and Prince George's, except that two supervisors 
divide the rural schools between them. In Allegany County, 
which employs four supervisors, one who has recently been ap- 
pointed Assistant Superintendent is responsible for the super- 
visory program in elementary and junior high schools; she is 
assisted by one supervisor, who devotes all of her time to primary 
grades in graded schools, by another who devotes most of her 
time to grammar grades in graded schools, and in a few schools 
to all grades, and by a third who has the rural schools. Balti- 
more County, with seven supervisors, has one supervisor for 



f 



260 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



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262 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

teachers in one- and two-teacher schools, another for middle zone 
schools, and three in the primary grades and two in the grammar 
grades of larger schools. 

Carroll County employs a county supervisor of music. Some 
of the other counties have special teachers of music who go from 
school to school (Allegany, Frederick, Caroline, Dorchester, 
Montgomery, and Washington). Some counties departmentalize 
the work in music in the large schools. In the smaller schools 
it is taught by the teacher of the regular elementary school sub- 
jects. In Maryland, music is regarded as one of the regular 
school subjects, and all normal school graduates complete courses 
in music before they receive their teaching certificates. 

The conditions under which a supervisor does her work are 
just as essential to successful supervision as the legal and pro- 
fessional qualifications required of the supervisor. She must 
not ''spread herself out too thin.'' She probably can not do 
her best work if she has more than 50 or 60 teachers under her 
direction. She ought to be able to visit every teacher once each 
month, and some of them more often than that, if she is to do 
the kind of constructive work which brings worthwhile results. 

Distribution of Time of County Supervisors of White Elementary Schools 

Each county supervisor of white elementary schools makes an 
annual report to the State Superintendent and the County Board 
of Education on the work accomplished during the year. The 
Assistant State Superintendent reads all of these reports during 
the summer and collates from them the material which will be 
of interest to the superintendents and supervisors of the State. 
For four consecutive years the report of one supervisor was 
selected for publication and the ''high spots" in the reports of 
other supervisors were mimeographed and distributed. For the 
past two years, however, excerpts from the reports of a number 
of supervisors have been organized around particular teaching 
anl supervisory problems. From the reports for 1926-27 of eight 
supervisors of primary grades, the bulletin Sidelights on the 
Supervision of Primary Grades was prepared. In the bulletin 
Supervisory Activities in Maryland, Miss Simpson raised ques- 
tions challenging statements chosen from the reports of super- 
visors for the year 1927-28 and these were discussed at the meet- 
ing of superintendents and supervisors held in the fall of 1928. 

At the end of her report each supervisor includes a statement 
for each month and for the whole year of activities which lend 
themselves to statistical treatment. These statistical summaries 
for 1927-28 are summarized and averaged to furnish a composite 
picture of the work of a county supervisor in Maryland. On the 
average, 130 days were spent in field work visiting teachers in 
their schools, giving tests, etc. Since on the average 240 schools 
and 419 teachers were visited in 1927-28, the average number of 



Activities and Qualifications of County Supervisors 



263 



schools of all types, large and small, visited in a day would ap- 
proximate 2 and the number of teachers visited between 3 and 4. 

The average supervisor conducted 14 teachers' meetings dur- 
ing 1927-28. In counties having more than one supervisor, 3 
meetings conducted by one of the supervisors were attended by a 
county colleague. The 30 supervisors who reported addressing 
and attending meetings of parent-teacher associations addressed 
an average of 4 and attended an average of 4 meetings. 

Supervisors spent an average of 27 Saturdays and 46 school 
days in their offices for conferences with teachers, supervisors, 
and superintendent; in preparation for teachers' meetings; in 
planning material to be mimeographed and sent to teachers ; in 
answering letters from teachers ; in summarizing and studying 
the results of tests; and in other important work. Those who 
reported on conferences had an average of 76 with principals 
and teachers, and of 17 with superintendent and supervisors. 

These data for individual supervisors are included in Table 
160 on pages 260 and 261. 

Supervisory Qualifications 

The following statement of conditions under which candidates 
for supervisory positions may secure certificates from the State 
Superintendent, provided a county superintendent is considering 
the desirability of securing their services, was prepared in con- 
ference with the superving teachers already employed in the 
counties: 

Legal Requirement 

1. Graduation from a two-year standard normal school, or the equiva- 
lent 

2. In addition to **1," two full years of work at a standard college, 
or the equivalent, not less than one-half in academic branches 
related to the elementary schools and the other half in advanced 
elementary school methods and supervision 

3. In lieu of "1" and "2" may be substituted graduation from a 
standard college, either including or with the addition of one full 
year of work in Education, including elementary school methods 
and supervision 

4. Four years of successful teaching experience in elementary 
schools. (Supervisors from the State Department of Education 
will pass judgment on the candidate's ahilitij to teach as a pre- 
requisite to any consideration for a cei-tificate in supervision) 

Professional Equipment 

1. Knowledge of subject matter and knowledge of technique of teach- 
ing to the extent of beir:g able to 

a. sense a teacher's problem 

b. suggest helpful procedures and devices 

c. analyze and reconstruct a lesson 

2. Ability to formulate and carry out sane supervisory policies based 
on needs of the group and of individual teachers. This means 



264 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



a. to decide upon specific objectives 

b. to plan and conduct teachers' meetings which will further the 
objectives 

3. Necessary aptitudes, which may be expressed as 

a. sincerity of purpose 

b. ability to work harmoniously with people 

c. ability to stimulate teachers to greater achievement 

d. ability to take into consideration the teacher's point of view 

e. an optimistic temperament and a sane outlook on life 

f. a real interest in the work 

Practical Demonstration of Method in Supervision 

A personal interview with the State supervisors of elementary 
schools is required, during which the candidate will be asked to 
demonstrate the application of supervisory skill in several typical 
teaching situations. 

It is, of course, no easy matter to secure supervisors who meet 
our standards. We are finding it a good policy to pick out 
strong teachers in our own system who seem to have the qualities 
which tend to make successful supervisors and to encourage 
them to look toward supervision and to definitely train for it by 
taking up university courses in supervision and, if possible, by 
serving as critic teachers at the normal schools. There is a big 
advantage in securing as supervisors teachers who have devel- 
oped in a good supervisory system, because such teachers have 
been used to attending a high type of professional teachers' 
meetings; they know by actual experience how helpful a super- 
visor's visit to the classroom can be; and, therefore, they have 
a background for the job which is a tremendous advantage to 
them. Teachers who have not grown up in a system having well- 
organized supervision find themselves to a certain extent handi- 
capped when they undertake supervision — no matter how well 
trained they are. It is possible to find people who have the 
Master's Degree in Education and Supervision with no idea of 
how to conduct a really professional teachers' meeting because 
they themselves have never attended one. 

It is, therefore, a good thing, if possible, to pick supervisors 
who have themselves had the experience of teaching and of de- 
veloping in a well-organized supervisory system ; who know from 
practical experience how helpful a visit from a trained and sym- 
pathetic supervisor can be; and who realize the helpfulness of 
a teachers' meeting conducted by a trained and sympathetic 
leader. 

Developing Supervisors in Service 

After securing supervising teachers the school system has the 
responsibility of promoting their growth and of maintaining 
high standards of supervision. The State Department of Edu- 
cation endeavors to accomplish this through four major activi- 
ties : 



Requirements of Supervisors, Their L)e\-elopment in Service 265 



1. State-wide conferences and regional conferences of supervisors 

2. Visits of the State supervisors to tlie counties 

3. Professional bulletins published by the State Department 

4. A six weeks' summer school course in the theory and practice of 
supervision in the county schools 

In their visits to the counties the State supervisors study the 
teaching in the classrooms and the county supervisor's method 
of working with her teachers, afterwards analyzing with the 
county supervisor both the teaching procedure and the super- 
visory procedure for the purpose of aiding the supervisor to 
do her most effective work. They also attend in every county 
group meetings conducted by the county supervisors, afterwards 
aiding these supervisors to critically evaluate their own meet- 
ings. The State supervisors confer with the county superin- 
tendents and supervisors as to county policies and objectives for 
the year; they study the printed and mimeographed material 
prepared by the supervisors for distribution in the respective 
counties; they study problems in connection with the local course 
of study making and revision, problems in connection with the 
classification, promotion, and retardation of children, and prob- 
lems in connection with the results of standardized tests. 

State-wide and regional conferences of superintendents and 
supervisors are a potent means of maintaining high standards in 
supervision. Here State-wide objectives are detennined upon. 
Topics such as these are discussed : 

Principles and procedures of course of study making 
The tests of a high type of supervision from the county superin- 
tendents' point of view 
How may we secure better preparation of teachers for their daily 
work ? 

What professional equipment can the normal schools guarantee for 
their graduates ? 

Can the county supervisors guarantee continued gro\\i;h on the basis 

of the normal school equipment? 
What criteria would you employ to evaluate the quality of teaching 

and of supervision? 

Maryland has no State course of study. A State department 
has no laboratory to test out a course of study. The making of 
a course of study is one of the most important instruments of 
county supervision. At the present time each of the counties 
is in a different stage of curriculum revision. The State sets 
up goals of accomplishment in the several subjects which are 
useful to the counties in developing their local courses. The 
State Department helps and encourages the counties through 
conferences. Two State-wide conferences and one regional con- 
ference are held each year for superintendents and supervisors. 
Each county has a series of not less than four group meetings 
for teachers, part of the time of which is devoted to the topic 
of course of study revision. At these meetings mimeographed 
course of study material is provided for discussion. 



266 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



The regional meetings for supervisors are held for the purpose 
of studying the work of the supervisor in the particular county 
where the meeting is held. Sometimes a day is spent in visiting 
different classrooms in the county ; sometimes the visiting super- 
visors observe a teachers' meeting conducted by the local super- 
visor. The group of supervisors and superintendents meet after 
the observation to evaluate the work. 

The State Department of Education each year publishes bulle- 
tins and issues mimeographed material designed to aid in the 
professional growth of supervisors and teachers, as well as to 
inform the public of the work of the schools. These bulletins are 
available for every elementary teacher in the State. 

Bulletins issued since the 1927 report include the following : 

1. Sidelights on the Sitpervision of Primary Grades, a 150-page bulletin 
edited by I. Jewell Simpson and containing excerpts from the reports to the 
State Superintendent of eight county supervisors of primary grades. In 
Part I the contents are organized around classroom and curricular activities 
in reading, composition, spelling, arithmetic, social interests, and music. In 
Part II the following professional problems in supervision are discussed: 
Helping the beginning teachers; Demonstration teaching; Classification, 
retardation and promotion of pupils; Critical self-analysis by teachers; 
Experimental work in beginning reading; School publicity. 

2. Tentative Goals in Geography, a 186-page bulletin prepared by M. 
Theresa Wiedefeld, containing goals for the various grades classified under 
Learning Activities and Outcomes in Appreciations and Concepts, in Knowl- 
edge and Skills, and in Study Habits and Abilities. The bulletin is divided 
into two parts. Part I sets up tentative goals with suggestions for the 
achievement of a unified program for the social studies in Grades I to III. 
Part II states the tentative goals in geography for Grades IV to VII. 

3. Fourth Year High School Course of Study for an Eight Weeks^ Review 
of Arithmetic, a 32-page bulletin prepared by Mrs. Mary Clough Cain, a 
high school teacher of mathematics, to give to high school graduates enter- 
ing college, noiTnal, and business schools or taking positions an adequate 
review of and drill in arithmetic. 

4. Practical Activities in Animal Production, a 96-page bulletin prepared 
by teachers of vocational agriculture under the leadership of J. D. Blackwell 
to furnish a guide to the practical work conducted in the laboratory, on the 
school grounds, on the home farms of pupils or community. 

5. Ciirriculum Making in Problems of American Democracy, as Applied 
to the Unit — Public Opinion, a 50-page bulletin resulting from the work of 
a committee of teachers of problems of democracy in the Queen Anne's 
County high schools, under the guidance of Professor J. Montgomery Gam- 
brill and E. Clarke Fontaine. The subject matter is presented according to 
the plan formulated by Professor Henry C. Morrison in The Practice of 
Teaching in the Secondary Schools. 

6. (Supervisory Activities in Maryland 1927-28, as revealed in excerpts 
from the annual reports of the county supervisors to the State Superin- 
tendent, a 95-page bulletin edited by I. Jewell Simpson. The contents are 
classified under the following heads: Basis of supervisory method, Activi- 
ties pertaining to classification, retardation and promotion. Activities de- 
signed to set new ideals and standards for teachers. Activities in connection 
with the social studies, with art and literature. Developing leadership in 
the elementary school principal, Use of State Department professional bulle- 
tins, Encouragements and discouragements, and Plans for the coming year. 



Regional Meetings, Department Bulletins on Supervision 267 



7. Progress of Maryland Counties in Reduction of Number of Over-age 
Pupils, 1925-27, a 35-page bulletin prepared by Bessie C. Stern, from data 
submitted by the counties and including the plan used by Nicholas Orem, 
Superintendent in Prince George's County, for studying the over-age situa- 
tion. 

8. Librarii List for High School Teachers of Science and Mathematics, 
a 65-page bulletin prepared by W. K. Klingaman, to furnish suggestions for 
high school libraries. 

9. Tentative Goals in Elementary School Music with Suggestions for 
Their Achievement, a 155-page bulletin by Thomas L. Gibson, setting up 
goals for the primary and grammar grades and suggesting tests as a means 
of checking the mastery of goals set up for the grammar grades. Teachers 
of music in the State normal schools and in several of the counties have 
contributed song units and lesson plans which show how some of the goals 
set ujj may be accomplished. 

Earlier bulletins reflecting Maryland's supervisory policies are 
the following: 

A Supervisor of Town Schools Analyzes Her Work (October, 1926) 
Silent Reading — Goals for Each Grade and ^Suggestions for Remedial 

Work following a Testing Program 
Arithmetic Goals 
Goals of Achievement in English 
The Teaching of Citizenship 
Tentative Goals in History 

The Teaching of the Social Studies in Maryland High Schools 
High School Teachers' Meetings, the Marking System and Teachers' 
Grades 

Standai'ds for Maryland County High Schools 
Worth While Teachers' Meetings 
Worth While Patrons' Meetings 

Workable Daily Programs for One- and Two-Teacher Schools 
School Publicity, A Professional Opportunity and Obligation 
Books for the Elementary School Library 
Material for the Celebration of Special Days 

Organization and Supervision of V ocatioiial Education in Maryland 

Principles Underlying Supervision 

The following presents a statement of fundamental princi- 
ples upon which supervision of instruction in our elementary 
schools rests. 

Competent supervision is the best method known for improv- 
ing the quality of teaching, both before and after the teacher 
enters the service. Supervision is a teacher-training proposi- 
tion ; even normal schools and teacher-training schools base their 
practice-school work on the foregoing principle. 

1. The supervisor's chief function is to improve the quality of 
teaching. This involves a very broad and thorough knowledge 
of subject-matter and method. 

2, The means of supervision are the various types of teachers' 
meetings, the course of study, conferences with individual teach- 
ers, visiting schools in and out of the system, observation lessons 
and critiques, etc.; the extent of teacher participation in these 



268 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



activities is the final test of supervisory efficiency. 

3. The superintendent's chief duty in relation to the supervisor 
is to see that the conditions are right for the supervisor to do her 
best work. This involves first-class administrative and executive 
ability, as well as a thorough knowledge of educational principles, 
methods, and aim. 

4. The superintendent and supervisor working together should 
determine methods and aims in the large. The supervisor should 
then be held responsible and be given a free hand in working 
out the details of subject-matter and method to accomplish these 
aims. 

5. All administrative matters concerning teachers' meetings 
and the organization of the various supervisory activities should 
be referred to the superintendent and have his approval. These 
matters should be worked out jointly by the supervisor and the 
superintendent. When a general policy has been decided upon, 
no change in that policy should be made by the supervisor with- 
out consultation with the superintendent, but all activities falling 
under that policy should be left with the supervisor to carry out 
with only occasional consultation with the superintendent. 

6. It is the superintendent's function to know the attitude of 
the principals and teachers in reference to all of the supervisory 
activities and to consult with the supervisor in working out these 
activities, so that there may be as little friction as possible; the 
superintendent, however, must stand firm for supervision as an 
absolute necessity for improving the quality of teaching and for 
professional progress in the teaching corps. With this attitude 
on the part of the superintendent thoroughly established, modi- 
fications in the supervisory plans can be made from time to time 
to meet, so far as possible, fair criticisms on the part of a teach- 
ing corps. 

7. In a county school system under professional leadership of 
the quality and character implied in the foregoing statements, 
many of the principals and teachers themselves become leaders. 
They receive recognition either by promotion to positions of 
greater responsibility or by the professional satisfaction that 
comes to them by reason of their position of leadership. They 
take the initiative in developing, expanding, and revising courses 
of study ; in developing school practices and classroom procedure 
to conform with the best in educational experiment and research ; 
in promulgating throughout the teaching corps ideals of pro- 
fessional growth and progress. In brief, such a school system 
as a whole — pupils, teachers, supervisors, and administrators — 
becomes a unit consciously striving to realize the aims of educa- 
tion in a democracy. 



Principles Underlying Supervision, Conference of Supervisors 269 



Conference of Superintendents and Supervisors With the 
State Department of Education 

The following programs were prepared for the fall conferences 
of superintendents and supervisors, held on September 29 and 
30, 1927: 

For supervisors, except where a joiyit session of superintend- 
ents and supervisors is indicated, 

I. State-wide Objectives in Elementary Instruction and Super- 

vision 

The elementary school supervisors will endeavor this year : 

1. To encourage higher standards for evaluating the strength of 
the teachers of a county: 

a. By developing the outstanding teachers 

b. By developing individual talents, originality, executive ability, 
and particular teaching aptitudes 

c. By emphasizing purposes and principles rather than devices 
and methods 

2. To stimulate further improvement in reading instruction: 

a. ''By giving State-wide tests in fall and spring in Grades 2-7 

b. By assisting the counties in a careful diagnosis of results, and 
in a practical type of corrective work 

c. By making available a comparison of test results in the 
counties 

3. To promote continued progress toward attaining the objectives of 
preceding years by studying each county with respect to: 

a. Achievement in the Three R's 

b. Course of Study making and revision 

c. Quality of teachers' meetings 

d. Teachers' preparation for their daily work 

e. Use of group schedule in one-teacher schools 

f. Methods for reducing excessive number of over-age pupils 

g. Organization of parent-teacher associations 

4. To keep in close touch with supervision in the counties: 

a. By visiting schools with the supervisors 

b. By attending teachers' meetings conducted by supervisors 

c. By studying the annual reports of supervisors 

d. By planning for State-wide and sectional meetings* of super- 
visors 

e. By furthering the use of the Maryland School Bulletins 

5. To prepare for publication the following material as an aid to 
teaching and supei*vision : 

a. Side-Lights on the Supervision of Primai-y Grades (a bulletin 
containing excerpts from the annual reports of eight super- 
visors who supervise primary grades only) 

b. Tentative Goals in Geography for the Elementary Grades, 

c. History Tests for Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Grade 
Pupils (the tests are based on the bulletin, "Tentative Goals 
in History") 

d. *Excerpts from the annual reports of county supervisors 

II. *Why is the percentage of non-promotion for boys (19.7 per 

cent) so much greater than for girls (12.5 per cent) ? (See 
Annual Report, pp. 67-68 — White Elementaiy Schools.) 
Studj^ your own county's record (p. 68) and, if above or 



* For discussion at joint session of superintendents and supervisors. 



270 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

below the State average, be prepared to tell of remedial 
measures that you have taken or intend to inaugurate. 

III. *Is it reasonable to expect the children of the one-room rural 

schools to approximate standard scores ? 

IV. * Would it be advisable to have occasional contests in the 

regular school subjects? 

V. ^Report on progress of committee of supervisors on Stand- 

ards for Judging Supervisors. 

For Superintendents 

I. Re^^orts of Standing Comrnittees 

1. Committee on Teachers' Retirement System — 

Edwin W. Broome, Chairman; George W. Joy, M. S. H. Unger, 
T, G. Bennett, E. W. Pruitt. 

2. Committee on School Consolidation — 

C. G. Cooper, Chairman; George Fox, E. W. Broome, E. M. Noble, 
Oscar M. Fogle, James B. Noble, Edward F. Webb, Franklin D. 
Day. 

3. Committee on Certification of Teachers — 

C. M. Wright, Chairman; J. M. Bennett, B. J. Grimes, M. S. H. 
Unger, F. E. Rathbun, Franklin D. Day. 

4. Committee on Standards for Judging Supervision — 

(For joint session at the April conference) 
B. J. Grimes, Chairman; E. F. Webb, Howard T. Ruhl, G. Lloyd 
Palmer, E. M. Noble. 

5. Committee on Records and Reports — 

Nicholas Orem, Chairman; L. C. Robinson, James M. Bennett. 
(Improving the Annual Report in the light of certain suggestions 
made by Dr. Shaw in "State School Reports," Teachers College 
'Contributions to Education, No. 242, price $1.50 in cloth.) 

6. Committee on School and County Libraries — 

E. F. Webb, Chairman; E. Clarke Fontaine, E. M. Noble, O. M. 
Fogle, L Jewell Simpson, G. Lloyd Palmer, E. W. Broome, B. J. 
Grimes, C. M. Wright, C. G. Cooper, Franklin D. Day, Adelene 
Pratt. 

(How cooperate with the new Director of Public Libraries?) 
IL Introduce the State Supervisor of Home Economics. 

III. Why employ excess teachers, especially in equalization fund counties? 
Would it not be better administration to use this money for increas- 
ing the salaries of experienced teachers? 

IV. Where in Maryland or elsewhere can our first grade elementary teach- 
ers secure the kind of subject matter courses that are needed now far 
more than method courses? 

V. A State-wide plan for working out a high school course in Problems 
of Democracy. 

VI. Present letter on a safety problem. 

The spring conference of superintendents was held on April 
17 and 18, 1928, immediately following the two-day visit of 35 
county superintendents and county school board members from 
North Carolina, who came to study the results of supervision as 
shown in the classroom teaching of five counties adjacent to 
Baltimore, viz. : Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Carroll, Montgomery, 



* For discussion at joint session of superintendents and supervisors. 



Conferences of Superintendents and Supervisors 



271 



and Prince George's. Each visitor spent each of the two days 
in a different county. It was planned that, in visiting each class- 
room in different types of schools, the visitors stay throughout 
the teaching of the lesson, or, if the lesson was lengthy, at least 
15 minutes or half an hour. The program provided for seeing 
lessons in the various school subjects. 

On the evening of the second day the North Carolina visitors 
had dinner with the Maryland county superintendents, the super- 
visors in the counties visited and the members of the staff of the 
State Department of Education. Upon his return, Mr. A. T. 
Allen, State Superintendent of Schools, wrote the following letter 
to State Superintendent Albert S. Cook : 

"Taken altogether, you have a teaching situation which is espe- 
cially fine and which is surpassed by none so far as my experience 
goes. Instruction of the kind that will make of a child, so far as 
instruction can, a clear-thinking, self-relying, capable person 
seemed to be the order of the day everywhere I went. Your long 
school term, your system of supei'vision, and the specific training 
of the teachers for their particular tasks have all doubtless con- 
tributed to this great result." 

The Maryland county superintendents discussed the following 
program on April 18, 1928 : 

1. Report of study on high school teachers' salary, length of service, 
etc. Superintendent J. M. Bennett. 

2. The County Superintendent's Report for local distribution; what 
should it contain? 

3. Examination of pre-school children. Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, Jr. 

4. A plan for extending the use of library books by adults and chil- 
dren. Joseph L. Wheeler, Librarian, Pratt Library, Baltimore. 

5. What are the essential features of the New York plan for equalizing 
educational opportunity, as described by Dr. Paul H. Mort, in his 
book "State School Support"? Discussion by the whole group. 

6. The Maryland plan for equalization, with special relation to trans- 
portation and consolidation. 

Discussion opened by Superintendent Cooper and the members of 
the Committee on Consolidation: 

George Fox E. W. Broome Edward F. Webb 

E. M. Noble Oscar M. Fogle Franklin D. Day. 

James B. Noble 

7. Reports of Standing Committees (unfinished business or new busi- 
ness or both) 

Certifiration Teachers' Retirement Sy^^tem 

C. M. Wright, Chairman E. W. Broome, Chairman 

J. M. Bennett M. S. H. Unger 

B. J. Grimes T. G. Bennett 

M. S. H. Unger E. W. Pruitt 

F. E. Rathbun 
Franklin D. Day 



272 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



CONFERENCE OF COUNTY ATTENDANCE OFFICERS 

The annual meeting of county attendance officers, held March 8 and 9, 
1928, provided for the following discussion under the leadership of Thomas 
L. Gibson: 

I. Incentives and devices used in each county, or which might be used with 
profit in securing good attendance, by: 

Attendance Officer Parents 
Teacher Supervisors 

Pupils State Department of Education 

Four-minute report from each attendance officer. 

Exhibit of devices in use in each county to be hung in Baltimore 
County meeting room. 

II. Relation of poor attendance to failures or non-promotions and vice 
versa. Superintendent E. M. Noble. 

III. Relation of attendance officer to pupils, teachers, and parents. Super- 
intendent T. G. Bennett. 

IV. When should the annual meeting of county attendance officers be held? 

V. What can be done with feebleminded, incorrigible and retarded over- 
age pupils by the attendance officer, in view of the overcrowding in 
institutions available for their care? Special classes in Cumberland. 
Mr. Willison 

VI. Securing the cooperation of pupil attendance officers in Prince George's 
County. William Staunton, the pupil attendance officer in Hyattsville 
elementary school. Prince George's County; Mrs. H. M. Sturgis, prin- 
cipal; Miss Kathleen Shears, attendance officer. 

VII. A study of the census and attendance records in the office of the Car- 
roll County Board of Education at Westminster, through the courtesy 
of Superintendent M. S. H. Unger, and Miss Maye Grimes, Attend- 
ance Officer. 

a. How should principals' monthly reports be checked? 

b. Should birth certificates be required of all pupils entering school? 

c. What is the best distribution of time between office and field work? 

d. Should attendance officer or teachers take the census? 

e. Is it necessary to have census reports signed by parents? 

MEETING OF CLERKS OF COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION 
WITH STAFF OF STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

Since there had been no meeting of clerks for several years, one was 
arranged for May 25, 1928, and the following topics were discussed: 

Importance of Position of Clerk 

The place of the clerk in the Maryland scheme of education. Eligibility 
to membership in the Teachers' Retirement System. Opportunity to be of 
great service in the cause of education in Maryland. Desire to render 
service to everyone connected with school system. Creating the right atti- 
tude in meeting the public. 
Teachers 

What are the best methods of keeping records of teachers? What means 
are available for checking on time for summer school attendance and follow- 
ing up to see if teachers actually attended? Are reasons for resignation 
of teachers kept so that study of causes of resignation may be made? 
Pupils 

What is the relation of the clerk to the attendance officer in checking 
monthly attendance reports ; cumulative absence and withdrawal records ; 
checking, tabulating, and summarizing the annual report on enrollment, 
attendance, and promotions; age grade studies; and census reports? 



'Conferences of Attendance Officers and Clerks, P. T. A.'s 273 



Financial Reports 

What are the advantages and disadvantages of looseleaf ledgers? Need 
of cooperation with attendance officer to insure uniform reporting in attend- 
ance and financial reports. Why is it necessary to prorate the salaries and 
service of teachers who give part time service in several schools? What is 
the value of prorating transportation of high and elementary school pupils? 
Supervisors 

What aid is given the supei'visors in preparing mimeographed material 
to be sent teachers? (Mimeograph, etc.) What appliances does the county 
have for preparing such material? What standards should the clerk try to 
meet in setting up material to go to teachers? What appliances are avail- 
able for circularizing teachers and how much value have they? (Addresso- 
graph, etc.) 
Books and Supplies 

What arrangements are made to account for books and materials fur- 
nished individual schools? Are principals required to make annual inven- 
tories and how is this checked with information regarding books and mate- 
i-ial furnished schools? How are book bills filed? 
State Bulletins 

What arrangements are made for checking up and distributing bulletins 
prepared for the use of teachers? Can the clerk use her influence to see 
that unused bulletins are not allowed to accumulate from year to year? 
What may be done with them? 

PARENT-TEACHER ASSOCIATIONS 

Although the number of white schools having parent-teacher 
associations in 1928 decreased slightly, the per cent of white 
schools having such organizations increased. The 617 schools 
with patrons' organizations represent 45.4 per cent of the total 
number of white schools, an increase of .3 per cent over 1927. The 
growth in percentage of schools having associations since 1924 
may be seen in Table 161. 

TABLE 161 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
in White Schools 



YEAR Number Per Cent 

1924 490 30.8 

1925 623 40 6 

1926 638 42 8 

1927 649 45.1 

1928 617 45.4 



Of the white elementary schools with three or more teachers, 
232, or 82 per cent, had organized parent-teacher associations. 
This was true of 65 per cent of the two-teacher, and of only 27 
per cent of the white one-teacher elementary schools There were 
more associations in the graded and two-teacher schools than in 
1927, but the number and per cent in one- teacher schools showed 
a decrease. (See Table 162.) 



274 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 162 



White Elementary Schools Having 

One teacher 

Two teachers 

Three or more teachers 



Parent-Teacher Associations 
Number Per Cent 



224 27 
145 65 
232 82 



All Elementary 



601 



45 



In Baltimore County, for the second year, every white school 
had a parent-teacher association, and Montgomery, Talbot, and 
Caroline had associations in more than 90 per cent of their white 
schools. At the opposite extreme, St. Mary's had no patrons' 
organizations, and Washington, Cecil, Garrett, and Carroll had 
fewer than one-fourth of their schools so organized. The in- 
creases for 1927 to 1928 in number of associations in Wicomico, 
Howard, Queen Anne's, and Calvert were most marked. While 
8 counties showed decreases, only Washington dropped far below 
the 1927 figure. (See Chart 44.) 

The interest of patrons in the school is not necessarily exhib- 
ited through organized co-operation. The visits of mothers or 
fathers to meet the teacher and talk over the problems of their 
child or children is an excellent means of promoting the aims 
that both home and school are seeking to accomplish, viz., the 
development of boys and girls into worthwhile members of the 
community. The parents of 32,417 white elementary pupils, 28 
per cent of the entire enrollment, visited the white elementary 
schools. The parents of 36 per cent of the children in Anne 
Arundel, Baltimore, and Montgomery, all counties having a high 
percentage of patrons' organizations, visited the schools in 1928. 
On the other hand, in Charles and Calvert, which had but few 
parent-teacher associations, there were visits from 39 and 32 
per cent of the parents, respectively. Where there are parents' 
organizations, the interest created results in school visitation, 
and in counties having but few parent-teacher associations, the 
school visit is the substitute for more organized co-operation 
between the home and school. 

In high schools there were fewer visits from parents. On 
the average, the parents of less than a fifth of the white high 
school pupils visited the schools during 1927-28. 



Parent-Teacher Associations in White Schools 



275 



CHART 44 



PABENT-TKACHEa ASSOCIATIONS IN COUmT WHITB SCHOOLS 



County Number 
Total and 1927 1928 
Co. Avecrage 649 617 

Baltimore 93 

Montgamacy 52 

Talbot 21 

Caroline 34 
Anne Arundel 42 

Kent 25 

Wicomico 33 

Howard 16 

Pr. Georges 42 

Somerset 21 

Harford 33 

Worcester 17 

Frederick 54 

Allegany 43 

^een Anne's 10 



Calvert 

Dorchester 

Charles 

Carroll 

Garrett 

Cecil 

Washington 

St. Mary»s 



5 
13 
11 
27 
27 

6 
24 





Per Cent 
1927 1928 



45.1 




276 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



THE 1928 INDEX NUMBER 

Maryland's 1928 index number of school attendance and 
finance was 77.2. For the counties alone it was 68.4 and for 
Baltimore City 89.9. The index numbers for the State and 
Baltimore City are lower than in 1927, due entirely to lower 
capital outlay expenditures in the latter year. The county fig- 
ure shows an increase of 3.2 points over 1927 and is the result 
of an increase in every component used in calculating the index 
number. (See Table 163.) 

TABLE 163 



Maryland's Index Numbers— 1918-1928* 



Year 


Maryland 


Baltimore 
City 


Average 
County 


ANNl 
Maryland 


JAL INCR 

Baltimore 
City 


EASE 

Average 
County 


1918 


43.2 


48.7 


40.3 








1919 


42.0 


47.4 


38.9 


—1.2 


—1.3 


—1.4 


1920 


51.9 


55.5 


45.4 


9.9 


8.1 


6.5 


1921 


61.5 


74.4 


53.7 


9.6 


18.9 


8.3 


1922 


65.1 


78.1 


56.0 


3.6 


3.7 


2.3 


1923 


72.8 


89.5 


60.6 


7.7 


11.4 


4.9 


1924 


77.8 


102.3 


60.9 


5.0 


12.8 




1925 


77.9 


90.4 


69.2 


.1 


—11.9 


8.3 


1926 


80.6 


93.9 


71.3 


2.7 


3.5 


2.1 


1927 


79.1 


98.7 


65.2 


—1.5 


4.8 


—6.1 


1928 


77.2 


89.9 


68.4 


—1.9 


—8.8 


3.2 



♦According to Leonard Ayres in an Index Number for State School Systems. 



The index number was calculated a second time, using the 
average capital outlay expenditures for the past four years in- 
stead of the expenditure for the year in question. When this 
averaged expenditure is used, the State as a whole as well as the 
counties showed an increase over the figures for 1927. In this 
second calculation Baltimore City's index number, 96.3, is only 
slightly under the 1927 figure, and this decrease can again be 
explained by the 1928 capital outlay figure, which was lower 
than any since 1922. (See Table 164.) 

The use of this four-year average partly eliminates the fluctua- 
tion due to wide differences in yearly capital outlay expenditures, 
and its use is justified in view of the fact that a large proportion 
of the funds devoted to capital outlay are obtained from bond 



The 1928 Index Number 277 



TABLE 164 





INDEX NUMBER WITH 


T J XT 1 f 

Index Number for 


! 

Capital Outlay 


Capital Outlay 


Annual Increase 




as Disbursed 


Averaged for 


With Capital Out- 








1 ?i V A vprsi crp^'l 


Average County 








1925 


69 2 


65.3 


3.8 


1926 


71 S 






1927 


65.2 


68.0 


— 5 


1928 


68.4 


69.8 


1.8 


Baltimore City 








1925 


90.4 


90.8 


2 3 


1926 


93.9 


95.8 


5 


1927 


98.7 


98.0 


2 2 


1928 


89.9 


96.3 


—1.7 


Maryland 








1925 


77.9 


75.9 


3 5 


1926 


80.6 


79.8 


3.9 


1927 


79.1 


80.4 


.6 


1928 


77.2 


80.7 


.3 



■"Most expenditures for land and new construction are paid for from the proceeds of 
bond issues. Bonds can be authorized only by an act of the Legislature with or without a 
referendum to the people of the county concerned. Since the legislature meets biennially it 
was deemed wiser to take an average for a period of fovu- years covering two legislative 
sessions. 



issues, for the authorization of which approval must be obtained 
from the Legislature, which meets biennially. 

The ten items used in calculating the index number are shown 
in Table 165. The amounts expended for capital outlay appear 
in items 6 to 9, inclusive. Two numbers will therefore be found 
after each of these items. The first figure with an asterisk in- 
cludes the four-year average for capital outlay, the second in- 
cludes only 1928 expenditures for capital outlay. The compon- 
ents of the index number are included in Table 165, not only for 
all schools, but for white and colored separately. When com- 
pared with similar figures for 1927, every component for each 
type of school shows an increase. (See Table 165.) 

Baltimore and Montgomery Counties, with 1928 index num- 
bers of 86 and 82, respectively for all schools, rank highest, while 
Allegany and Cecil rank third and fourth with index numbers of 
78 and 70, respectively. St. Mary's, Calvert, Charles, and Dor- 
chester are the only counties having index numbers below 60, 
and St. Mary's is the only county below 50. (See Table 166.) 

Only four counties — Allegany, Washington, Queen Anne's, and 



278 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 165 



Standing of Average Maryland County in Each Component of the Index 
Number for Educational Efficiency, 1928 









1928 Standing 




Item 


Components of the Index Number 
















All 




White 


Colored 






Schools 


Schools 


Schools 


1 

J. 


T5pT» ppnt of pViilHrpn anH iinHpr 1 8 
















63. 


2 


DO . 


53 


7 


9 
















and under 18, divided by 2 


58. 


6 


61.8 


45 


4 


3 


Average days schools were kept open 














divided by 2 


92 


7 


94.3 


84 


4 


4 


Ratio of high school attendance to total 














attendance! 


43 





48.7 


13 


4 


5 


Per cent of boys to girls in high school. . . 


78 


7 


79.8 


62 


8 


6 


Total expenditure per child in average 


*73 


5 


*80.9 


*35 


.5 




attendance 


70 


5 


77.2 


36 


6 


7 


Total expenditure per child 5 years and 


*46 


5 


*53.0 


n9 


.1 




under 18 


44 


6 


50.5 


19 


7 


8 


Total expenditure per teacher and 


*83 


5 


*91.9 


*40 


.4 




principal divided by 24 


80 


1 


87.6 


41 


7 


9 


Expenditure for other than salaries per 


*63 





*70.2 


*25 


.4 




child in attendance 


57 





62.8 


27 


6 


10 


Average monthly salary per teacher . . . 


95 


5 


104.0 


51 


8 




Index number in average county 


*69 


8 


*75.0 


*43 


2 




68 


4 


73.2 


43 


7 



fMultiplied by 2.75 for counties having 7 grades, and by 3 for counties having 8 grades, 
to complete the elementary school course. 

*An average of capital outlay expenditures for the years 1925, 1926, 1927 and 1928 has 
been used instead of the expenditures for the year 1928 only. 



Calvert — had slightly lower index numbers in 1928 than they had 
in 1927. The lower figures are due almost entirely to decreased 
expenditures for capital outlay. In Allegany the salaries were 
slightly lower and the ratio of boys to girls in high school de- 
creased. In Washington, Calvert, and Queen Anne's all the finan- 
cial items other than salaries were lower than in the preceding 
year. In Washington and Calvert the ratio of boys to girls in 
high school was lower and in Queen Anne's and Calvert the per 
cent of total attendance in high school was lower. Queen Anne's 
also had fewer days in session than in 1927. (See Table 166.) 

The increases were especially noteworthy in Charles, Mont- 
gomery, Talbot, Cecil, Garrett, and Somerset. In Talbot and 
Garrett every component of the index number showed an in- 
crease. In Somerset and Cecil, with the exception of item 1, per 
cent of census in average attendance, all items showed gains for 
1928 over 1927. In Charles and Montgomery every item was 
higher, except ratio of boys to girls, and in the latter county also 
days in session were lower than in 1927. (See Table 166.) 



The 1928 Index Number 



279 



TABLE 166 

1927 and 1928 Index Numbers of Individual Counties for All, 
White, and Colored Schools 



ALL SCHOOLS 



County 1927 1928 



County Average | 


*68 

65 



2 


/*69 
\ 68 


8 
4 




*86 





*86 





Montgomery. . . 


*75 


6 


*82 


2 




*78 


2 


*77 


5 




*66 


g 


*70 


3 


Talbot 


*64 


2 


*69 


7 


Howard 


*67 


9 


*69 


7 


Carroll 


*67 


4 


*69 


7 


Washington . . . 


*69 


4 


*68 


8 


Prince George's 


*65 


5 


*67 


9 


Anne Arundel. . 


*64 


7 


*67 


4 




♦64 


1 


*67 


1 




*65 


3 


*66 


8 




*65 


9 


*66 


5 




*64 


7 


*65 


8 


Kent 


*61 


8 


*64 


1 


Wicomico 


*61 


5 


*63 


6 


Queen Anne's. . 


*64 


9 


*63 


3 


Worcester 


*60 


1 


*61 


3 


Somerset 


*57 


7 


*60 


7 


Dorchester. . . . 


*59 


3 


*59 


8 


Charles 


*50 


6 


*58 


9 


Calvert 


*58 





*57 


1 


St. Mary's .... 


*46 


8 


*49 





Baltimore City| 


*98 
98 



7 


/*96 
\ 89 


.3 
.9 


State ( 


*80 
79 


.4 
1 


/*80 
1 77 


.7 
.2 



WHITE SCHOOLS 



U UII !■ jr 


1927 


1928 


/ 

County Average <, 


*73 
69 


2 

.8 


/*75 
\ 73 



2 


Montgomery. . . 


*83 


8 


*90 


8 


Baltimore 


*88 


3 


*88 


3 


Talbot 


*73 


6 


*80 


1 




*77 


9 


*77 


7 


Howard 


*75 





*77 





Anne Arundel . . 


*73 


6 


*76 


8 


Prince George's 


*73 


1 


*75 


3 


Calvert 


*76 


8 


*75 


1 


Charles 


*66 


1 


*73 


7 


Kent 


*70 





*73 


4 


Caroline 


*71 


9 


*73 


3 


Cecil 


*68 


7 


*72 


6 


Worcester 


*70 


8 


*72 


5 


Queen Anne's . . 


*73 


5 


*72 





Somerset 


*67 


6 


*71 





Carroll 


*68 


4 


*70 


8 


Harford 


♦70 


2 


*69 


7 


Wicomico 


*67 


4 


*69 


5 


Frederick 


*67 


4 


*69 


1 


Washington . . . 


*69 


4 


*68 


8 


Dorchester. . . . 


*67 


7 


*67 


9 


Garrett 


*64 


1 


*67 


1 


St. Mary's .... 


*54 


2 


*59 





f*i no 

Baltimore City^ j^g 


7 
9 


/*99 
\ 92 


8 
1 


State 1 


*84 
83 


3 
2 


/*84 
I 81 


9 
1 



COLORED SCHOOLS 



County 1927 1928 



County Average 1 


*41 

41 


8 
9 


/*43 
I 43 


2 
7 


Allegany 


*70 


2 


*68 


8 


Washington . . . 


*68 


3 


*68 


2 


Baltimore 


*56 


9 


*56 





Cecil 


*48 


9 


*50 


9 


Talbot 


*41 


5 


*46 


4 


Carroll 


*47 


6 


*45 


7 


Wicomico 


*42 


6 


*45 


1 


Montgomery. . . 


*32 


3 


*44 


9 


Frederick 


*45 


3 


*43 


9 


Kent 


*44 


5 


*43 





Somerset 


*41 


7 


*42 


5 


Anne Arundel . . 


*40 





*41 


7 


Prince George's 


*39 





*41 


2 


Caroline 


*39 


9 


*39 


9 


Dorchester .... 


*38 


9 


*39 


4 


Charles 


*37 


5 


*37 


8 


Queen Anne's. . 


*39 


2 


*37 


2 


Harford 


*36 


6 


*36 


6 


Worcester 


*35 


7 


*35 


5 


Howard 


*31 


1 


*31 


7 


Calvert 


*28 


6 


*30 


8 


St. Mary's .... 


*27 


4 


*26 


5 


Baltimore Cityj 


*85 
78 


1 

7 


/*80 
I 75 


1 
1 


State 1 


*60 

57 




3 


/*59 

\ 57 







* In calculating the index numbers an average of capital outlay expenditures for a period of four 
years was used instead of expenditures for the year 1927 and 1928 only. 



For white schools, Montgomery ranks highest with an index 
number of 90.8. Baltimore is second, Talbot third, and Allegany 
fourth. St. Mary's is the only county with an index number 
under 60, but it made a gain of 5 points over 1927. Only Alle- 
gany, Calvert, Queen Anne's, Harford, and Washington have 
decreases under 1927. With the exception of Harford, these 
counties had decreases for all schools and the same items are 
below for white as for all schools. In Harford all financial items 
except salaries were lower in 1928 than in 1927, and also the 
ratio of boys to girls. The following counties increased their 
scores for white schools by 3 points or more — Montgomery, Tal- 
bot, Anne Arundel, Charles, Kent, Cecil, Somerset, Garrett, and 
St. Mary's. 

For the colored schools, Allegany, Washington, Baltimore, and 
Cecil rank highest with index numbers higher than 50.0. Only 
two counties, Talbot and Montgomery, made increases of 3.0 or 
more points over 1927. Nine of the counties had decreases for 
the 1928 index number for colored schools. (See Tabic 166.) 



280 



1928 Eeport op State Department of Education 



tSTATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 
Graduates in 1928 

In 1928 there were 441 graduates from the three State normal 
schools for white students at Towson, Frostburg, and Salisbury. 
This number includes 344 from the counties and 97 from the City 
of Baltimore. All of the normal schools, except Salisbury, which 
had an increase of 3, had fewer graduates than the year before. 
At Towson there were 25 fewer from the counties and 42 fewer 
from Baltimore City. At Frostburg there were 11 fewer grad- 
uates than in 1927. The legislation of 1927 requiring certifica- 
tion by high school principals before admission to Maryland in- 
stitutions of higher learning, discussed on page 113, and the 
higher standards of admission and retention account for these 
decreases at Towson and Frostburg*. The number graduated 
from Baltimore City is more than sufficient to meet the demand 
for teachers to fill the annual number of vacant positions in the 
city. There are not enough county graduates to fill the vacancies 
in the counties, so that the county teachers and principals must 
continue to keep before the high school students who are in the 
upper half of their classes the desirability of entering normal 
school after high school graduation. (See Table 167.) 



TABLE 167 

White Graduates of Maryland State Normal Schools, 1920-1928 







Towson 










year 








Frost- 


Salis- 


Total 


Counties 


Baltimore 


Total 


burg 


bury 


Counties 




City 










37 




37 


13 




50 




50 




50 


29 




79 




114 




114 


28 




142 




240 




240 


58 




298 




239 




239 


71 




310 




293 


234 


527 


59 




*352 




214 


214 


428 


84 


28 


*326 




214 


139 


353 


91 


72 


*377 




189 


97 


286 


80 


75 


*344 


Total 1920-1928 


1,590 


684 


2,274 


513 


175 


*2,278 



*Excludes graduates from Baltimore City at Towson Normal School. 

At Towson there were 189 county and 97 city graduates, mak- 
ing 286 in all. Frostburg had 80 graduates and Salisbury 75. 
The last row in Table 167 shows a summary of the graduates 
from the normal schools since 1920. Towson has had 1,590 
county graduates and 684 from the city since 1925, a total of 
2,274. Frostburg has had 513 and Salisbury 175 since 1926. 
(See Table 167.) 

t Excerpts from reports of Lida Lee Tall, Principal. Maryland State Normal School at 
Towson; of John L. Dunkle, Principal, State Normal School at Frostburg; and of William 
J. Holloway, Principal, Maryland State Normal School at Salisbury, 



State Normal School Graduates and Their Teaching Positions 281 



In What Type of School Do the County Graduates Teach? 

Since there is a constant shifting of teachers in the counties 
from smaller to larger schools, it is natural to find the majority 
of the vacant positions in the counties in the one-and two-teacher 
schools. Of the 309 graduates who took county positions, just 
over one-half went into one-teacher schools, and 13 per cent into 
two-teacher schools. Just over one-half of the county graduates 
from Towson, over two-thirds of those from Salisbury, and 
seven eighths of those from Frostburg, who secured positions, 
were placed in one-and two-teacher schools. With the progress 
of consolidation this condition may gradually change, making 
it possible for a larger percentage to obtain positions in schools 
having three or more teachers. A great many of the Frostburg 
graduates from Allegany County take positions in one-teacher 
schools in Garrett County, since there are few vacancies in Alle- 
gany County, and those occurring in the larger schools are filled 
only with teachers of experience. (See Table 168.) 

TABLE 168 



Per Cent of 1928 County Normal School Graduates Teaching in the 
Counties in Various Types of Schools 





Tow 


'SON 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


Type of School 




















No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


No. 


Per 
Cent 


One-Teacher 


69 


38.8 


51 


79.7 


37 


55.2 


157 


50.8 


Two-Teacher 


26 


14.5 


5 


7.8 


9 


13.4 


40 


13.0 


Graded 


83 


46.7 


8 


12.5 


21 


31.4 


112 


36.2 


Total 


178 


100.0 


64 


100.0 


67 


100.0 


309 


100.0 



Graduates of the 1928 class at Towson went to teach in every 
county except Allegany and St. Mary's. Frostburg graduates 
took positions in the westernmost counties of the State, coming 
east as far as Carroll. One Frostburg graduate also went to 
Prince George's, and three to St. Mary's. Salisbury graduates 
of 1928 took positions in every county, except Allegany, Fred- 
erick, Harford, Charles, Calvert, St. Mary's, Kent, and Queen 
Anne's. Only 57 of the 97 Baltimore City graduates obtained 
positions in the city. Of the county and out-of-State graduates, 
35 were not teaching or received permission to teach in other 
States. Of these, 11 were from Towson, 16 from Frostburg, and 
8 from Salisbury. (See Table 169.) 



282 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 169 

Distribution of 1927 Normal School Graduates by County Placement 

and Type of School 



COUNTY 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel, 
Baltimore. . . . 

Calvert 

Caroline 



Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles. . . . 
Dorchester . 
Frederick . . 



Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . 



Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 



Washington . 
Wicomico . . . 
Worcester . . 



Total Counties 

Teaching 

Not Teaching. 

Baltimore City 
Teaching .... 
Not Teaching. 



Total 

Teaching 

Not Teaching. 



TovvsoN 



3 
1 
2 

10 
6 
2 
1 

15 

1 
10 
6 
3 



69 



26 



69 26 



13 
21 



2 
1 
5 
1 
10 



1 
15 



83 



57 



140 



o 



Frostburg 



y 
a 

o 

Eh 



Salisbury 



Grand Total 



14 
28 



14 
7 
8 
2 

32 

1 
13 
9 
4 
8 

5 
1 



1 

3 

19 
1 

3 



178 
11 



57 
40 



286 
235 
51 



11 



29 



51 



51 



12 



3 
30 



10 



64 
tl6 



80 
64 
tl6 



37 



37 



21 



20 



11 



67 
*8 



75 
67 
*8 



11 

3 
1 



17 
7 
2 
9 

15 

34 
10 
8 
3 
2 

1 
1 
3 
6 



157 



1 
14 
23 



40 



4 
2 
5 
2 
13 



1 

3 

18 
S 



112 



57 



o 
Eh 



12 
17 
31 
1 
11 

23 
9 
8 
13 
35 

35 
13 
13 
4 
10 

12 
1 
3 
7 
6 

30 
6 
9 



309 
*t35 



57 
40 



441 
366 
=t75 



t Includes two probably placed in Pennsylvania and one in Carroll. 
* Includes 3 teaching in other states. 



In the counties as a whole, 63.5 per cent of the graduates re- 
turned to teach in their home counties. Towson sent 80 per cent 
of its county graduates back, Salisbury 50 per cent, and Frost- 
burg 37.5 per cent. Anne Arundel, Calvert, Garrett, and Har- 
ford were the only counties which employed all of their own 
graduates at the normal schools. Washington and Frederick 
employed 95 and 94 per cent of their graduates, respectively. 
Montgomery, Baltimore, Charles, Carroll, and Kent employed 
between 80 and 90 per cent. The following counties had so few 



o 



CQ 
< 



O 



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U 
0) 

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o o 

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OH 

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3 

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o 

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73 



O 





09 

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Teach 
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TOTAL 


>> 

O r- 3 

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Rot 
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Z 




i 


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1 " 


u C 
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CQ 

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each in 
County 


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Vj 


< 

CO 


Ret 
to T. 
Home 


d 

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yC:jano3 qosg uiojj 
3uiaio3 jaquin^ 






Teaching and 
Coming from 
Other Counties 


Per 
Cent 






d 




3STBUR( 


>> 


Per 
Cent 






Ret 
to T( 
Home 


d 


-«> 




X^uno^ qoB3 uiojj 
auioio^ jaquin^ 






ling and 
ng from 

Counties 


Per 
Cent 












Teach 
Comi 
Other 


d 




TOWSON 


urned 

[■ach in 
County 


Per 
Cent 




Ret 

to T( 
Homo 


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-a 




Xiuno3 qoeg mojj 
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283 



284 1928 Report of State Department of Education 



vacancies that they employed less than 50 per cent of their own 
county graduates: Queen Anne's 12.5, Allegany 18.5, Wicomico 
33.3, and Worcester 44.4 per cent. The remainder were there- 
fore available for positions in counties which had an insufficient 
number of their own graduates. (See Table 170.) 

St. Mary's had no students at the normal schools and there- 
fore had to employ graduates of other counties to fill all of its 
vacancies. Prince George's, Garrett, Howard, and Anne Arundel 
had to employ from 75 to 53 per cent of their staffs from outside 
their own counties. Carroll, Washington, Cecil, and Baltimore 
had from 39 to 32 per cent of their new normal school graduates 
from counties other than their own. Some of these counties 
which have to go outside their own counties to fill their vacan- 
cies have a very high turnover, due to the fact that the teachers 
from outside the county leave as soon as they can obtain a school 
nearer their homes. The only way this can be prevented is for 
these counties to send more of their high school graduates to 
normal school. (See Table 170.) 



The Enrollment Campai^ 

In the Towson enrollment campaign, the return of students to 
their high schools was not featured as in the previous two years, 
as most of the high school principals felt the time had come for 
members of the Normal School faculty to visit them. Five mem- 
bers of the staff visited high schools, but there was no attempt to 
cover the State. 

Frostburg carried on an intensive campaign for entrants to 
the junior class in Carroll, Frederick, Washington, Allegany, and 
Garrett Counties. The decrease in enrollment is due largely to 
the raising of entrance requirements and to the discouragement 
in prospective entrants when one or more students from their 
high schools during the preceding year were dropped for failure 
to meet the normal school standards. 

The principal at Salisbury visited most of the high schools of 
the State to explain the advantages of the Salisbury school. 

Normal School Enrollment Fall of 1928 

In the fall of 1928 the total normal school enrollment, T,038, 
was just 6 higher than in 1927. At Towson the county enroll- 
ment was 43 lower, and the Baltimore City enrollment 47 more 
than the preceding year. Frostburg had 14 fewer, and Salisbury 
16 more enrolled than the year before. See Chart at lower left 
corner of map, Chart 45. 



The Enrollment Campaign and Fall Enrollment, 1928 



285 




286 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



On the map on page 285, each student who came to the normal 
schools in the fall of 1928 is represented by a dot for a Towson 
student, by a vertical line for a Frostburg student, and by an x 
for a Salisbury student, placed within the boundaries of the 
county from which the student came. (See Chart 45.) The 
counties are fairly well represented by normal school students, 
except for Garrett, Montgomery, Howard, Prince George's, 
Charles, and St. Mary's. The three counties in which normal 
schools are located are most completely represented. 

The number of women and men students in the junior and 
senior classes at each of the normal schools is given in Table 171. 
The enrollment of county juniors is only 5 greater than of 
seniors. 

TABLE 171 

Enrollment in Maryland State Normal Schools for White Students 

October 1928 





Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


All Normal Schools 




Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Juniors 


Seniors 


Total 




Women 


c 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 




3 




4 




55 


4 


54 


8 










58 


4 


58 


8 


116 


12 


Anne Arundel 


8 
49 




15 












1 








9 




15 




24 








42 

8 


2 










2 








51 


' 9 


42 


' 2 


93 


"ii 




5 






















5 




8 




13 






4 




6 








1 




2 




6 


1 


6 




13 


1 


19 


i 


Carroll 


10 




11 


1 




1 


2 




2 




2 




12 


1 


15 


1 


27 


2 


Cecil 


4 




3 












4 




4 




8 




7 




15 




Charles 


2 




3 




















2 




3 




5 




Dorchester 


8 
8 




1 












5 


2 


5 




13 


' 2 


6 




19 


' 2 






13 


2 


2 






1 


2 


1 


1 




12 


1 


14 


' 3 


26 


4 








1 




7 




8 


3 










7 




9 


3 


16 


3 


Harford 


6 


1 


18 


' 1 










3 




1 




9 


' 1 


19 


1 


28 


2 


Howard 


7 
















1 








8 








8 




Kent 


1 




3 












4 




6 




5 




9 




14 




Montgomery 


5 




4 






1 










1 




5 


' 1 


5 




10 


i 


Prince George's 


1 




5 




















1 




5 




6 




Queen Anne's 

St. Mary's 


6 




6 












5 




7 




11 




13 




24 




5 




1 




















5 




1 




6 




Somerset 


3 




4 












12 




6 




15 




10 




25 




Talbot 


5 




2 


2 


1 




1 




6 




4 




12 




7 


' 2 


19 


' 2 




18 


2 


17 


2 


10 


5 


10 












28 


7 


27 


2 


55 


9 


Wicomico 


2 














27 


2 


23 


1 


29 


2 


23 


1 


52 


3 


Worcester 


4 




2 












14 




17 




18 




19 




37 




Total Counties 


164 


12 


169 


10 


75 


11 


76 


12 


90 


5 


83 


2 


329 


28 


328 


24 


657 


52 


Out of State 


2 




2 




2 




2 




2 


1 


1 


2 


6 


1 


5 


2 


11 


3 


Baltimore City 


146 


28 


127 


14 


















146 


28 


127 


14 


273 


42 


Grand Total 


312 


40 


298 


24 


77 


11 


78 


12 


92 


6 


84 


4 


481 


57 


460 


40 


941 


97 




352 


322 


88 


90 


98 


8 


8 


538 


500 


1,038 




674 


178 




186 






1.038 









Facts About 1928 Enrollment, Especially Juniors 



287 



The junior enrollment in October, 1928, is lower than that for 
1927 by 14 in Garrett; by 13 in Allegany; by 12 in Harford; by 
7 in Anne Arundel ; by 4 in Calvert, Caroline, Carroll, Kent, and 
Prince George's ; by 3 in Frederick ; by 2 in Montgomery, and by 
1 in Worcester. Some of the decreases may be due to the dis- 
couragement of new entrants because of the failure of juniors 
of the preceding year to do work of sufficiently high grade to 
warrant further training by the normal school, and others may 
be due to the fact that positions near home were not available to 
graduates of the normal school of previous years. (See Table 
171.) 

While some counties had decreases in the junior class en- 
rollment from 1927 to 1928, the following had increases: Wash- 
ington, 12 ; Baltimore, 9 ; Howard, 8 ; Dorchester, Somerset, and 
Wicomico, 6; St. Mary's, 4; Queen Anne's, 2, and Cecil, 1. It is 
particularly gratifying to find normal school entrants from How- 
ard and St. Mary's Counties. (See Table 171.) 

Approximately 87 per cent of the juniors who entered the 
three normal schools in October, 1928, had taken the academic 
course in high school. At Towson 5 per cent, at Frostburg 7 per 
cent, and at Salisbuiy 4 per cent had taken the commercial 
course. The remainder had chosen the general or scientific, voca- 
tional or technical course. (See left side of Table 172.) 



TABLE 172 
1928 Normal School Entrants 



High School Course 


Per Cent Having 
Had Various High 
School Courses 


Third of 

Class 


Per Cent from Upper, 
Middle and Lower Third 
of Class 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Towson 


Frost- 
burg 


Salis- 
bury 


Academic and College Prepara- 
tory 


88.9 
4.8 
5.1 

.6 
.6 


85.3 
6.8 
6.8 


85.7 


'Upper 


49.7 
37.5 
7.4 
5.4 


37.5 
47.7 
11.4 
3.4 


38.8 
42.8 
15.3 
3.1 


Commercial 


4.1 
9.2 

1.0 


'Middle 


General 


Lower 


Scientific, Vocational or Techni- 
cal 


lUnclassified . . . 


Unclassified 


1.1 


Total 




352 


88 


98 


352 


88 


98 





High school principals were requested to certify whether nor- 
mal school entrants were in the upper, middle, or lower third of 
the graduating class of the high school from which they came. 
At Towson nearly one-half came from the upper third of the 
class, at Frostburg 37.5 per cent, and at Salisbury 39 per cent. 
From the middle third Towson had 38 per cent, Frostburg 48 
per cent, and Salisbury 43 per cent. From the lowest third of 
the class Towson drew only 7 per cent, Frostburg 11 per cent, 
and Salisbury 15 per cent. 



288 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



Withdrawal of Juniors Before the Opening of the Senior Year 

The normal schools were asked to report on the number of 
juniors who entered in September, 1927, who withdrew volun- 
tarily or at the request of the school so that they did not return 
as seniors in September, 1928. 



TABLE 173 



City 

Junior Enrollment 'September, 1927. 169 
Removal, Transfer, or Death _ 


Towson 

County 
202 
1 


Frost- 
burg 

104 
2 


Salis- 
bury 

90 


Withdrawals by Request 

Withdrawals Voluntarily „ _ 


21 
18 


23 
27 


12 
10 


1 
9 


Per Cent Withdrawn by Request 
Per Cent Withdrawn Voluntarily 


12.4 
10.7 


11.4 
13.4 


11.8 
9.8 


1.1 
10.0 


Total Per Cent Withdrawn..... 


23.1 


24.8 


21.6 


11.1 



Just under one-fourth, 24.1 per cent, of the junior entrants at 
Towson in September, 1927, withdrew before entrance upon the 
senior year. Nearly one-half of these withdrawals were re- 
quested and the remainder withdrew voluntarily upon advice 
from the school that their work would not permit completion 
of the course in two years, or that they were better fitted for 
occupations other than teaching, or for other reasons. At Frost- 
burg the withdrawals were slightly less, totalling 21.6 per cent. 
At Salisbury 11.1 per cent of juniors who entered in September, 
1927, withdrew. (See Table 173.) 

The Standard of Work Required by the Towson Normal School 

The following is an excerpt from a letter of the State Super- 
intendent to normal school principals under date of January 4, 
1929: 

"The product of the normal schools, according to the information I 
have at hand, is continuously improving in quality; it is vitally impor- 
tant that the students accepted from the high schools shall also be of 
higher quality, both in personality and in general ability. Notable 
progress in this direction is reported to have been made in the class 
entered in September, 1928. I am convinced that a higher standard 
of student personnel at entrance is of more importance at this time 
than is an extension of the normal school course to three years, pro- 
vided that a higher standard of accomplishment also is required after 
the student has entered, and that the unfit are eliminated, so far as 
possible, during the first half or first two-thirds of the first year. It 
will be poor service to the State for any normal school to graduate a 
student who, due to lack of ability or personality, or both, is almost 



Withdrawal of Normal School Juniors, Standards at Towson 289 



certain to fail. It is also extremely important that every graduate he 
plii/h-icalh/ fit, and this fitness should be attested by a thorough examina- 
tion by the school physician, not only on entrance, but also during the 
last half of the senior year. The good of the service and our State 
retirement system demand this." 

At Towson during the opening week of school all entering 
students are given a substantial battery of mental and scholastic 
tests. Students who apply for admission without the recommen- 
dation of their high school principal are tested as a separate 
group. (See page 113.) 

The Scholarship Committee at Towson feels that in practically 
all cases the high school principals are passing judgment not 
alone upon the scholastic achievement of students, but also on 
the more general traits that constitute character and aptitude, in 
granting or withholding their recommendations. The Normal 
School at Towson places a high value on these judgments, at the 
same time recognizing the possibility that some students in high 
school were not adequately adjusted and earned grades which 
did not truly represent their ability. It is felt, therefore, that 
students who fail to secure the high school principal's recom- 
mendation should nevertheless be given a chance to make good, 
if they apply for admission to the Normal School. 

At Towson the lowest 15 per cent in each test for the group of 
students who have been recommended by their principals are 
called together to meet with the subject-matter specialist to 
analyze the difficulties revealed by the tests. An outline of sug- 
gestions for self-study is suggested which, if systematically fol- 
lowed, will bring all except those more seriously handicapped up 
to a proper standard of work in the subject. These students are 
then challenged by the announcement that after two months 
they will be retested in the subjects in which they have demon- 
strated weakness, and that failure to show marked improve- 
ment may then be followed by a lengthening of the usual two- 
year course leading to graduation. 



The number retested who failed to make satisfactory improve- 
ment is instructed to continue self-study and is retested from 
time to time. These students will not be allowed to graduate 
until evidence of satisfactory accomplishment in the weak sub- 



Subject 



No. Retested 
Dec, 1928 



No. Retested 
Who Failed to Make 



Satisfactory Improvement 



Reading Comprehension 51 

Reading Speed 48 

Grammar „ 50 

Sentence Structure .„ 46 

Spelling , 52 

Arithmetic Abstract 34 

Arithmetic Concrete 42 



11 

11 
6 

12 
9 
1 

12 



290 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



ject or subjects is forthcoming. Over two-thirds of these handi- 
capped students are in the lowest third of entering students in 
academic intelligence. The remaining third, no doubt, represents 
some form of special subject-matter deficiency. 

Five of the students who had received the high school prin- 
cipal's recommendation before admission and who earned more 
than two failures during their first term were asked to withdraw 
after investigation of each case by the Scholarship Committee. 

Students who apply for admission to the normal school without 
the recommendation of their high school principals (56 in Sep- 
tember, 1928) are given a chance to make good. Their parents 
are notified by letter that they may enter on probation and 
register for a comprehensive entrance examination in the ele- 
mentary grade subjects. An average satisfactory to the Scholar- 
ship Committee of the school must be made in order to permit 
a non-recommended student to enter the school on probation for 
twelve weeks. After the September, 1928, test, the Scholarship 
Committee rejected 21 of the 56 non-recommended students, be- 
cause of poor scholarship. Of these, 15 were from Baltimore 
City and 6 from the counties. The remaining 35 non-recom- 
mended students were then allowed to register and enter on 
probation, with the understanding that they maintain an average 
grade of C in all first-term subjects. There were 12 who failed 
to maintain a grade of C, 9 from Baltimore City and 3 from the 
counties. The Scholarship Committee went into the complete 
record of each of these 12 students before they were asked to 
withdraw. 

The faculty at Towson recognizes that perhaps the two most 
influential elements in the making of a good teacher are those of 
character and personality. While little data of an objective 
nature exist to guide any faculty in estimating and in cultivating 
desirable traits of character and personality in students, these 
traits must be given their proper weight in the training period, 
even though it be done largely on a subjective basis. To that 
end the following forces are working : 

1. The Scholarship Committee, made up of the Principal, the Regis- 
trar, the Dormitory Director, the Physician and Psychiatrist, and 
five teaching members of the faculty. The committee meets weekly 
at a stated time in the Principal's office to formulate the general 
internal policies of the school, to consider and make recommendations 
regarding individual students referred for consideration by the fac- 
ulty, and to discuss ways and means of constantly bettering school 
morale. 

2. The Dormitory Director, in constant touch with the scholastic and 
the personal and the wider social life of half the students, has almost 
inexhaustible data regarding students, and she functions constantly 
in a way not complicated by academic issues to affect the personality 
and character of students. 



Standards of Work at Towson, Libraries at Towson and Frostburg 291 

3. The Advisory Council, consisting of all members of the faculty, 
each serving as personal and social adviser to a section of students 
(30 to 40). Students meet regularly with the faculty adviser and 
the advisers meet regularly as a group so that individual and group 
issues may be initiated by faculty and by students at any time and 
are assured of prompt consideration. 

4. Another very important force in affecting personality and char- 
acter traits of students is the practice of the faculty in interviewing 
students during office hours and after school. These interviews serve 
to bring faculty member and student nearer to a genuine understand- 
ing of each other. 

The noiTnal school desires, if possible, to obtain more data on 
its entering students than have been forthcoming in the past. It 
is felt that the high school which deals almost daily with students 
for a period of four years must inevitably have data on the per- 
sonality and character of students which would prove extremely 
useful to the normal school. As it is, the normal school must 
slowly accumulate from no beginning at all data about students 
which in some instances would be the decisive element in deter- 
mining a student's fitness for teaching. 

When a student is asked to withdraw from the Towson Normal 
School, a complete record of what the normal school has learned 
concerning that student is furnished to the high school principal. 
It is hoped that such information may assist the principal to fur- 
ther advise the student. 

It is recommended that high school principals be requested to 
furnish a rather full account of the character of an applicant 
on the third page of the application blank. In the past this space 
has been used usually to give information about the extra cur- 
ricular activities of the student. 

The Libraries at the Normal Schools 

The circulation of books and periodicals during the school 
year 1927-28 totalled 213,291 at Towson for overnight use or 
longer periods. This figure excludes books drawn for one class 
period or for part of a day only which were not taken from the 
Administration Building. Included in this total were 6,213 books 
and magazines used in the Elementaiy School Library and 2,626 
pamphlets, books, and pictures taken from the Reference Room. 
The number of volumes in the library after the addition of 1,550 
during the year totalled nearly 30,000. A display case for new 
books, a combination bookcase and settle, and lower juvenile size 
shelving for the children's room were added. The librarians 
have given book talks or told stories at a number of P. T. A. 
meetings. 

The new library room was opened at Frostburg in May. Its 
equipment, purchased from the Library Bureau, will care for 



292 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

the growth in books for the next five years. During the year 
1,076 books and 146 pamphlets were purchased or received as 
gifts for an expenditure of $1,954. The circulation of books 
from the main library and reserve room totalled 42,459, and in 
addition the children in the elementary school borrowed 1,947 
books over the week-ends. 

The Summer Sessions at Towson and Frostburg 

Of the 130 students enrolled for the 1928 summer session at 
Towson, 66 were normal school students and 64 were teachers. 
Harford and Somerset each sent 12 teachers, Dorchester 10, 
Carroll 6, Talbot 4, Anne Arundel, Baltimore, and Frederick 3 
each, Queen Anne's 2, and Calvert, Caroline, Cecil, Garrett, How- 
ard, Prince George's, Washington, and Worcester, 1 each. See 
Table 35, page 63, for 62 summer school attendants at Towson in 
1928 in service in the counties in October, 1928. Nine instructors, 
two members of the library staff, and the director of the dor- 
mitory were employed for the summer session. The State Board 
has ordered the discontinuance of the summer session at Towson 
after 1928, because all except 250 of the county teachers now hold 
first-grade certificates, and it is considered desirable that the 
normal school graduates continue their education in colleges and 
universities for advanced credit. 

At Frostburg, 45 of the 73 teachers enrolled for the summer 
session were from Garrett County, 13 from Allegany, and 15 
from other counties. There were 33 normal school students and 
5 other students, making a total enrollment of 111. Of the Frost- 
burg summer school enrollment, 55 held first-grade certificates 
and 7 advanced courses to meet their needs were offered. This 
group of teachers chose 70 per cent of their courses from the 
advanced courses offered. There were 10 members on the in- 
struction staff at the Frostburg summer school. See Table 35, 
page 63, for 65 summer school attendants at Frostburg in 1928 
in service in the counties during the school year 1928-29. 

Faculty and Training Centers 

The faculty at the regular session of the three normal schools 
in the fall of 1928 was the same as the preceding year, except for 
one fewer instructor at Frostburg. The office staff and the dor- 
mitory staff each increased by 1 at Towson and also at Frostburg. 
Towson increased its county training centers by 5 and the City 
centers by 2, Frostburg increased its training centers by 1, and 
Salisbury had 1 fewer than the year before. (See Table 174.) 

The distribution of the training centers by counties shows an 
increase of 3 schools and 5 teachers in Baltimore County, bring- 
ing the number of schools to 8 and the number of centers to 14, 



Summer Sessions, Faculty and Training Centers 



293 



TABLE 174 

Faculty at Maryland Normal Schools for White Students, Fall of 1928 



Principal 

Instructors 

Library 

Elementary Campus 

School 

Training Centers 

County 

Baltimore City . . . 

Office Staff 

Dormitory Staff 



Towson 


Frostburg 


Salisbury 


Total 


1 


1 


1 


3 


30.3 


8 


*7 


45.3 


5 


2 


**2 


9 


til 


4 


2 


17 


18 


9 


11 


38 


19 






19 


8 


2 


i 


11 


§7 


12 




10 



*Includes the director of training who is also principal of the elementary school, 
flncludes a principal, a helping teacher, a kindergartner and 8 grade teachers. 
""^Includes a junior stenographer doing part time office work. 
+The social director teaches a course in education pait time. 
"The social director teaches home economics part time. 

§Includes the director of dormitories, resident physician, house manager, dietician, assist- 
ant dietician, nurse and junior stenographer. 



and of 1 school and 2 teachers in Baltimore City, making the total 
8 schools with 19 teachers cooperating with Towson as train- 
ing centers. Anne Arundel and Harford each continued to per- 
mit the use of two teachers in one school for use as training 
centers by Towson seniors. At Frostburg 9 one-teacher schools 
were available in Allegany County — one more than last year. 
Salisbury had 7 schools and 10 teachers cooperating from Wicom- 
ico County and 1 one-teacher school from Somerset. (See Table 
175.) 

TABLE 175 

Training Centers for Maryland Normal Schools, Fall of 1928 



Number of Number of 

Normal School at County Co-operating Schools Teachers 

Towson Baltimore 8 14 

Anne Arundel 1 2 

Harford 1 2 

Total Counties 10 18 



Baltimore City 8 19 

Campus School 1 11 

Frostburg Allegany 9 9 

Campus School 1 4 

Salisbury Wicomico 7 10 

Somerset 1 1 

Campus School 1 2 



294 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 176 

Financial Statement 1927-28. 
Maryland State Normal School at Towson 



NORMAL SCHOOL SUMMER SESSION 
1927-28 1928 



Purposes Instruction Dormitory Instruction Dormitory 

EXPENDITURES 

Administration : $8 , 807 . 90 

Busness $3,865.58 

Educational 16,943.18 

Instruction: 

Salaries 109,884.02 $6,145.00 

Other than salaries 13,525.96 1,258.87 

Operation 20,041.84 36,474.38 1,425.17 $3,042.62 

Food 57,209.32 4,282.12 

Maintenance 11,458.20 10,742.13 

Transportation 5,279.18 2,305.07 129.10 

Health 4,138.36 



Total cost $180,997.96 $119,677.16 $8,829.04 $7,453.84 



RECEIPTS 



Receipts from students $13 , 713 . 00 $62 , 393 . 00 $363 .00 $3 , 150 . 00 

Refunds on bonds 150.00 150.00 

Receipts from State 167,134.96 57,134.16 8,466.04 4,303.84 

COST PER STUDENT AT TOWSON 



Average number of students 734 378 tl30 70 

Total expenditure per student $270.14 $316.61 $67.91 $106.48 

$586.75 $174.39 

Average payment per student $20.48 $165.06 $t2.79 $45.00 

$185.54 $t47.79 

Cost per student to State $249.44 $151.15 $t65.12 $61.48 

$400.59 $tl26.60 



tSummer school students who were normal school students, 66 in number, paid no 
registration fee ; those who lived in the dormitory paid $30 for board during the summer 
session. 



Cost Per Student at Normal School 

The total cost of instruction per day school student at the 
normal schools was $270 at Towson, $280 at Frostburg, and $309 
at Salisbury. At Towson and Salisbury this amount included the 
support of the campus elementary training school, which at 
Frostburg was taken care of almost entirely by Allegany County. 
Dormitory costs per student at Towson were considerably higher 
than at Frostburg and Salisbury. At Towson the total cost per 
student for dormitory expenses was $317, while at Frostburg it 
was $232 and at Salisbury $253. The number of dormitory stu- 
dents at Towson, 378, is much larger than the number at Frost- 
burg, 73, and the number at Salisbury, 135. The wages of the 
kitchen workers, cleaners, laundry people, etc., near Baltimore 
are probably considerably higher than they are for similar serv- 
ice at Salisbury and Frostburg, and the Towson dormitory was 



Cost Per Student at Each Normal School 



295 



TABLE 177 
Financial Statements 1927-28 
for Frostburg and Salisbury Normal Schools 



MARYLAND STATE 
STATE NORMAL SCHOOL NORMAL SC:H0()L 

AT FROSTBURG AT SALISBURY 

REGULAR YEAR SUMMER SESSION REGULAR YEAR 

Purposes Instruction Dormitory Instruction Dormitory Instruction Dormitory 

EXPENDITURES 

Administration: 

Business $2,000.00 $2,500.00 $2,655.28 

Educational 7,700.00 5,055.27 

Instruction: 

Salaries 28,396.17 $4,000.00 f $24, 475. 00 

Other than Salaries. . 2,900.00 204.23 \ 4,471.82 

Operation and Mainte- 
nance 13,322.54 6,652.07 800.00 14,899.60 22.481.76 

Food 7,776.47 1,000.00 11,649.21 



Total $54,318.71 $16,928.54 $4,204.23 $1,800.00 $51 ,556 . 97$$34 , 130 . 97 

RECEIPTS 

Receipts from students .. . $5,820.00 $10,949.72 $1,110.00 $900.00 $2,505.00 $18,710.86 

Miscellaneous receipts ... . 887.08 

Receipts from State 48,498.71 5,978.82 3,094.23 900.00 49,051.97 14,533.03 

Number of students 194 73 111 20 167 135 

Total expenditure per 

student $279.99 $231.90 $37.88 $90.00 $308.72 $252.82 



$511.89 $127.88 $561.54 

Average payment per 

student $30.00 $150.00 $10.00 $45.00 $15.00 *$138.60 



$180.00 $55.00 $153.60 

Cost per student to state . . $249.99 $81.90 $27.88 $45.00 $293.72 t$107.65 



$331.89 $72.88 $t401.37 



*Of the resident students, 95 paid the regular fee of $180, but 40 who roomed in Salis- 
bury paid only $72 for board. 

tExcludes receipts from peach crop — $6.57 per dormitory student. 

not filled to capacity. Towson has the full-time services of a 
physician and nurse, while Frostburg and Salisbury call for these 
services only when an emergency arises. 

Fees from students vary at the three institutions. Frost- 
burg, having chiefly a day school enrollment, has a larger fee 
for day students than the other institutions, namely, $30. Tow- 
son's charge is $20, and Salisbury's $15. The dormitory fee at 
Towson is $180, but the men students who live in Towson but 
board at the school pay only $72 in fees to the school. This 
brings the average payment to $165. The dormitory fee at 
Frostburg is $150. At Salisbury, although students who room 
and board in the dormitory pay $180, those rooming outside (40) 
pay only $72 for board, which made the average received per 
student $139. (See Tables 176 and 177.) 

The cost to the State for each day student at Towson was $249, 
at Frostburg $250, and at Salisbury $294. Cost to the State per 
dormitory student was $401 at Towson, $332 at Frostburg, and 
$408 at Salisbury. (See Tables 176 and 177.) 



296 1928 Report of State Department of Education 

The cost of the 1928 summer sessions at Towson and Frost- 
burg, which enrolled 130 and 111 students, respectively, were 
$68 for instruction costs at Towson and $38 at Frostburg. Reg- 
istration fees paid by day students at Towson averaged $3, since 
nearly half were regular normal school students, who paid no 
fee. At Frostburg day students paid a fee of $10. The cost to 
the State per day student was therefore $65 at Towson and $28 
at Frostburg. There were 70 summer school students at Towson 
and 20 at Salisbury who lived in the dormitory. The total cost 
per summer school student of board and room in the dormi- 
tory for six weeks was $106 at Towson and $90 at Frostburg. 
The payment of $45 by each student in each school reduced the 
cost to the State for dormitory service to $61 at Towson and $45 
at Frostburg. The total cost to the State for each summer ses- 
sion student who lived in the dormitory was therefore $127 at 
Towson and $73 at Frostburg. (See Tables 176 and 177.) 

Inventories of the Normal Schools 

The following data show the inventories of the three normal 
schools as of September 30, 1928. 

TABLE 178 



Towson Frostburg Salisbury 

Land $ 98,147 $ 25,000 $ 16,000 

Buildings - 1,023,065 285,000 634,065 

Equipment 154,531 15,000 44,175 

Livestock 1,174 



$1,276,917 $325,000 $694,240 

Expenditures from Bond Issues for Frostburg and Salisbury 

At Frostburg, approximately $66,000 was expended in con- 
structing the new auditorium-gymnasium and over $5,000 was 
used in the purchase of lots, recording and preparing deeds, and 
paving. At Salisbury, $235,000 of the $300,000 bond issue was 
spent up to September 30, 1928, for the central portion of the 
new building. There were no expenditures at Towson. See lower 
part of page 302. 



Cost Per Student, Inventories, Capital Outlay, Retirement 297 



NEW TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM IN OPERATION 

The new Maryland Teachers' Retirement System began to 
operate effectively with the opening of the school year, 1927-28. 
For the year which ended in July, 1928, there were 4,177 county 
teachers who joined, 84 per cent of the staff eligible to member- 
ship. The counties varied from having 95 per cent of the staff 
join in Prince George's, 94 per cent in Cecil, 92 per cent in Balti- 
more County, and 91 per cent in Allegany, to the following coun- 
ties, in which less than 75 per cent of the staff joined: St. 
Mary's, 69 per cent; Washington, 71 per cent; Anne Arundel, 
72 per cent; Dorchester, 73 per cent; Talbot and Wicomico, 74 
per cent. (See Table 179.) 

The deductions from teachers' salaries totalled $240,618 for 
the first year of operation of the system. 

The system carried on its rolls 284 teachers retired on the old 
basis, with a $400 annual pension at a total cost of $111,630, and 
49 members retired on the new basis at a cost of $20,898. Nine 
teachers who died in service received in death benefits $5,151, 
and $360 which they had contributed themselves. Teachers who 
left the service withdrew $4,106 which they had contributed 
themselves. 

The expense of administration was $8,176, which included 
the cost of furnishing and equipping the office. 

The State appropriation available to meet expenditures for the 
year ending September 30, 1928, was $189,000. For the year end- 
ing September 30, 1929, an appropriation of $197,000 is avail- 
able from the Public School and supplemental budget. 

The first printed Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of 
the Teachers' Retirement System, a pamphlet of 22 pages, was 
sent to all members in January, 1929. 



298 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE 179 

MARYLAND TEACHERS' RETIREMENT SYSTEM 

Number of Members and Amount Contributed to Annuity Savings Fund 
School Year 1927-28 by Counties and Institutions 



Number and Per Cent of Staff Eligible to Membership 





Who Are 


Members 










Members 




Amount 








Per 


Contributed 


J- 

County 


T 1.* 1. 1.1 ^ 

or Institution 


No. 


Cent 


School Year 










County : 










Allegany _. 




408 


90.7 


$27,426.34 


Anne Arundel 




,. 202 


72.4 


11,038.12 


Baltimore 




_ 468 


92.3 


36,062.20 


Calvert 




59 


89.4 


2,609.57 


Caroline 




104 


79.4 


13,106.97 


Carroll 




238 


89.5 


5,144.36 






150 


93 8 


8 686 58 


Charles 




98 


85.2 


4,110.65 


Dorchester. 




135 


73.4 


6,528.31 


Frederick 




282 


83.2 


15,968.79 






, ,_ 17o 


8o.7 


8,811.11 


TT C 1 








o,oy I. (So 


T T 1 




f\f\ 


o o o 

oo.o 


A CCA AO 

4,oo4.uo 


TT X 




lUZ 


OO. i 


o,oy4.zi 






240 


87.9 


13,563.52 


Prince George's 




329 


95.4 


17,922.79 




88 


84.6 


5,265.12 


St. Mary's 




64 


68.8 


2,738.39 


Somerset 




138 


85.2 


6,785.45 


Talbot 




93 


73.8 


5,211.08 


Washington 




277 


70.5 


16,914.08 


Wicomico _ 




149 


74.1 


7,783.40 






131 


80.4 


6,085.37 






4,177 


83.8 


$240,617.84 


Normal School: 














38 


61.3 


5,502.02 






5 


35.7 


856.35 


Salisbury 




9 


64.3 


1,382.13 






11 


100.0 


634.81 



Department : 

State Department of Education 

Md. Public Library Advisory Commission. 
Md. Teachers' Retirement System 



Other School; 

Md. Training School for Boys. 

Montrose School 

Md. School for Deaf 

Rosev^ood _ -. 



63 


62.4 


$8,375.31 


20 


100.0 


3,837.48 


2 


100.0 


296.92 


2 


100.0 


124.22 


24 


100.0 


$4,258.62 


17 


70.8 


1,436.55 


7 


70.0 


765.14 


25 


92.6 


1,999.35 


5 


100.0 


680.83 


54 


81.8 


$4,881.87 



Grand Total 



4,318 



83.4 



$258,133.64 



STATISTICAL TABLES 

No. Subject Page 

Financial Statements _ 300 

I School Buildings, Classrooms, and Seats _ 303 

II Number of Schools 301 

III Total Enrollment _ 305 

JV Non-Public School Elnrollment. 306 

V Number Belonging ; Per Cent of Attendance 307 

VI Days in Session ; Aggregate Days of Attendance ; Average Daily Attendance.... 308 

VII Non-Promotions by Grades and Sex — White Elementary Schools „ 309 

VIII Badge Tests— White Schools _ 310 

IX Teams and Entrants— White Schools 311 

X Badge Tests— Colored Schools _ „ 312 

XI Teams and Entrants — Colored Schools _ 313 

XII Number of Teaching Positions „ 314 

Xm Certificates of White Elementary Teachers, October. 1928 _ 315 

XIV Certificates of Teachers in White One-Teacher Schools, October, 1928 316 

XV Certificates of Teachers in White Two-Teacher Schools, October, 1928 317 

XVI Certificates of Colored Teachers, October, 1928 _ 318 

XVn Average Number of Pupils Belonging Per Teacher, 1927-28 „... 319 

XVIII Average Salary Per Teacher, 1927-28 320 

XIX Receipts From State, 1927-28 - 321 

XX Receipts From All Sources, 1927-28 322 

XXI Total Disbursements, 1927-28 323 

XXII D i.sbur. semen ts for General Control — „ 324 

XXIII Disbursements for Instruction and Operation _ 325 

XXIV Disbursements for Maintenance, Auxiliary Agencies, and Fixed Charges 326 

XXV Disbursements for Debt Service and Capital Outlay 327 

XXVI Disbursements for White Elementary Schools _ 328 

XXVII Disbursements for White One-Teacher Schools .^29 

XXVIII Disbursements for White Two-Teacher Schools _ _ 330 

XXIX Disbursements for White Graded Schools 331 

XXX Disbursements for Junior High Schools „ 332 

XXXI Disbursements for White High Schools 333 

XXXII Disbursements for Colored Elementary Schools _ 334 

XXXIII Disbursements for Colored High Schools „ 335 

XXXIV Cost, Enrollment. Attendance, Graduates, Normal School Entrants, Courses 

in Individual High Schools 336 

XXXV Enrollment by Subject in Individual High Schools _ 342 



299 



300 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 
For Fiscal Year Ended September 30, 1928 





State 




Fees an 


d 


Total 




Total 


Account 


Appro- 




Other 




Available 




Disburse- 




priation 




Receipt 


3 






ments 


Maryland State Nor- 
















mal School, Towson. 


$237,039. 


00 


$83,097. 


02 


$320,136. 


02 


$320,136.02 


Maryland State Nor- 








mal School, Salis- 
















bury 


63,585. 


00 


23,046. 


19 


86,631. 


19 


86,631.19 


Maryland State Nor- 
















mal School, Frost- 
















burg 


58,463. 


00 


22,543 


52 


81,006. 


52 


81,006.52 


Maryland Normal and 
















Industrial School, 
















Bowie 


38,170. 


00 


15,326 


51 


53,496. 


51 


53,496.51 


State Department of 
















Education 


66,900 


00 


6,328 


65 


73,228. 


65 


73,228.65 


Maryland Public Li- 
















brary Advisory 
















Commission 


9,249 


00 


3,394 


69 


12,643. 


69 


12,643.69 


Bureau of Educational 
















Measurements 


12,000 


00 


3,921 


57 


15,921. 


57 


15,921.57 


Bureau of Publica- 
















tions and Printing. . 


7,000 


00 


2,238 


18 


9,238. 


18 


9,238.18 


Vocational Education . 


15,000 


00 


6,922 


39 


21,922 


39 


21,922.39 


Physical and Health 
















Education 


15,000 


00 






15,000 


00 


15,000.00 


Extension Courses for 












Teachers 


4,000 


00 






4,000 


00 


4,000.00 


Consultant Architect. . 


1,500 


00 






1,500 


00 


1,500.00 


State Board of Edu- 
















cation 


1 (\(\(\ 
1 , uuu 


uu 






1 nnn 
1 , uuu 


nn 
uu 




Examination and Cer- 














tification of 
















Teachers 


500 


00 


13 


10 


513 


10 


513 . 10 


State Aid to Ap- 
















proved High Schools 


458.130 


00 






458,130 


00 


458,130.00 


Part Payment of Cer- 
















tain Salaries 


184,000 


00 






184,000 


00 


184,000.00 


State Aid to Colored 














Industrial Schools . . 


30,750 


00 






30,750 


00 


30,750.00 


Free Textbooks 


200,000 


00 






200,000 


00 


200,000.00 


Materials of Instruc- 












tion 


50,000 


.00 






50,000 


00 


50,000.00 


Census and Attend- 












ance 


1,900,000 


.00 






1,900,000 


00 


1,900,000.00 


Equalization Fund. . . . 


414,074 


.00 




414,074 


00 


414,074.00 


Totals 


$3,766,360 


.00 


$166,831 


,82 


$3,933,191 


82 


$3,933,191.82 



Financial Statements 



301 



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T-H CO J-H OJ CO ^ CO i-H r-H 


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t:~ 
CO 
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CO 


2,029 


iOCDOOCDUiCJ-^-^CDOrH-^COOUOC^-t-COOSt^C^COCO 
OOOOCO-^lOCOt^t-Oi'rfCDOOlOCDOlT-HCOC^CD-^OJOlOO 

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CO 


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co 


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304 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



o 
o 

■So 



Schools Closed by 
Consolidation or 
by Low 
Attendance 




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siooqos q3!H 

paAojddy 


ORED 






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Elementary 
chools Havin 


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CO o> ->t ^ OS in «c in o o X o in «o in t- «o ^ t- 1- ■'1' i-i «o 

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Number of Schools, Enrollment 



305 







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Total 
Colored 




Senior High and Junior 
High (Grade 9) 


Total ^ 


:hools 


Girls 


w 
Q 


Boys 


COLO 


tary. Vocational, 
gh (Grades 7 and 8) 


Total 




Girls 




Elemen 
Junior Hi 


Boys 




Total 
White 




Junior 

9) 


Total 


w 
h:) 
O 
O 
X 
u 

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Senior High and 
High (Grade 


Girls 


Boys 


WHI 


Elementary, Vocational, 
Junior High (Grades 7 and 8) 


Total 




Girls 




Boys 



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to 
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c- m to to CO CO • ■ 
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cooeginxoioixtoot-xtooioixu':tct-t--^coo 
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X ej 
in CO 


— to X X in CO 
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to eg C5 CO eg 


eg Ol 

X CO 


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TP 


Ol 

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to to 


m in X X 


eg — 

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cooito^in — c-eoc-t-tooico-^cgco-^'^c-totoot^ 




• • -^r Ol in CO 

• • c- CO eg m 

• • in in CO eg 


Ol eg 

Ol Ol 
X t- 


b 
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eg eg 


eg eg ^ ^ 


1-^ i-( 1—11-1 




• • CO CO X X 




eo 
eo 


t- 

Ol CO 


toXTfocg'ti-iin'^t~i-ii-<i-<!Ocoxcoinoi'3'Xxoi 
tococoo-^cocooi'-cooicoot--inintooxeg-ftooi 
eoinTj«^cotOTri-iTj<oieoinegegtot>egi-ieocooiinco 




■ • to Ol to to 

■ • t- in eg Ol 

• • C- t- O Ol 


eg in 
xt-^ 


Ol 
X 
X 


eg eg 

,—1 »— c 








• — 1 ^ I* CO 


in in 


f— ( 


CO t> 
to 


eginoiegxto^c-cO'^cotoo^coxtooeooiOiTji-- 
xrj<otOTj'-ocoincooixegx^to--t>x--t~coineg 
oiTfcg M in CO CO c- eg i<i< 1-1 eg in to -H coegt-Tfco 




• • X O Ol t- 

■ • Ol X Ol in 

■ t-t-egN 


o> eo 
o o 


»— < 


Ol Ol 


1— t 






• • 1— 1 1-H 


to to 


in 
< 


CO 
CO to 
X in 


tooitooi'rj<coX'^coo-<j"Oi--t-^'^comcoxuoX'i' 
X — xxoiegegcoi-ixoe<>xoxo^oc-toinc;x 
toooix-^'^'^toi-iocoinotoxcgxcgmoieoonn 


X eg 
in CO 
TT c; 


— to »t Ol ■ • 

Ol X CO eg • ■ 
t- to to in • ■ 


eo c- 
X -t 
X eg 


o 

CO 


Ol t~ 

o o 


^ to in cim eo 1-1 eo X -^f rf e^ 1-1 in j> 1-1 ^ ^ CO eg 


X 

to to 




C Ol 

X c~ 


to 

X 
»— < 


52,937 
51,834 


--to-<i<xcocot^oxegeg'i'Oito-^oegeg'*xxtoci 
•^ii<in'3>xooin — coeg-^toxoegt-O'T'Tt-'^cg 
t-oitO'^i-'totoc~inxoego>t-XTjiX!Oegoiinoicg 

inegt> ^eg^ i-ieocgeg egco i-i m^-^ 


eg — 

to X 

CO eg 
CO CO 


CO CO 'I' CM • • 

— — X CO • • 

CO eg c- c~ • • 
in in • • 


Ol to 
in eg 

to 

Ol X 

eo CO 


o 
to 
TP 

o 

Ol 


C- Ol 

Ol eg 

X C-- 

to in 
m in 


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•*c~co-^--egcgxoi — X — ^cgt-XTj<t-cgcgc-toto 
oiocO'Tcoxxxinegcgco^xot-oitocooooico 

in CO X 1-1 eg ^ .-i eg eg — i coco ,_i«in-H^ 
•«— ♦ 


to — 
m 

CO CO 


X CO o t- ■ • 
t- c~ in OJ ■ • 

T ■«? X t- • • 
;3 ... . 

m lO • ■ 

a -a 


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Tji to 

— o 


o 
in 
eo 

CO 
O) 

-a 



c 

M - •- 



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306 



1928 Report of State Department of Education 



TABLE IV 



Number of Pupils Reported Enrolled in Maryland Non-Public Elementary 
and Secondary Schools, School Year Ending June 30, 1928 



County 


WHITE 


COLORED 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enrollment 


No. 

of 

Teachers 


Elemen- 
tary 


Commer- 
cial 
and 

Secondary 


Secondary 
School 
Gradu- 
ates 


No. 
of 
Schools 


Enroll- 
ment 


No. 

of 

Teachers 


tCATHOLic Parish and Private Schools and Private Institutions, Fall and Winter — 192 

7 


Allegany 


8 
1 
12 
2 
2 
7 
1 
2 
4 
2 
4 
9 
1 


2,120 
271 

1,898 
198 
152 
594 
75 
317 
493 
98 
522 
894 
368 


111 




64 
6 
60 
9 
14 
42 
4 
8 
15 
17 
16 
34 
7 








Anne Arundel 




1 


104 


2 




73 




Carroll 
















1 
2 


143 
27 


2 
2 




150 


























1 


53 


2 


Montgomery 


98 




Prince George's. . . . 
St. Mary's 




1 
1 


72 
99 


2 
3 


101 








Total Counties. . . . 
Baltimore City. . . . 

Total State 












55 
64 


8,000 
27,285 


533 
2,143 




296 
723 


7 
16 


498 
•1,701 


13 
55 






119 


35,285 


2,676 




1,019 


23 


2.199 


68 






*Non-Sectarian Private Schools 


Anne Arundel 


1 
3 
2 




92 
229 
354 

40 


26 
13 
14 
8 


8 
32 
45 








Baltimore 


115 
263 
18 
26 








Cecil 








Howard 








Montgomery 


5 
14 
15 








St. Mary's 


138 
58 


28 
8 








Washington 


33 








Total Counties. . . . 
Baltimore City. . . . 

Total State 








11 


455 
908 


911 

355 


97 
70 


119 
84 




















18 


1,363 


1,266 


167 


203 

















fFigures furnished by courtesy of Father John I. Barrett, Superintendent of Catholic. 
Schools. 

♦Figures furnished by principals of private schools. 
"Include 19 secondary pupils. 



Non-Public School EnrollmexNt, No. Belonging, 9f Attendance 307 



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311 



Total 
Relays 
Girls 


H 


eg *^ lO 00 lo t— o in c3 in eg cc co in o 05 oc i ^ ^ t— t— oo o 
eoeomoicor-'^ocoooinxoo — ooegooooin — t-t~' ooo cm tci m 
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X to eo o o 

lO — CM .-1 1-1 t- 

t~ to 


Obstacle 
Race 


Girls 


U 


ooooAoeoo>(eaoc>(oo>oinaoooo-^9>oocMao'vo> 
•^eo<oc^t-<Oi-i'»)ieo'^CMcoeoe^inir«ocMeo'<i'cgeceo 


X 

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Run and 
Catch 


Girls 




eo-^ — ot-'-<eooi«ooioo—'005oooooitD — t~<-iOi 
•«rooosi-ie-t-<oo>t~ojeooowoooot-cg's'inoit-in 


2.027 
1,430 

41.8 
64 




rroooocMoocDc~oot~0'«s"oovoc~'-<oooeoininot>io 


t- X ^ X • 

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Flag 

Relay 


Girls 




^CMinas'^ininot-CMC-^c-t-inin-^coincMin-TO 
Tj'^05inoocoto«o^'«j«ooc-aoo'^t-CM'^ovooot~oo 
in eo in »-h co •-< cm ri eo co "-i i-i i-h i—cm 


4,619 
3,660 

26.2 

83 
98 

*15 




oo>— i0500iT}'t~'tDcginCT5c— cs^cgoocgm^vDooooc— 
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i— eo to OS o o 

tot- 1-t 

IT eo eo ♦ 

CM 


Total 
Games 


W 


inot-inmeomoscM'^asintOTfoot-Tfeo — oootoo 
oO'-iooinmeot-ooeoinoi'-'tD'^j'-^eooint— eoo<oos 
ocMOJinss'^t~inc-c-ini-ic-«Dt-a>«'^t~05^<-"to 

CM ^ •— 1 r1 i-<^ .— 1 •— 1 1 •— 1 


24,854 
23,337 

6.5 

3,114 
2,987 

4.2 


H 


oeoooi—'OOtocoMOinoociineot-inTrTjiooxinuo 
inCT>'»s<eot-'-'inTrincM-^Xin'^eO'>*tDeoin^t-XTj' 


1,834 
1 ,702 

7.7 

214 

207 

3 3 


Basket 
Ball 


Mixed 




C-Ot- • -Oi^ ■ . ■ OS rl" CM «0 C- «0 • ■ O W O -h • 

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CMt- CM 

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in ... 


Soccer 


Boys 




oot--"<r^oint~ot-o«eoosWLnincMt-^^eoointD 
eotoeo5artt~inc~t-ost-i-iostDt-'^c~cox — CMeot- 

CM"— I"— ii— 1 1— (1— 1 I— ii— 1 1— 11— 


2,520 
2,497 

.9 

1,604 
1,577 

1.7 




«'V«ococ~c-X'v^oint-voeo-^oineM«otD^Dc-T}" 


CM CM XT X 

T r" o o 


Field 
Ball 


Girls 


K 


f-i t- o t- i-i • ■ «D o o ■ OS o <o ■ 1-1 in X in o OS eo OS 
^CMeom^ • -to^ox c-tom •eot-'^ini-ix^vo 

1-^ f-H ^ • • 1-H • • 1-H ^ »M 


1,627 
1 ,527 

6.6 

794 
582 

36 




ocg«oeo«o • ••^^os ■m'^eo • x m cm eo t- 
1—1 


m CM to X -H 
OS X 1-1 ^ eo 1* 


Baseball 


Boys 




•w -w^ • 1-1 CM in CM eo TT o o • t~ t~ — x eo «£> 
•t- -eoc- • eo eo CM OS m t- o «o ■ t> «o cm to o «> x 


1.317 
1 ,329 

*.9 




■ in cMto ■ X CO eo -"i" eo t- «o ■<ii< • « m co to m to m 


CO o eo 

osos ... 
eo ... 


Volley 
Ball 


Girls 




•^CM'-'^CMeototOi-ic~i-ieooseotoccMwC--<3'^meo 
'-'■^oseomi-it-rr'^osc-xinin'^OTreointOTj'toin 

1— 1 »-H 1-^1-^1—1 


1,667 
1 ,493 

11.7 

203 
68 

198.5 




r-TrXeoinr-iX'^'^xtoxtO'vcMOs-^cO'^toeotOTj" 


— in OS CO to c- 
in eo • ^ 


Hit 
Ball 


Girls 




OS ^ to to CM to • to O OS O CM to to to CM OS CM O 

oseoxcMtoincM eotOTfuocMinc-TrtocMTrcoeototo 


1,092 
817 

33 6 




X CM to CM in -"I" CM • eo in 00 CM eo in eo in CM eo eo eo in 


eg » T3> 

ooto ... 
eo ... 


Touch- 
down 
Pass 


Girls 




eo OS rf o t- 1-1 eo ■ tj« tt to ^ c -"r cm m c~ o eo x t~ cm x 
to 1-1 r-( lo o eo • eo cm CM eo eo CM to Tj> cm in in in 
1— < 


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in eo • • 
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lO CM "-I lo OS eo ■ eo CM CM eo CO CM to in rr CM eo m TT -^j" 


XX 


Speed 


Boys 




•"S'CMXoc-inTreooin-'jictoxotocMintoocoox 
tooininosin-Tjiuoosint-Xint-^-inLnTroot-moin 
»-ieoeo « •-" CM CO 


2,418 
21 .8 




i-ieotO'^t-cMeo-*c--HintO'»j'toost~^'Vtoin«c-'^ 

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to X eo 

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Field 
Dodge 


TS 
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CM t~ in in OS • • o ■ comxcMeo • • ■ cm x 
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Circle 
Dodge 
Ball 


Boys, Girls, 
Mixed 




t~toocMinxTfincMtot~xcotooxincgcgintoeocM 
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CM X CO o in 
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H 


Tj'toosotOTfCM-'j'Ost-ot-eMt-'^eoxto — t-cx-"*- 
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m 1— 1 to m CO m 
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♦ 


COUNTY 


Allegany 

Anne Arundel 


Baltimore 

Cecil 

I )orchester 

Carrj'tt 

Harford 

K.nt 

Montgomery 

Prince (ieorge's . . . . 

Som«'rset 

Talbot 

Wasliint'f on ... 


Wicf)mico 

Worcester 

Total Counties 

1928 

1927 

Per cent of increase 

Baltimore City 

1927 

Per cent of increase 





91 

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188.5 


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$5,720.00 


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$14,565.50 


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4) 

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o 



n o 

HH 



U C 5h c/: v: C 



■ I. 



'~ 

^ C u 3 



INDEX 



A 

Absence : 

Causes of, 37 

Colored schools, 165-169, 176-177 

White elementary schools, 28-38 

White high schools, 104-105 
Academic course, high schools, 336-341 

Colored schools, 178 
Administration, 252, 269-271 
Agriculture, vocational : 

Cost, 157, 159-160 

Enrollment in, 119-122, 155, 159, 342-347 

Failures in, 123-124 

Projects in, 156-158 

Schools having, 153-154, 342-347 

Teachers of, 126 
Aid, State, Federal, and other: 

Colored schools, 191-192. 336-341 

Equalization fund, 225-226, 321 

Extension courses, 64-65, 182-183 

Federal, 157, 159, 161-162, 321-322 

High schools, 143-144, 336-341 

Rosenwald fund, 191-192 

State, 224-225, 321 

Vocational education, 157, 159-162 
Appropriations : 

County, 247-248, 322 

State, 321 

Approved high schools, 138-142, 336-347 
Art, enrollment taking: 

Colored, 179 

White, 119 
Assessments, 248-250 
Athletics, 202-204, 310-313 

Colored schools, 196-197, 209-211, 312-313 

Expenditures, 207-209 

White schools, 204-207, 209-211, 310-311 
Attendance, 24-25, 307-308 
Cause for failure, 51-53 
Colored schools, 162-163, 165-167, 175-177, 

307-308, 334-335 
Elementary schools, white, 28-38, 307-308, 

328-331 

High schools, white, 104-105, 307-308, 333, 

336-341 
Index of, 38 
Officers, 272, 324 
Summer schools: 

Colored teachers, 182 
White elementary teachers, 63-64 
White high teachers, 130-131 
Auxiliary agencies, expenditures and cost 
per pupil, 323, 326 
Colored, 334-335 

White elementary, 90-93, 231, 328-331 
White high, 150-153, 231, 333 
Badge test entrants and winners: 
Colored, 196-197, 312 



B 

White, 204-205, 310 
Baltimore City schools: 
Capital outlay, 239-240 
Colored, 179-180 
Evening, 213 
Summer schools, 212 
Belonging, average number, 24-25, 163, 307 
By grades or years: 

Colored, 169-170, 175-176, 336-341 
White, 39-42, 336-341 
Colored schools, 163, 307, 334-341 
Elementary schools, white, 39-42, 80-82, 

307, 328-331 
High schools, white, 175, 307, 333. 

336-341 
Per teacher, 319 

Colored, 186-187, 319 
White elementary, 80-82, 319 
White high, 144-145, 319 
Proportion in high school : 
Colored, 175-176 
White, 106-107 
Board of Education, State, 2 
Bond issues, school, 240-241 
Bonds outstanding, 240-242 
Books and materials of Instruction, ex- 
penditures and cost per pupil : 
White elementary, 89-90, 231 
White high, 149-150, 231 
Boys to girls : 
Graduates, 42-44 
In each grade, 39, 41 
Non-promotions, 45-50 
Ratio in high school, 107-108 
Budgets : 

County, 247-251 

School, 224-228, 247-248, 250-251 
Tax, 247-251 
Buildings : 
Cost, 238-240 

Colored schools, 191, 238-239 
White elementary, 90, 99, 238-239 
White high, 150, 153, 238-239 
Number and capacity, 303-304 
Bulletins, State Department, 266-267 
By-laws, changes in, 214-219 

c 

Capacity of schools, 303 

Colored, 192 
Capital outlay, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 224, 238-240, 323, 327 
Colored schools, 191, 238-239, 334-335 
White elementary schools, 90, 99, 238-239, 
328-331 

White high schools, 150, 153, 238-239, 333 



Index 



349 



C— (Continued) 

Causes of : 
Absence, 37 
Late entrance : 

Colored, 166-168 

White. 33-35 
Non-promotions, 50-53 
ResiKnation of teachers, 74-76, 136-137 
Teacher turnover. 72-78, 134-136, 183-185 
Withdrawal : 

Colored. 168-169 

White. 35-37 
Certificates : 
Cancelled, 215 
Number issued. 219-220 
Provisional, 221, 315-318 
Renewed, 215 

Certification of teachers, 214-222, 315-318 
Check of, 61, 127-128, 220-221 
Colored. 180-181, 318 
New reKulations for, 214-219 
White elementary. 55-62, 315-317 
White high, 127-130 

Certification score : 

Colored elementary, 180-181 
White elementary, 60-62 
Classes : 

Evening. 161-162 
Size of, 319 

Colored, 186-187, 319 
White elementary. 80-82. 319 
White high. 144-145, 319 
Special, 53-55 
Vocational. 153-162 
Clerks. 272-273 
Closing of schools. 97, 304 
Colored. 194-195, 304 
White, 24, 26, 304 
College entrance, certification required, 

113-114 
Colleges : 

Attended for summer courses, 63-64, 182 
Per cent of high school graduates enter- 
ing, 113-116, 178 
Colored schools: 
Aid. 191-192 

Approved high schools, 138-142. 336-347 
Attendance. 162-163. 165-167. 307-308, 

334-335 
Badge tests, 196-197 
Capital outlay, 191, 238-239 
Cost per pupil. 189-191, 232 
Enrollment, 162-163, 169-170, 305 
Expenditures, 334-335 
Graduates, 171-172, 177-178 
High schools, 175-179, 336-347 
Index number, 279 
Late entrants, 166-168 



C — (Continued) 

Colored schools: Con't. 

Non-promotions, 173-175 

Normal school, 199-201 

Number belonging, 163, 307, 334-335 

Property valuation, 191-193 

Session. 164-165, 308 

Teacher certification. 180-181, 318 

Withdrawals, 168-169 
Commercial subjects : 

Enrollment taking. 119-121, 336-347 

Failures in, 123-124 

Teachers of, 125-126 
Conferences, programs of 

Attendance officers, 272 

Clerks. 272-273 

Sujierintendents and supervisors, 269-271 
Consolidation, 233-238 
Colored schools, 194-195 
White schools, 101-102 
Cost per pupil, 229-233 
Auxiliary agencies: 

White elementary, 90-93, 98-99, 231, 
329-331 

White high, 150-153. 231 
Books and materials of instruction : 

White elementary. 89-90, 231, 329-331 

White high. 149-150, 231 
By type of elementary school, 98-99, 231- 

232. 329-331 
Capital outlay. 90, 99 

White elempntary, 90, 99, 329-331 

White high, 150, 153 
Colored schools, 189-191, 232 
Elementary schools, white, 87-93, 98-99, 

231-233, 329-331 
General control, 230-231 
Health activities: 

White elementary, 93 

White high. 152-153 
High schools, white, 148-153, 231-233. 

336-341 
Libraries : 

White elementary, 92-93 

White high, 152-153 
Normal schools: 

Colored, 201 

White. 294-296 
Operation and maintenance: 

White elementary. 90-91, 231. 329-331 

White high. 150-151. 231 
Salaries : 

White elementary. 87. 90. 231. 329-331 

While high. 149-150. 231 
Supervision. 88-90, 231 
Transported. 234-237 

Colored. 191 

White elementary. 92-93 
White high, 152 



350 



Index 



C — (Continued) 

Costs (see also expenditures) : 

Buildings, 224, 238-240, 323, 327-335 
Colored schools, 334-335 
Elementary schools, white, 328-331 
Evening schools, 161, 213, 326, 328, 333- 
335 

General control, 323-324 
High schools, white, 333 
Junior high schools, 332 
Normal schools, 201, 294-296, 301 
Summer schools, 201, 294-296 
Supervision. 325, 328 

Transportation, 91-93, 152, 191, 233-238, 
326 

Vocational education, 157, 159-162 
County : 

Assessments, 248-250 

Budgets, 247-251 

Tax rates. 249-251 
Course of study making, 131, 254, 265 
Courses in high school, 119-122, 178-179, 
287, 336-347 

D 

Dates, opening and closing of schools: 

Colored schools, 164 

"White schools, 24, 26 
Days in session, 308 

Colored schools, 164-165, 308 

White schools, 24, 26-28, 308, 336-341 
Debt service, 247-248, 250-251, 323, 327 
Detroit Public Schools, Eighty-Fifth Annual 

Report, 2-3 
Detroit Reading Test, 12-18, 20 
Disbursements, 224-225, 323-335 
Distribution of expenditures, 224-228, 323 

Colored schools, 334-335 

White elementary schools, 328-331 

White high schools, 333 
Division of school dollar, 226-228 

E 

Elementary schools: 
Colored : 

Attendance, 162-163, 165-167, 307-308, 
334 

Cost per pupil, 189-191, 232 
Enrollment, 162-163, 169-170, 305 
Expenditures, 334 
Graduates, 171-172 
Late entrants, 166-167 
Number belonging, 307, 334 
Promotions, 173-175 
Teachers' certification, 180-181, 318 
Withdrawals, 168-169 
White : 

Attendance, 28-38, 307-308, 328-331 
Cost per pupil, 87-93, 98-99, 231-232, 

329-331 
Enrollment, 39-42, 305 



E — (Continued) 

Elementary schools: white: Con't. 
Expenditures, 328-331 
Graduates, 42-44 
Libraries, 92-93 

Number belon-ging, 39-42, 80-82. 307, 
328-331 

Promotions, 44-53 

Sessions, length of, 24, 26-28, 308 

Supervision, 257-268 

Teachers : 

Certification, 55-62. 315-317 
Experience, 65-69 
Salaries, 82-86, 320, 328-331 
Turnover, 65-79 

Tests, 11-23 
English : 

Enrollment taking: 

Colored, 179, 342-347 

White, 119-121, 342-347 
Failures in, 123-124 
Teachers of, 125-126 
Enrollment, 24-25, 305 
By course, 336-347 
Colored, 162-163, 169-175, 305 
Elementary, white, 39-42. 305 
Grade, 39-42, 170 
High schools, white. 104-105, 305 

Courses, 119-122, 336-347 

Years, 39-41, 336-341 
Non-public schools, 306 
Normal schools: 

Colored, 200 

White, 284-287 
Summer schools, 212 
Entrants : 

Athletic events : 

Colored, 196-197, 312-313 

White, 204-205, 310-311 
College, 113-116, 178 
Colored : 

Late, 166-168 

Normal school, 177-178 
White : 

High school, 39-40, 110 

Late, 33-35 

Normal school, 111-117, 286-287, 336-341 
Epidemics, schools open during, 97 
Equalization fund, 225-226, 321 
Evening schools and courses, 161-162, 213 
Expenditures, 224-228. 323-335 

Auxiliary agencies, 93, 152-153, 323, 326, 
328-335 

Capital outlay, 224, 238-240, 323, 327-335 
Colored schools, 334-335 
Debt service, 323, 327 
Distribution of, 226-228, 323 
Elementary schools, white, 328-331 
Evening schools, 161, 213, 326 
Fixed charges, 323, 326 
General control, 323-324 



Index 



351 



E— (Continued) 

Expenditures: Con't. 

Health. 93. 152-153, 326 
Hi^h school, white. 333 ; colored, 335 
Instruction and operation, 323, 325, 328- 
335 

Junior hiRh schools, 332 
Libraries. 92-93, 152-153, 326 
Maintenance. 323, 326. 328-335 
Normal schools. 201, 294-296. 301 
Operation. 323. 325, 328-335 
Salaries, 325. 328-335 
State Department of Education. 301 
Summer schools, 201. 212, 294-296 
Supervision. 325. 328 

Transportation, 91-98, 152, 191, 233-238. 
326 

Tuition to adjoining counties, 323, 327 

Vocational work, 157, 159-162 
Experience of teachers, 222-223 

Colored. 183-184. 222-223 

White elementary school. 65-69. 222-223 

White high school, 131-133, 222-223 
Extension courses: 

Colored. 182-183 

White, 64-65 

Failures: F 

By grade, 49-50. 173-175, 309 

Causes. 50-53 

Colored schools. 173-175 

In high school subjects. 123-125 

White elementary schools. 44-53, 309 

Financial statements, 300-302 

Financing county nurses, 94-96 

Fixed charges, 228, 323. 326 

French : 

Enrollment taking, 119-122, 342-347 
Failures in, 123-124 
Teachers of, 125-126 

G 

General control, expenditures and cost per 

student. 227-228. 230-231. 323-324 
General course, high school, 336-341 
Grade or year : 
Number enrolled: 

Colored schools, 169-170, 175-176. 336- 
341 

White schools, 39-42, 336-341 
Promotions in each : 

Colored schools, 173-175 
White elementary schools, 49-50, 309 
Graduates : 
Colored : 

Elementary school, 171-172 
Entering normal school, 177-178, 336- 
341 

High school, 177-178, 336-341 
Normal school, 199 
Occupations, 177-178 



G — (Continued) 

Graduates: Con't. 
White: 

Elementary school, 42-44 
Entering normal school. 111-113. 336- 
341 

High school. 108-118, 336-341 
Normal school, 280-284 
Occupations, 113-118 



Health: " 

Cost. 93, 152-153, 207, 326 

State Department of. 94-98 
High schools: 

Approved. 138-142. 336-347 

Colored : 

Attendance. 175-177. 307-308, 335-341 

Cost per pupil. 189-191, 232, 336-341 

Enrollment, 170. 175. 305. 336-347 

Expenditures, 335 

Graduates, 177-178. 336-341 

New or in different groups. 141-142 

Number belonging. 175, 307, 335-341 

Number of. 138-141 

State aid. 143. 336-341 

Statistics of individual schools. 336-347 

Subjects taught. 178-179. 342-347 

Teachers' certification. 318 

Junior. 102-103. 332 

White: 

Attendance. 104-105. 307-308. 333. 336- 
341 

Cost per pupil. 148-153, 232-233. 336- 
341 

Courses, 336-341 
Distribution of, 139-142 
Enrollment. 104-105, 305. 336-337 
Expenditures. 333 
Failures. 123-125 
Graduates. 108-118. 336-341 
Music, enrollment taking. 119-121. 342- 
347 

New or in different groups. 141-142 
Number belonging. 106-107. 307. 333. 
336-341 

Number in each group. 138-142 

Number of. 13S-142. 304 

Number offering subjects. 119-122, 342- 

346 

Occupations of graduates, 113-118 
Promotions, 123-125 
Ratio of boys to girls. 107-108 
Relation of number belonging to teach- 
ing staff, 142-145. 319 
Requirements for each group. 138 
Size. 142-144 

Special subjects. 119 122. 342-346 
State aid. 143-14 4. 336-341 
Statistics, individual schools. 336 347 



352 



Index 



H — (Continued) 

High schools: white: Con't. 

Subjects available, 119-122, 342-347 

Supervision, 253-256 

Teacher certification, 127-130 

Teacher turnover, 131-137 

Teaching load, 144-145, 319 

Transportation, 152 

Withdrawals by subject, 123-125 
Holding power of schools: 
Colored, 169-172 
White, 41-42, 110 
Home economics: 
Enrollment in : 

Colored, 179, 342-347 

White. 119-124, 159, 342-347 
Schools having, 154 
Teachers of, 125-126, 159-160 
Hundred day pupils: 
Colored, 166-167 
White, 30-32 

I 

Index number, 276-279 
Index of attendance, 38 
Industrial courses, 159-162 
Instruction, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 224-228, 323, 325 
Colored schools, 189-191, 232, 334-335 
White elementary schools, 87, 89-90, 328- 
331 

White high schools, 148-151, 333 
J 

Junior high schools, 102-103, 332 

K 

Kindergarten, 39-41 

L 

Languages in high school : 

Enrollment in, 119-122, 179, 342-347 

Failures in, 123-124 

Teachers of, 125-126 
Late entrance : 

Colored, 166-168 

White, 33-35 
Latin : 

Enrollment taking: 
Colored, 179, 342-347 
White, 119-121, 342-347 

Failures in, 123-124 

Teachers of, 125-126 
Length of session : 

Colored schools, 164-165, ^336-341 

White schools, 24, 26-28, 336-341 



L — (Continued) 

Libraries : 

Colored, 191-192 

Normal school, 291-292 

Rosenwald, 191-192 

White elementary, 92-93 

White high, 152-153 
Libi'ary commission, 301 
List of statistical tables, 299 

M 

Maintenance, expenditures and cost per 
pupil, 226-228, 323, 326 
Colored, 334-335 

White elementary, 90-91, 231. 328-331 
White high, 150-151, 231, 333 
Manual training: 
Enrollment taking: 

Colored, 179, 342-347 

White, 119-122, 342-347 
Teachers of, 126 
Mathematics : 

Enrollment taking: 

Colored, 179, 342-347 

White, 119-121, 342-347 
Failures in, 123-124 
Teachers of, 125-126 
Meetings, programs of: 
Attendance officers, 272 
Clerks, 272-273 

Superintendents and supervisors, 269-271 
Membership, see number belonging 
Men teaching, 314 

Colored schools, 185 

White elementary schools, 79 

White high schools, 138 
Music : 

Enrollment taking: 
Colored. 179. 342-347 
White, 119-121, 342-347 

Teachers of, 125-126, 262 

N 

Night schools and courses, 161-162, 213 
Non-promotions : 

By grade, 49-50, 173-175, 309 
Causes of, 50-53 
Colored schools, 173-175 
White elementary schools, 44-53, 309 
White high schools, 123-125 
Normal schools : 
Colored, 199-201 

Building program, 201 

Construction account, 302 

Costs, 201 

Enrollment, 200 

Entrants, 177-178, 336-341 

Faculty, 201 



Index 



N — (Continued) 

Normal sch<x>ls: coloietl: Con't. 
Financial statement, 201, 301 
Graduates. 180. 199 
Summer session. 200-201 
White: 

Buildings. 296 

Construction accounts, 302 

Costs. 294-296 

Enrollment. 284-287 

Entrants. 111-117. 286-287, 336-341 

Kaculty. 292 293 

Financial statement, 294-29.5, 301 
Graduates, 280-284 
Placement. 281-282 
Teachintf in home county, 282-284 
Inventories. 296 
Libraries, 291-292 
Princii)als, 2. 28U 
Standard ol work in, 288-291 
Summer session, 292-296 
Testing service. 289-290 
Training centers, 292-293 
Withdrawal of juniors. 288-291 
Number belonging. 24-25, 162-163. 307 
By grades or years : 

Colored, 169-170. 175-176, 336-341 
White. 39-42, 336-341 
Colored schools, 163. 307. 334-341 
Elementary schools, white. 39-42, 80-82, 

307, 328-331 
Hitrh schools, white, 175, 307, 333, 336- 
341 

Per teacher, 319 

Colored. 186-187. 319 

White elementary. 80-82. 319 

White high. 144-145. 319 
Proportion in h'mh school: 

Colored. 175-176 

White. 106-107 
Number of : 

HiKh schools. 138-144, 304 
Schools. 303-304 
Supervisors. 257-259 
Teachers. 314 

Colored, 314. 318, 334-335 

White elementary school. 314, 315-317, 
328-331 

White high school. 125-128. 314. 3C3. 
336-341 

Nurses, county health, 94-95 

Nursing, occupation of graduates. 114-116 

o 

Occupations of high school graduates: 

Colorid, 177-178 

White. 113-118 
One-teacher schools, decrease in: 

Colored. 194-195 

White. 101-102 



oro 
•J 'Jo 

O — (Continued) 

Opening of schools: 

Colored. 164 

White. 24. 26 
Operation. exi)enditures and cost per i)U|iil, 
226-228. 323. 326 

Colored schools. 334-335 

White elementary. 90-91. 231. 328 331 

White high, 150-151. 231. 333 
Organizations, parent-teacher : 

Colored, 198-199 

White, 273-275 

P 

Parent-teacher associations: 

Colored, 198-199 

White. 273-275 
Parochial and jirivate schools. 306 

Colored. 163, 306 

White, 24, 306 
Patrons' organizations, see parent-teacher 

associations 
Pension system. 2. 297-298 
Persistence to high school graduation, 110- 
111 

Physical education, 202-211, 310-313 

Activities, 153, 205-207. 209-211, 311. 313 
Badge tests : 

Colored. 196-197. 312 
White, 204-205. 310 
Enrollment taking: 
Colored. 179, 342-347 
White, 119-122, 342-347 
Playground Athletic League, 153, 207-21 1 
Teachers of. 126. 210 
Playground Athletic League, 153. 207-211 
Practice teaching, 217-219 
Preparation of teachers : 
Colored, 180-181. 318 

White elementary school, 55-62. 315-317 

White high school, 127-130 
Principals of normal schools. 2, 280 
Private and parochial schools. 306 

Colored. 163. 306 

White. 24. 306 
Programs of conferences: 

Attendance officers. 2. '2 

Clerks. 272-273 

Superintendents and supervisors, 269-271 
Projects in vocational agriculture, 136-158 
Promotions : 

Colored schools, 173-175 

White elementary schools. 44-53, 309 

White high schools, 123-125 
Property valuation, 248-250 

School. 243-244 

Colored, 191-193. 243-244 
White. 243-245 
Provisional certificates, 58, 128-130. 221-222 
Publications, 266 267 



354 



Index 



P — (Continued) 

Pupils : 

In. one-teacher schools, 102, 307 
Per teacher, 319 

Colored. 186-187, 319 

"White elementary, 80-82, 319 

White high, 144-145. 319 
Transported, 233-238 

Colored. 191, 237 

White elementary, 91-93 

White high, 152 

Q 

Qualifications for hij^h school teachers, 215- 
222 

Qualifications for supervisors, 263-264 

R 

Ratio of boys to girls in high school, 

39. 107-108 
Ratio of high sschool to total attendance: 
Colored. 175-176 
White. 106-107 
Reading tests. 11-22 

Detroit Reading *Test. 12-18. 20 
Results distributed by size of school. 17. 
19-22 

Sangren-Woody Reading Test. 12-13. 
18-22 
Receipts from : 

All sources, 322 

Rosen wald Fund, 191-192, 322 

State. 321 
Retiuired length of session : 

Colored schools, 164-165 

White schools, 24, 26-28 
Requirements : 

Approved high schools, 138-139, 143 

Certification of teachers, 214-219 
Resignation of teachers: 

White elementary, 74-76 

White high, 136-137 
Retardation : 

By grade, 49-50. 173-175. 309 

Causes, 50-53 

Colored schools, 173-175 

White elementary, 44-53, 309 

White high schools, 123-125 
Retirement System, Teachers, 2, 297-298 
Rosenwald Aid, 191-192, 322 
Rural schools, decrease in, 304 

Colored, 194-195, 304 

White. 101-102. 304 

s 

Salaries of superintendents, 252. 324 
Salaries of teachers, 320, 325, 328-335 
Colored, 187-189, 320, 334-335 
White elementary, 82-86, 320. 328-331 
White high. 146-147. 320, 333 



S— (Continued) 

Salary cost per pupil, 231 

White elementary. 87-90, 231, 329-331 

White high, 149-150, 231. 333 
Sangren-Woody Reading Test, 12-13, 18-22 
School bonds outstanding, 240-242 
School budgets, 224-228. 247-248. 250-251 
School tax dollar, how spent, 226-228 
School year, length of : 

Colored, 164-165, 336-341 

White. 24. 26-28, 336-341 
Schools : 

Capacity, 303 

Closed, 304 

Evening, 161-162. 213 

Having certain number of teachers: 

Colored, 194-196 

White elementary, 100-102, 304 

White high, 142-144 
Index number, 276-279 
Normal : 

Colored. 199-201 

White, 280-296 
Number of, 303-304 
Number of high schools, 138-144. 304 
Open less than legal x-equirement : 

Colored, 164-165 

White, 28 
Parochial and private, 24, 163, 306 
Property valuation of, 243-244 

Colored, 191-193. 243-244 

White. 243-245 
Size of : 

Colored, 194, 196 

White elementary, 100-102 

White high, 142-144 
Standard. 246-247 
Summer : 

For pupils, 212 

For teachers : 
Colored, 200 

White elementary. 63-64 
White high, 130-131 
Postponement of attendance at. 214 
Transportation provided to. 237-238 
Science : 

Enrollment taking: 
Colored. 179. 342-347 
White, 119-121. 342-347 
Failures in, 123-124 
Teachers of, 125-126 
Session, length of, 308 

Colored schools, 164-165, 308, 336-341 
White schools, 24, 26-28, 308. 336-341 
Sex of teachers, 79, 138, 185, 314 
Sickness, cause of absence, 37 
Size of: 
Classes : 

Colored. 186-187 

White elementary, 80-82 



Index 



S — (CoTif in lied) 

Size of : Con't. 

White high, 144-145 
Schools. ;^0l 

Colored, 194-196, 304 
Relation to test results. 17, 19-22 
White elementary. 100-102, 304 
White hiKh. 112- Ml. 304 

Smith -Hughes Act, 157, 225 
Social studies: 

Enrollment taking: 
Colored. 179, 342-347 
White. 119-122. 342-347 

Failures in. 123 124 

Teachers of. 125-126 
Special classes : 

Allegany County, 53-54 

Baltimore City, 54-55 
Sjiecial subjects in hiuh school's: 

Colored, 179. 342-347 

White. 119-122. 342-347 
Special teachers. 125-127. 262, 336-341 
Standard of work in normal schools. 288- 
291 

Standard schools. 246-247 

Standard tests. 11-22 

Detroit Reading Test, 12-18. 20 
Results distributed by size of school. 17. 
19-22 

Sansren- Woody Reading Test, 12-13, 
18-22 

State aid. 143-144, 224-226, 321, 336-341 
State Board of Education, 2 
State Department of Education. 2, 301 
State- wide tests. 11-23 

History. 23 

Reading. 11-22 
Statistical tables, 299-347 

Index to, 299 
Stenography, typewriting, bookkeeping: 

Enrollment taking, 119-121, 342-347 

Failures in, 123-124 

Teachers of, 125-126 
Subjects studied in high schools: 

Colored schools. 178-179. 342-347 

White schools. 119-122. 342-347 
Summary, 5-10 

Summer school : 
Attendance : 

Colored teachers. 182. 200 

Posti>onement of, 214 

White elementary teachers, 63-64 

White high school teachers. 130-131 
Cost, 201, 294-296 
Pupils in, 212 
Summer sessions: 

Colleges, 63, 130-131. 182 
Normal school : 

Colored. 200 

White, 292, 296 



S — (Continued) 

Superintendents, 3. 252. 26'.i 271. 324 
Supervising teachers, 3, 252-268 
Supervision. 252-268 

Cost, 88-90. 231. 325. 328 

Elementary. 257-268 

High school, 253-256 

Supervisors, 3 

Activities. 259-263 
Conferences, 269-271 
Quota, 259 

Reports from, 2C0-263 
Salaries, 252 

State high schools, 253-256 

T 

Tables of statistics, 299-347 
Tax budgets. 247-251 
Tax rates. 249-251 
Teacher-pupil ratio, 319 

Colored, 186-187. 3i9 

White elementary. 80-82. 319 

White high, 144-145. 319 
Teachers : 

Attending summer school, 63 64, 130-131 
Certification, 315-318 

Colored. 180-181, 318 

White elementary, 55-62. 315-318 

White high. 127-130 

Experience. 222-223 

Colored. 183-184, 222-223 

White elementary. 65 69. 222-223 

White high school. 131-133. 222-223 

Men. proportion of. 314 
Colored. 185 
White elementary, 79 
White high. 138 

Number. 314 

For each high school subject, 125-127 

In schools of each type: 

Colored, 194-196, 314, 334-335 

White elementary. 100-102, 314, 328- 

O O 1 

oo 1 

White high, 128-129, 142. 314. 333, 
336-341 
Total, 314 
Pensions. 2. 297-298 

Pupils per. 319 

Colored. 186-187. 319 

White elementary. 80-82, 319 

White high, 144-145. 319 

Resignation of: 

White elementary. 74-76 
White high. 136-137 

Salaries. 320. 325, 328-335 

Colored. 187 189. 320. 334 335 

White elementary. 82-86, 320, 328-:)31 

White high. 146-147. 320, 333 



356 



Index 



T— (Continued) 

.Teachers : Con't 

Sex of. 79, 138. 185, 314 
Special. 125-127. 262, 336-341 
Teaching load, 319 
Colored, 186-187. 319 
White elementary. 80-82, 319 
White high. 144-145, 319 
Travel of, substitute for summer school, 
214 

Turnover : 

Causes. 72-78. 1.^5-137 
Colored, 183-185 
White elementary. 65-79 
White high, 131-137 
Teachers' Retirement System, 2, 297-298 

Tests : 

Athletic badge: 

Colored, 196-19'" 312 
White, 204-205, 310 
Detroit Reading, 12-18, 20 
Elementary school, 11-23 
Normal schools. 289-290 
Results distributed by size of school, 17, 
19-22 

Sangren-Woody Reading Test, 12-13. 
18-22 

Trade and industry, 159-162 
Training centers for normal schools, 292- 
293 

Training of teachers, 315-318 

Colored, 180-181, 318 

White elementary, 55-62, 315-317 

White high, 127-130, 215-222 
Transportation of pupils, 233-238. 326 

Colored, 190-191, 237 

Cost, 91-93, 152, 190-191. 233-238, 326 

White elementary, 91-93 

White high, 152 
Travel, substitute for summer school, 214 
Tuition paid to adjoining counties, 323, 327 
Turnover in teaching staff: 

Causes, 72-78. 135-137 



T— (Continued) 

Turnover in teaching staff : Con't. 
Colored. 183-185 
White elementary, 65-79 
White high school, 131-137 

u 

Uncertificated teachers, 220-221 
White elementary, 61 
White hi.uh. 127-128 

V 

Valuation : 

Property, 248-250 
School property, 243-244 
Colored. 191-193, 243-244 
White, 243-245 
Visits to schools by parents, 274 
Vocational courses : 

Agriculture, 119-124, 153-160, 342-347 
Cost of, 157, 159-162 

Home economics, 119-124, 154, 159-160, 

342-347 
Industrial courses, 160-162 
Vocations chosen by high school graduates 
Colored, 177-178 
White, 113-118 

w 

Withdrawals : 
Colored, 168-169 
Normal school juniors, 288-291 
White elementary, 35-37 
White high schools, 123-125 

Y 

Year, length of school, 308 

Colored, 164-165 

White, 24. 26-28, 336-341 
Years of experience, 222-223 

Colored teachers, 183-184 

White elementary school teachers, 65-69 

White high school teachers, 131-133 




NOT CIRCULATE 












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